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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#1
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900353/brain-doping-stimulants-use-and-misuse-among-a-sample-of-italian-college-students
#2
REVIEW
S Majori, D Gazzani, S Pilati, J Paiano, A Sannino, S Ferrari, E Checchin
INTRODUCTION: The non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) has become the subject of great interest for its diffusion among university students, who abuse these substances to cope with the increasing load of academic stress. NMUPS has been widely investigated in the U.S. due to its increasing trend; this behavior, however, has also been reported in Europe. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine stimulants misuse in a Northern Italian geographic area, identifying possible developments of the phenomenon in Italy...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889212/cocaine-like-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-norepinephrine-preferring-monoamine-releasers-time-course-and-interaction-studies-in-rhesus-monkeys
#3
Stephen J Kohut, David S Jacobs, Richard B Rothman, John S Partilla, Jack Bergman, Bruce E Blough
RATIONALE: The therapeutic potential of monoamine releasers with prominent dopaminergic effects is hindered by their high abuse liability. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effects of several novel "norepinephrine (NE)-preferring" monoamine releasers relative to non-selective monoamine releasers, d-amphetamine and d-methamphetamine, in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate cocaine. NE-preferring releasers were approximately 13-fold more potent for NE compared to dopamine release and ranged in potency for serotonin release (PAL-329 < l-methamphetamine < PAL-169)...
September 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878698/synthetic-cathinone-and-cannabinoid-designer-drugs-pose-a-major-risk-for-public-health
#4
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein, Paola Rosca, Liana Fattore, Edythe D London
As part of an increasing worldwide use of designer drugs, recent use of compounds containing cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids is especially prevalent. Here, we reviewed current literature on the prevalence, epidemiology, bio-behavioral effects, and detection of these compounds. Gender differences and clinical effects will also be examined. Chronic use of synthetic cathinone compounds can have major effects on the central nervous system and can induce acute psychosis, hypomania, paranoid ideation, and delusions, similar to the effects of other better-known amphetamine-type stimulants...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865391/discriminative-stimulus-and-locomotor-effects-of-para-substituted-and-benzofuran-analogs-of-amphetamine
#5
Sean B Dolan, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
Novel psychoactive substances have maintained a prominent role in the global drug culture, despite increased regulation by governing bodies. Novel compounds continue to become available on the market, often in "Ecstasy" or "Molly" formulations in lieu of MDMA, at a much faster rate than they can be properly characterized. The current study aimed to investigate the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of three putatively entactogenic compounds that have become increasingly prevalent on the drug market: 5-(2-aminopropyl)-benzofuran (5-APB), 6-(2-aminopropryl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (6-APDB), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA)...
August 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858691/pharmacological-challenge-studies-with-acute-psychosocial-stress
#6
REVIEW
Kathryne Van Hedger, Anya K Bershad, Harriet de Wit
Chronic stress is known to affect many psychiatric disorders, and studies of responses to acute stress may reveal processes that ultimately lead to maladaptive responses to chronic stress. Many studies have used simulated public speaking tasks to induce stress in the laboratory and, of interest to this review, the tasks have been used to assess the effects of both therapeutic and nonmedical drugs on stress reactivity. Here we review 38 studies that examined effects of single doses of drugs on subjective, cardiovascular and hormonal responses to an acute social stressor in healthy volunteers...
August 22, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855876/the-non-peptide-arginine-vasopressin-v1a-selective-receptor-antagonist-sr49059-blocks-the-rewarding-prosocial-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-and-its-derivatives-in-zebra-fish
#7
Luisa Ponzoni, Daniela Braida, Gianpietro Bondiolotti, Mariaelvina Sala
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its derivatives, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromo-amphetamine hydrobromide (DOB) and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), are recreational drugs whose pharmacological effects have recently been attributed to serotonin 5HT2A/C receptors. However, there is growing evidence that the oxytocin (OT)/vasopressin system can modulate some the effects of MDMA. In this study, MDMA (2.5-10 mg/kg), DOB (0.5 mg/kg), or PMA (0.005, 0.1, or 0.25 mg/kg) were administered intramuscularly to adult zebra fish, alone or in combination with the V1a vasopressin antagonist, SR49059 (0...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840991/evaluation-of-the-triage-tox-drug-screen-assay-for-detection-of-11-drugs-of-abuse-and-therapeutic-drugs
#8
Hae In Bang, Mi Ae Jang, Yong Wha Lee
The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screens is on the rise. Recently, a new rapid toxicology screening test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen (Alere Inc., USA), which can simultaneously detect 11 drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs with an instrument-read cartridge, was developed. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of this new on-site immunoassay using 105 urine specimens; the results were compared with those obtained by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS)...
November 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832319/uncertainty-exposure-causes-behavioural-sensitization-and-increases-risky-decision-making-in-male-rats-toward-modelling-gambling-disorder
#9
Fiona D Zeeb, Zhaoxia Li, Daniel C Fisher, Martin H Zack, Paul J Fletcher
BACKGROUND: An animal model of gambling disorder, previously known as pathological gambling, could advance our understanding of the disorder and help with treatment development. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to uncertainty during gambling induces behavioural and dopamine (DA) sensitization - similar to chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Uncertainty exposure (UE) may also increase risky decision-making in an animal model of gambling disorder. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received 56 UE sessions, during which animals responded for saccharin according to an unpredictable, variable ratio schedule of reinforcement (VR group)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811141/the-pharmacokinetic-profile-of-synthetic-cathinones-in-a-pregnancy-model
#10
Lauren G Strange, Kerri Kochelek, Robert Keasling, Stacy D Brown, Brooks B Pond
In recent years, the abuse of synthetic cathinones or 'bath salts' has become a major public health concern. Although these compounds were initially sold legally and labeled "not for human consumption", the 'bath salts' are psychostimulants, with similar structures and pharmacologic mechanisms to cocaine, the amphetamines, and 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly, or Ecstasy). The reported use of these substances by women of child-bearing age highlights the necessity of studies seeking to delineate risks of prenatal exposure...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802560/traumatic-brain-injuries-during-development-disrupt-dopaminergic-signaling
#11
Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Zachary M Weil
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained during peri-adolescent development produce lasting neuro-behavioral changes that render individuals at an increased risk for developing substance abuse disorders. Experimental and clinical evidence of a prolonged period of hypodopaminergia after TBI have been well documented, but the effect of juvenile TBI on dopaminergic dysfunction and its relationship with substance abuse have not been investigated. In order to determine the effect of juvenile brain injury on dopaminergic signaling, female mice were injured at 21days of age and then beginning seven weeks later were assessed for behavioral sensitization to amphetamine, a drug that increases synaptic dopamine availability...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783904/five-year-monitoring-of-19-illicit-and-legal-substances-of-abuse-at-the-inlet-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-barcelona-ne-spain-and-estimation-of-drug-consumption-patterns-and-trends
#12
Nicola Mastroianni, Ester López-García, Cristina Postigo, Damià Barceló, Miren López de Alda
Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760535/a-randomized-phase-i-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-alcohol-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-an-extended-release-orally-disintegrating-tablet-formulation-of-amphetamine-in-healthy-adults
#13
Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey G Stark, Sherilyn Adcock, Russ McMahen, Carolyn Sikes
PURPOSE: There is a strong association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol abuse, yet no studies have systematically assessed the effect of alcohol on the pharmacokinetics of psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMP) in vivo. This study evaluated the effects of alcohol on the rate and extent of absorption of Adzenys™ XR-ODT*, a new extended-release orally disintegrating AMP tablet (AMP XR-ODT) for ADHD. METHODS: A Phase I single-dose, open-label study was conducted in 32 healthy adults...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728424/annals-express-false-negative-results-in-the-immunoassay-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-can-adulterants-be-detected-by-sample-check-test
#14
Barbara Matriciani, Bernd Huppertz, Ruprecht Keller, Ralf Weiskirchen
BACKGROUND: The dilution or adulteration of urine is a serious problem in drugs of abuse (DOA) testing. Tests to identify adulteration are currently available. This study investigated the ability of the CEDIA® sample check to detect adulteration. METHODS: Eight different DOAs were added to a urine sample obtained from a healthy, drug free subject: 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, D-amphetaminesulfate, ethyl-D-glucuronide, morphine sulfate, oxazepam, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721538/-methamphetamine-epidemiology-clinical-importance-and-sequelae-of-abuse
#15
N Arnaud, R Thomasius
Methamphetamine (also known as meth and crystal meth) is a highly psychoactive synthetic amphetamine type stimulant, which falls under the German Federal Narcotics Law. The substance is similar to other stimulants but has distinct features with respect to psychoactive effects, clinical symptoms, user characteristics and short and long-term consequences including substance-induced problems and comorbidities. The consumption and misuse of crystal meth is still limited to certain regions in Germany; however, the substance causes significant clinical and public health concerns in the affected regions and beyond due to the associated high potential for misuse and dependence, neurotoxic and neurodegenerative effects as well as many other severe health risks...
July 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#16
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#17
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699480/adulteration-practices-of-psychoactive-illicit-drugs-an-updated-review
#18
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Manuela Pellegrini, Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Zaami
BACKGROUND: It is well known that powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. METHODS: The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse, which represent a matter of great concern because of the frequent fatalities...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695243/cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-insights-gained-from-1-h-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#19
REVIEW
S Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a matter of great concern for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. While most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
July 10, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690895/discrimination-between-drug-abuse-and-medical-therapy-case-report-of-a-tranylcypromine-overdose-related-fatality
#20
Maryam Akhgari, Farzaneh Jokar, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha, Ali Ghasemi
Tranylcypromine is an effective antidepressant from the class of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and is structurally related to amphetamine. However, reports differ regarding the potential metabolism of tranylcypromine to amphetamine and methamphetamine within the human body. We report a 25-year-old woman with severe depression who died due to a fatal tranylcypromine overdose in 2016. She had been prescribed tranylcypromine one day previously and had no history of previous suicide attempts or substance abuse. The body was transferred to a forensic medicine department in Tehran, Iran for the autopsy...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
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