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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539355/xanthine-oxidase-inhibition-protects-against-western-diet-induced-aortic-stiffness-and-impaired-vasorelaxation-in-female-mice
#1
Guido Lastra, Camila Manrique, Guanghong Jia, Annayya R Aroor, Melvin R Hayden, Brady J Barron, Brett Niles, Jaume Padilla, James R Sowers
Consumption of a high-fat high-fructose diet (western diet, [WD]) promotes vascular stiffness, a critical factor in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obese and diabetic women exhibit greater arterial stiffness than men, which contributes to the increased incidence of CVD in women. Further, high-fructose diets result in elevated plasma concentrations of uric acid via xanthine oxidase (XO) activation, and are also associated with vascular stiffness. In turn, uric acid levels lead to vascular stiffness and CVD in women...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536503/epigenetic-activation-of-asct2-in-the-hippocampus-contributes-to-depression-like-behavior-by-regulating-d-serine-in-mice
#2
Jiesi Wang, Ke Zhang, Xiaojuan Chen, Xiaoqian Liu, Huajing Teng, Mei Zhao, Zhongsheng Sun
The roles of D-serine in depression are raised concerned recently as an intrinsic co-agonist for the NMDA receptor. However, the mechanisms underlying its regulation are not fully elucidated. ASCT2 is a Na(+)-dependent D-serine transporter. We found that decreased D-serine and increased hippocampal ASCT2 levels correlated with chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) in mice. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA-mediated knockdown of ASCT2 and the administration of exogenous D-serine in the hippocampus alleviated CSDS-induced social avoidance and immobility...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536108/inflammatory-stress-promotes-the-development-of-obesity-related-chronic-kidney-disease-via-cd36-in-mice
#3
Ping Yang, Yayun Xiao, Xuan Luo, Yunfei Zhao, Lei Zhao, Yan Wang, Tingting Wu, Li Wei, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Ectopic fat located in the kidney has emerged as a novel cause of obesity-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory stress promotes ectopic lipid deposition in the kidney and causes renal injury in obese mice and whether the pathological process is mediated by the fatty acid translocase CD36. HFD feeding alone resulted in obesity, hyperlipidemia and slight renal lipid accumulation in mice, which nevertheless had normal kidney function. HFD-fed mice with chronic inflammation had severe renal steatosis and obvious glomerular and tubular damage, which was accompanied by increased CD36 expression...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533271/vhl-inactivation-in-precancerous-kidney-cells-induces-an-inflammatory-response-via-er-stress-activated-ire1%C3%AE-signaling
#4
Chan-Yen Kuo, Chih-Hung Lin, Tien Hsu
Mutations and epigenetic inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) are major causes of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) that may originate from chronic inflammation. However, the role of VHL loss-of-function in the development of ccRCC via inflammation remains poorly understood. VHL mutant cells exhibit metabolic abnormalities that can cause chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). We hypothesize that unresolved ER stress induces the inflammatory responses observed in ccRCC...
May 22, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531264/cariprazine-exhibits-anxiolytic-and-dopamine-d3-receptor-dependent-antidepressant-effects-in-the-chronic-stress-model
#5
Vanya Duric, Mounira Banasr, Tina Franklin, Ashley Lepack, Nika Adham, Béla Kiss, István Gyertyán, Ronald S Duman
Background: Cariprazine, a D3-preferring dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist, is a new antipsychotic drug recently approved in the US for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania. We recently demonstrated that cariprazine also has significant anti-anhedonic-like effects in rats subjected to chronic stress; however, the exact mechanism of action for cariprazine's antidepressant-like properties is not known. Thus, in this study we examined whether the effects of cariprazine are mediated by dopamine D3 receptors...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528666/role-of-nonneuronal-trpv4-signaling-in-inflammatory-processes
#6
Pradeep Rajasekhar, Daniel P Poole, Nicholas A Veldhuis
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are important signaling components in nociceptive and inflammatory pathways. This is attributed to their ability to function as polymodal sensors of environmental stimuli (chemical and mechanical) and as effector molecules in receptor signaling pathways. TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a nonselective cation channel that is activated by multiple endogenous stimuli including shear stress, membrane stretch, and arachidonic acid metabolites. TRPV4 contributes to many important physiological processes and dysregulation of its activity is associated with chronic conditions of metabolism, inflammation, peripheral neuropathies, musculoskeletal development, and cardiovascular regulation...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527954/sex-differences-in-the-effect-of-chronic-mild-stress-on-mouse-prefrontal-cortical-bdnf-levels-a-role-of-major-ovarian-hormones
#7
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Pranav Chintamani Joshi, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Depression induced by stress is affected by sex, age and hormonal status of the animal and also by duration and type of the stressors. Moreover, higher prevalence of depression and comorbidities in women than men implies the need to include the sex variable in studies on animal models of depression. The present study was therefore initiated to evaluate the effect of sex and ovarian hormones on depression-like phenotypes in mice exposed to a 21-day Chronic Variable Mild Stress (CVMS) paradigm. Adult male, intact female and, ovariectomized (OVX) female mice exposed to CVMS displayed despair behavior, a depression-like phenotype, in all the groups...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#8
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2hours/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518138/betulin-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-lps-stimulated-macrophages-and-endotoxin-shocked-mice-through-an-ampk-akt-nrf2-dependent-mechanism
#9
Xinxin Ci, Junfeng Zhou, Hongming Lv, Qinlei Yu, Liping Peng, Shucheng Hua
Continued oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn could mediate most chronic diseases including cancer. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a critical transcriptional activator for antioxidative responses, has envolved to be an attractive drug target for the treatment or prevention of human diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of betulin on Nrf2 activation and its involvement in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inflammatory system...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516430/ramelteon-improves-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-like-behaviors-exhibited-by-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-null-mice
#10
Yasushi Yabuki, Ibuki Takahata, Kazuya Matsuo, Yuji Owada, Kohji Fukunaga
We previously reported that fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) knockout (Fabp3 (-/-)) mice exhibit abnormal dopamine-related behaviors such as enhanced dopamine D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy behaviors. Here, we report that Fabp3 null mice exhibit cognitive deficits, hyperlocomotion and impaired fear extinction, and thus show post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behaviors. Notably, chronic administration of ramelteon (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.), a melatonin receptor agonist, improved all PTSD-like behaviors tested in Fabp3 (-/-) mice...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512254/catecholamines-facilitate-vegf-dependent-angiogenesis-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-induced-epac1-and-pka-activation
#11
Jaspal Garg, Yu-Xi Feng, Sepp R Jansen, Julian Friedrich, Frank Lezoualc'h, Martina Schmidt, Thomas Wieland
Chronic stress has been associated with the progression of cancer and antagonists for β-adrenoceptors (βAR) are regarded as therapeutic option. As they are also used to treat hemangiomas as well as retinopathy of prematurity, a role of endothelial β2AR in angiogenesis can be envisioned. We therefore investigated the role of β2AR-induced cAMP formation by analyzing the role of the cAMP effector molecules exchange factor directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1) and protein kinase A (PKA) in endothelial cells (EC)...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512033/bifidobacterium-cect-7765-modulates-early-stress-induced-immune-neuroendocrine-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice
#12
A Moya-Pérez, A Perez-Villalba, A Benítez-Páez, I Campillo, Y Sanz
Emerging evidence suggests that there is a window of opportunity within the early developmental period, when microbiota-based interventions could play a major role in modulating the gut-brain axis and, thereby, in preventing mood disorders. This study aims at evaluating the effects and mode of action of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 in a murine model of chronic stress induced by maternal separation (MS). C57Bl/6J male breast-fed pups were divided into four groups, which were subjected or not to MS and supplemented with placebo or B...
May 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511978/behavioural-outcomes-of-adult-female-offspring-following-maternal-stress-and-perinatal-fluoxetine-exposure
#13
Veronika Kiryanova, Sara J Meunier, Richard H Dyck
Depression, anxiety, and stress are common in pregnant women. One of the primary pharmacological treatments for anxiety and depression is the antidepressant fluoxetine (Flx). Maternal stress, depression, and Flx exposure are known to effect neurodevelopment of the offspring, however, their combined effects have been scarcely studied, especially in female offspring. The present study investigated the combined effects of maternal stress during pregnancy and perinatal exposure to Flx on the behaviour of female mice as adults...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510653/chronic-corticosterone-treatment-during-adolescence-has-significant-effects-on-metabolism-and-skeletal-development-in-male-c57bl6-n-mice
#14
Scott A Kinlein, Ziasmin Shahanoor, Russell D Romeo, Ilia N Karatsoreos
Glucocorticoids are potent modulators of metabolic and behavioral function. Their role as mediators in the "stress response" is well known, but arguably their primary physiological function is in the regulation of cellular and organismal metabolism. Disruption of normal glucocorticoid function is linked to metabolic disease, such as Cushing's syndrome. Glucocorticoids are also elevated in many forms of obesity, suggesting that there are bidirectional effects of these potent hormones on metabolism and metabolic function...
May 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510479/increased-expression-of-p22phox-mediates-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-an-experimental-model-of-asthma
#15
Chandran Nagaraj, Hans Michael Haitchi, Akos Heinemann, Peter Howarth, Andrea Olschewski, Leigh M Marsh
AIM: Chronic airway diseases such as asthma are associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Endogenous NADPH oxidases are a major source of superoxide in lung, but their underlying role in asthma pathology is poorly understood. We sought to characterize the involvement of NADPH oxidase in allergic asthma by studying the role of CYBA (p22phox) in human asthma and murine house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation. RESULTS: Increased expression and localisation of p22-PHOX was observed in biopsies of asthmatic patients...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507317/elevation-of-p11-in-lateral-habenula-mediates-depression-like-behavior
#16
J-S Seo, P Zhong, A Liu, Z Yan, P Greengard
The lateral habenula (LHb) is a key brain region involved in the pathophysiology of depression. It is activated by stimuli associated with negative experiences and is involved in encoding aversive signals. Hyperactivity of LHb is found in both rodent models of depression and human patients with depression. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we show that in LHb neurons, p11, a multifunctional protein implicated in depression, is significantly upregulated by chronic restraint stress...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502908/chronic-administration-of-antioxidant-resin-from-virola-oleifera-attenuates-atherogenesis-in-ldlr-mice
#17
Paola Nogueira Coutinho, Beatriz Peters Pereira, Ana Claudia Hertel Pereira, Marcella Leite Porto, Arícia Leone Evangelista Monteiro de Assis, Afrânio Côgo Destefani, Silvana Santos Meyrelles, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Breno Valentim Nogueira, Tadeu Uggere de Andrade, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Marcio Fronza, Thiago Melo Costa Pereira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Virola oleifera (Schott) A. C. Smith, Myristicaceae has been largely used in traditional folk medicine in Brazil as an anti-inflammatory agent and our previous data indicated the antioxidant properties in other oxidative stress-related models. However, its effects on atherosclerosis (AT) are not yet investigated. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the influence of resin from Virola oleifera (RV) on progression of AT in LDLr(-/-) mice...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500787/corticosterone-primes-the-neuroinflammatory-response-to-gulf-war-illness-relevant-organophosphates-independently-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition
#18
Alicia R Locker, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Among the symptoms of GWI are those associated with sickness behavior, observations suggestive of underlying neuroinflammation. We have shown that exposure of mice to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), and to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), as a nerve agent mimic, results in marked neuroinflammation, findings consistent with a stress/neuroimmune basis of GWI. Here, we examined the contribution of irreversible and reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors to neuroinflammation in our mouse model of GWI...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500766/melatonin-inhibits-neuronal-dysfunction-associated-with-neuroinflammation-by-atopic-psychological-stress-in-nc-nga-atopic-like-mouse-models
#19
Gunhyuk Park, Seung Hoon Lee, Dal-Seok Oh, Yong-Ung Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is chronic pruritic skin disease. AD can increase psychological stress as well, increasing glucocorticoid release and exacerbating the associated symptoms. Chronic glucocorticoid elevation disturbs neuroendocrine signaling, and can induce neuroinflammation, neurotoxicity, and cognitive impairment; however, it is unclear if AD-related psychological stress elevates glucocorticoids enough to cause neuronal damage. Therefore, we assessed the effects of AD-induced stress in a mouse AD model...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500512/molecular-adaptations-to-social-defeat-stress-and-induced-depression-in-mice
#20
Natalya Bondar, Leonid Bryzgalov, Nikita Ershov, Fedor Gusev, Vasiliy Reshetnikov, Damira Avgustinovich, Mikhail Tenditnik, Evgeny Rogaev, Tatiana Merkulova
Chronic stress is a risk factor for major depression. Social defeat stress is a well-validated murine model of depression. However, little is known about the gene activity dynamics during the development of a depression-like state. We analyzed the effects of social defeat stress of varying duration (10 and 30 days) on the behavioral patterns and prefrontal-cortex transcriptome of C57BL/6 mice. The 10-day exposure to social defeat stress resulted in a high level of social avoidance with no signs of depression-associated behavior...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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