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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440070/chiral-analysis-of-amphetamines-in-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-compliance-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-patients-under-elvanse%C3%A2-therapy-and-identification-after-controlled-low-dose-application
#1
Tina M Binz, Elena Williner, Petra Strajhar, Patrick C Dolder, Matthias E Liechti, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Amphetamine (AMP) is used as illicit drug but also for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Respective drugs most often contain the enantiomer (S)-AMP as active compound or (S)-AMP is formed from the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Elvanse®) whereas the illicit drug is usually traded as racemate ((R/S)-AMP). A differentiation between the use of the medically prescribed drug and the abuse of illicit street amphetamine is of great importance e.g. in retrospective consumption monitoring by hair analysis...
April 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434890/brain-lipidomic-changes-after-morphine-cocaine-and-amphetamine-administration-desi-ms-imaging-study
#2
Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna Antolak, Anna Drabik, Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Jolanta Kotlińska, Piotr Suder
Drug addiction is a complex disorder, evoking significant changes in the proteome of the central nervous system. To check if there are also changes in the lipidomic profiles we used desorption electrospray-MS technique for imaging of the brain slices of rats exposed to morphine, cocaine and amphetamine. Our investigations showed alternative regulation of selected lipid's levels in the central nervous system structures, under the influence of applied drugs. Results of our investigations can show changes in the brain treated with drugs of abuse in the new light, indicating role of the lipids in the addiction development...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428365/interaction-and-transport-of-methamphetamine-and-its-primary-metabolites-by-organic-cation-and-multidrug-and-toxin-extrusion-transporters
#3
David J Wagner, Jennifer E Sager, Haichuan Duan, Nina Isoherranen, Joanne Wang
Methamphetamine is one of the most abused illicit drugs with roughly 1.2 million users in the United States alone. A large portion of methamphetamine and its metabolites is eliminated by the kidney with renal clearance larger than glomerular filtration clearance. Yet the mechanism of active renal secretion is poorly understood. The goals of this study were to characterize the interaction of methamphetamine and its major metabolites with organic cation transporters (OCT) and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters and to identify the major transporters involved in the disposition of methamphetamine and its major metabolites, amphetamine and p-hydroxymethamphetamine (p-OHMA)...
April 20, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426546/methamphetamine-use-and-dependence-in-vulnerable-female-populations
#4
Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon, Soontaree Srikosai, Apisak Wittayanookulluk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric patients, suburban women, and pregnant women, in which amphetamine type stimulants (ATSs) are the most commonly reported illicit drug used among them...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424105/specific-impact-of-stimulant-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-disorders-on-first-episode-psychosis-2-year-functional-and-symptomatic-outcomes
#5
C Ouellet-Plamondon, A Abdel-Baki, É Salvat, S Potvin
BACKGROUND: Many studies have concluded that cannabis use disorder (CUD) negatively influences outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, few have taken into account the impact of concurrent misuse of other substances. METHODS: This 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to early intervention programs in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, examined the specific influence of different substance use disorders (SUD) (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines) on service utilization, symptomatic and functional outcomes in FEP...
April 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417026/cardiovascular-complications-of-acute-amphetamine-abuse-cross-sectional-study
#6
Elham Bazmi, Farinaz Mousavi, Leila Giahchin, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Behnam Behnoush
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. METHODS: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414664/gonococcal-endocarditis-the-gift-that-stops-giving-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#7
G Olayemi, M Oferczak, A Elagizi, I El-Abbassi, M Eschete, J Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Gonorrhea is the 2nd most common sexually transmitted disease in the US with 800,000 cases of gonorrhea each year. Disseminated gonorrhea infection occurs in 0.5 percent - 3 percent of these patients and is more frequent in woman younger than 40 years of age. CASE: A 36 year old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with 10 day history of feeling generally unwell. At presentation, vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and hypotension...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#8
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#9
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
April 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393639/the-safety-of-extended-release-drug-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-adhd
#10
Ann Childress
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder affecting millions of patients worldwide. Effective treatments have been available for more than 60 years in the form of immediate-release (IR) stimulants However, stimulants have a high risk for abuse and are associated with adverse effects Including elevated blood pressure and heart rate, insomnia and decreased appetite. IR formulations also require multiple daily dosing. The search for improved safety, tolerability and convenience has led to the development of multiple extended-release (ER) stimulant and non-stimulant formulations...
April 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379393/profiting-from-probability-combining-low-and-high-probability-isotopes-as-a-tool-extending-the-dynamic-range-of-an-assay-measuring-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-in-urine
#11
Anna M Miller, Melissa M Goggin, An Nguyen, Stephanie D Gozum, Gregory C Janis
A wide range of concentrations are frequently observed when measuring drugs of abuse in urine toxicology samples; this is especially true for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Routine liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory methods commonly anchored at a 50 ng/mL lower limit of quantitation can span approximately a 100-fold concentration range before regions of non-linearity are reached deteriorating accurate quantitation and qualitative assessments. In our experience, approximately a quarter of amphetamine and methamphetamine positive samples are above a 5,000 ng/mL upper limit of quantitation and thus require reanalysis with dilution for accurate quantitative and acceptable qualitative results...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377698/striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-modulate-spike-timing-in-striosomes-and-matrix-by-an-amphetamine-sensitive-mechanism
#12
Jill R Crittenden, Carolyn J Lacey, Feng-Ju Weng, Catherine E Garrison, Daniel J Gibson, Yingxi Lin, Ann M Graybiel
The striatum is key for action-selection and the motivation to move. Dopamine and acetylcholine release sites are enriched in the striatum and are cross-regulated, possibly to achieve optimal behavior. Drugs of abuse, which promote abnormally high dopamine release, disrupt normal action-selection and drive restricted, repetitive behaviors (stereotypies). Stereotypies occur in a variety of disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease, as well as in addictive states...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361803/illicit-drugs-in-emergency-department-patients-injured-in-road-traffic-accidents
#13
Pietro Papa, Loretta Rocchi, Laura Maria Rolandi, Marcello Di Tuccio, Marco Biffi, Antonella Valli
Urine and blood samples from 1730 drivers involved in road accidents (July 2012 - December 2015) were analyzed for the evaluation of driving under influence of drug of abuse according to the Lombardia Region guideline. The 22.5% (95% CI 20.5 to 24.5) of urine screenings tested positive for at least one class of drugs. 10.6% (95% CI 9.2 to 12.1) of the 1730 drivers were under the influence of drug, being blood concentration above the cut-off limit for at least one active substance; the proportion of illicit drugs in blood was cocaine 5...
January 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303900/associations-between-behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-inhibitory-control-and-amphetamine-reward-sensitivity
#14
Jessica Weafer, Stephanie M Gorka, Donald Hedeker, Mario Dzemidzic, David A Kareken, K Luan Phan, Harriet de Wit
Poor inhibitory control and sensitivity to drug reward are two significant risk factors for drug abuse. Although the two have been largely viewed as separate and independent risk factors, there is new evidence to suggest that they may be related at both the behavioral and neural level. This study examined associations between behavioral and neural correlates of inhibitory control and sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine in humans. Healthy volunteers (n=63) first completed the stop signal task, a behavioral measure of inhibitory control...
March 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
March 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286854/recurrent-syncope-following-substance-abuse-a-case-report
#16
Forod Salehi, Mohammad Mehdi Hassanzadeh Taheri, HamidReza Riasi, Omid Mehrpour
Drug abuse is considered as the most common poisoning in the world. Stimulants agent especially amphetamines and methamphetamines are among important abused substances. Different types of neurologic, psychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiogenic complications have been reported to be related to methamphetamine consumption. Some of these substances could cause dysrhythmias which is the most prevalent etiology of cardiogenic syncope. Ecstasy, as one of the most commonly abused drugs, is known as a cause of cardiac dysrhythmias...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285123/preclinical-predictors-that-the-orthosteric-mglu2-3-receptor-antagonist-ly3020371-will-not-engender-ketamine-associated-neurotoxic-motor-cognitive-subjective-or-abuse-liability-related-effects
#17
J M Witkin, J A Monn, J Li, B Johnson, D L McKinzie, X-S Wang, B A Heinz, R Li, P L Ornstein, S C Smith, C H Mitch, D O Calligaro, S Swanson, D Allen, K Phillips, G Gilmour
The novel mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY3020371, has been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects comparable to that of the clinically-effective antidepressant ketamine. In the present study, we investigated whether LY3020371 would be predicted to be free of the side-effects and safety pharmacology issues associated with ketamine. In contrast to ketamine, LY3020371 produced small increases in locomotion and did not impair motor performance on an inverted screen. Ketamine, but not LY3020371, increased dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of rats...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243315/acceleration-of-cardiovascular-biological-age-by-amphetamine-exposure-is-a-power-function-of-chronological-age
#18
Albert Stuart Reece, Amanda Norman, Gary Kenneth Hulse
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine abuse is becoming more widespread internationally. The possibility that its many cardiovascular complications are associated with a prematurely aged cardiovascular system, and indeed biological organism systemically, has not been addressed. METHODS: Radial arterial pulse tonometry was performed using the SphygmoCor system (Sydney). 55 amphetamine exposed patients were compared with 107 tobacco smokers, 483 non-smokers and 68 methadone patients (total=713 patients) from 2006 to 2011...
2017: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243192/the-sodium-channel-%C3%AE-4-auxiliary-subunit-selectively-controls-long-term-depression-in-core-nucleus-accumbens-medium-spiny-neurons
#19
Xincai Ji, Sucharita Saha, Guangping Gao, Amy W Lasek, Gregg E Homanics, Melissa Guildford, Andrew R Tapper, Gilles E Martin
Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for generating the initial rapid depolarization of neuronal membrane potential during action potentials (APs) that enable cell-to-cell communication, the propagation of signals throughout the brain, and the induction of synaptic plasticity. Although all brain neurons express one or several variants coding for the core pore-forming sodium channel α subunit, the expression of the β (β1-4) auxiliary subunits varies greatly. Of particular interest is the β4 subunit, encoded by the Scn4b gene, that is highly expressed in dorsal and ventral (i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243163/drug-abuse-and-psychosis-new-insights-into-drug-induced-psychosis
#20
REVIEW
Suji Ham, Tae Kyoo Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Heh-In Im
Addictive drug use or prescribed medicine abuse can cause psychosis. Some representative symptoms frequently elicited by patients with psychosis are hallucination, anhedonia, and disrupted executive functions. These psychoses are categorized into three classifications of symptoms: positive, negative, and cognitive. The symptoms of DIP are not different from the symptoms of schizophrenia, and it is difficult to distinguish between them. Due to this ambiguity of distinction between the DIP and schizophrenia, the DIP animal model has been frequently used as the schizophrenia animal model...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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