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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527032/methylone-and-mdpv-activate-autophagy-in-human-dopaminergic-sh-sy5y-cells-a-new-insight-into-the-context-of-%C3%AE-keto-amphetamines-related-neurotoxicity
#1
Maria João Valente, Cristina Amaral, Georgina Correia-da-Silva, José Alberto Duarte, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Márcia Carvalho
Autophagy has an essential role in neuronal homeostasis and its dysregulation has been recently linked to neurotoxic effects of a growing list of psychoactive drugs, including amphetamines. However, the role of autophagy in β-keto amphetamine (β-KA) designer drugs-induced neurotoxicity has hitherto not been investigated. In the present study, we show that two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), elicit morphological changes consistent with autophagy and neurodegeneration, including formation of autophagic vacuoles and neurite retraction in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516232/-cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-german-version-insights-gained-from-1-h-and-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#2
REVIEW
S V Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a considerable problem for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. Whilst most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
May 17, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509940/medico-legal-assessment-of-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-serum-concentrations-what-can-we-learn-from-survived-intoxications
#3
Marco Weber, Rüdiger Lessig, Carolin Richter, Axel P Ritter, Ilona Weiß
Medico-legal experts are increasingly enlisted to assess the methamphetamine and amphetamine serum concentrations after a criminal offense. However, since criminal users rarely provide useful information to medico-legal experts regarding the substances abused, when the substance(s) was/were used, dose of ingestion tools are needed to interpret the analytical data, which can be used as objective evidence in such cases. A comparative series of methamphetamine and amphetamine serum concentrations were used to analyze the frequency of concentrations, to determine methamphetamine/amphetamine concentration ratios, and prove them as a tool to distinguish pure methamphetamine from mixed amphetamine/methamphetamine ingestion...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503702/postmortem-diagnosis-of-hyponatremia-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Jessica Vanhaebost, Cristian Palmiere, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Fabiola Bou Abdallah, Arnaud Capron, Gregory Schmit
Hyponatremia is defined as a plasma sodium concentration less than 135 or 130 mEq/L (or mmol/L) and may be responsible for life threatening symptoms that can be observed in a variety of medical conditions. Cases of fatal hyponatremia have been reported in both clinical and forensic literature in situations of water intoxication due to psychogenic polydipsia, amphetamine derivative drug intake, high-endurance exercise, iatrogenic causes, and exceptional cases of child abuse by forced water intoxication. Vitreous sodium levels have been determined to be relatively stable during the early postmortem period and similar to levels found in normal serum of living subjects...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492278/direct-and-systemic-administration-of-a-cns-permeant-tamoxifen-analog-reduces-amphetamine-induced-dopamine-release-and-reinforcing-effects
#5
Colleen Carpenter, Alexander G Zestos, Rachel Altshuler, Roderick J Sorenson, Bipasha Guptaroy, Hollis D Showalter, Robert T Kennedy, Emily Jutkiewicz, Margaret E Gnegy
Amphetamines (AMPHs) are globally abused. With no effective treatment for AMPH addiction to date, there is urgent need for the identification of druggable targets that mediate the reinforcing action of this stimulant class. AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux is modulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Inhibition of PKC reduces AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux and locomotor activity. The only known CNS-permeant PKC inhibitor is the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. In this study we demonstrate that a tamoxifen analog, 6c, which more potently inhibits PKC than tamoxifen but lacks affinity for the estrogen receptor, reduces AMPH-stimulated increases in extracellular dopamine and reinforcement-related behavior...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490912/update-on-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy-clinical-efficacy-of-pitolisant
#6
REVIEW
Michael W Calik
Narcolepsy is a neurological disease that affects 1 in 2,000 individuals and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). In 60-70% of individuals with narcolepsy, it is also characterized by cataplexy or a sudden loss of muscle tone that is triggered by positive or negative emotions. Narcolepsy decreases the quality of life of the afflicted individuals. Currently used drugs treat EDS alone (modafinil/armodafinil, methylphenidate, and amphetamine), cataplexy alone ("off-label" use of antidepressants), or both EDS and cataplexy (sodium oxybate)...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487656/adolescent-female-cannabinoid-exposure-diminishes-the-reward-facilitating-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-and-d-amphetamine-in-the-adult-male-offspring
#7
George Pitsilis, Dimitrios Spyridakos, George G Nomikos, George Panagis
Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ(9)-THC and d-amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ(9)-THC (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485090/risk-of-stroke-in-prescription-and-other-amphetamine-type-stimulants-use-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Blanca Iciar Indave, Luis Sordo, María José Bravo, Ana Sarasa-Renedo, Sonia Fernández-Balbuena, Luis De la Fuente, Michela Sonego, Gregorio Barrio
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a putative cause of stroke with high abuse potential. We aim to systematically review the association between use of ATS and stroke. DESIGN AND METHODS: To assure a sensitive search strategy, a broad definition of ATS was used. Cochrane Plus, EMBASE, IBECS/Lilacs, ISI WOK, Medline and Scopus were searched through 2016. Three researchers independently reviewed studies (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses)...
May 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440070/chiral-analysis-of-amphetamines-in-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-compliance-monitoring-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-patients-under-elvanse%C3%A2-therapy-and-identification-after-controlled-low-dose-application
#9
Tina M Binz, Elena Williner, Petra Strajhar, Patrick C Dolder, Matthias E Liechti, Markus R Baumgartner, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Amphetamine (AMP) is used as illicit drug but also for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Respective drugs most often contain the enantiomer (S)-AMP as active compound or (S)-AMP is formed from the prodrug lisdexamfetamine (Elvanse®) whereas the illicit drug is usually traded as racemate ((R/S)-AMP). A differentiation between the use of the medically prescribed drug and the abuse of illicit street amphetamine is of great importance e.g. in retrospective consumption monitoring by hair analysis...
April 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434890/brain-lipidomic-changes-after-morphine-cocaine-and-amphetamine-administration-desi-ms-imaging-study
#10
Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna Antolak, Anna Drabik, Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Jolanta Kotlińska, Piotr Suder
Drug addiction is a complex disorder, evoking significant changes in the proteome of the central nervous system. To check if there are also changes in the lipidomic profiles we used desorption electrospray-MS technique for imaging of the brain slices of rats exposed to morphine, cocaine and amphetamine. Our investigations showed alternative regulation of selected lipid's levels in the central nervous system structures, under the influence of applied drugs. Results of our investigations can show changes in the brain treated with drugs of abuse in the new light, indicating role of the lipids in the addiction development...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428365/interaction-and-transport-of-methamphetamine-and-its-primary-metabolites-by-organic-cation-and-multidrug-and-toxin-extrusion-transporters
#11
David J Wagner, Jennifer E Sager, Haichuan Duan, Nina Isoherranen, Joanne Wang
Methamphetamine is one of the most abused illicit drugs with roughly 1.2 million users in the United States alone. A large portion of methamphetamine and its metabolites is eliminated by the kidney with renal clearance larger than glomerular filtration clearance. Yet the mechanism of active renal secretion is poorly understood. The goals of this study were to characterize the interaction of methamphetamine and its major metabolites with organic cation transporters (OCT) and multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) transporters and to identify the major transporters involved in the disposition of methamphetamine and its major metabolites, amphetamine and p-hydroxymethamphetamine (p-OHMA)...
April 20, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426546/methamphetamine-use-and-dependence-in-vulnerable-female-populations
#12
Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon, Soontaree Srikosai, Apisak Wittayanookulluk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric patients, suburban women, and pregnant women, in which amphetamine type stimulants (ATSs) are the most commonly reported illicit drug used among them...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424105/specific-impact-of-stimulant-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-disorders-on-first-episode-psychosis-2-year-functional-and-symptomatic-outcomes
#13
C Ouellet-Plamondon, A Abdel-Baki, É Salvat, S Potvin
BACKGROUND: Many studies have concluded that cannabis use disorder (CUD) negatively influences outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, few have taken into account the impact of concurrent misuse of other substances. METHODS: This 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to early intervention programs in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, examined the specific influence of different substance use disorders (SUD) (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines) on service utilization, symptomatic and functional outcomes in FEP...
April 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417026/cardiovascular-complications-of-acute-amphetamine-abuse-cross-sectional-study
#14
Elham Bazmi, Farinaz Mousavi, Leila Giahchin, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Behnam Behnoush
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. METHODS: This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414664/gonococcal-endocarditis-the-gift-that-stops-giving-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#15
G Olayemi, M Oferczak, A Elagizi, I El-Abbassi, M Eschete, J Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Gonorrhea is the 2nd most common sexually transmitted disease in the US with 800,000 cases of gonorrhea each year. Disseminated gonorrhea infection occurs in 0.5 percent - 3 percent of these patients and is more frequent in woman younger than 40 years of age. CASE: A 36 year old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with 10 day history of feeling generally unwell. At presentation, vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and hypotension...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#16
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396142/atypical-binding-at-dopamine-and-serotonin-transporters-contribute-to-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-mephedrone
#17
Alyssa F DeLarge, Laura L Erwin, Peter J Winsauer
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a constituent of the recreational substances known as "bath salts", is a synthetic cathinone that can produce auditory and visual hallucinations, as well as problematic cardiovascular effects. This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of mephedrone (0.32-10 mg/kg) with other prototypical drugs of abuse: cocaine (0.56-32 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.18-3.2 mg/kg), ketamine (1.8-18 mg/kg), phencyclidine (PCP, 1-5.6 mg/kg), heroin (1-10 mg/kg), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (R-DOI, 0...
April 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393639/the-safety-of-extended-release-drug-formulations-for-the-treatment-of-adhd
#18
Ann Childress
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder affecting millions of patients worldwide. Effective treatments have been available for more than 60 years in the form of immediate-release (IR) stimulants However, stimulants have a high risk for abuse and are associated with adverse effects Including elevated blood pressure and heart rate, insomnia and decreased appetite. IR formulations also require multiple daily dosing. The search for improved safety, tolerability and convenience has led to the development of multiple extended-release (ER) stimulant and non-stimulant formulations...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379393/profiting-from-probability-combining-low-and-high-probability-isotopes-as-a-tool-extending-the-dynamic-range-of-an-assay-measuring-amphetamine-and-methamphetamine-in-urine
#19
Anna M Miller, Melissa M Goggin, An Nguyen, Stephanie D Gozum, Gregory C Janis
A wide range of concentrations are frequently observed when measuring drugs of abuse in urine toxicology samples; this is especially true for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Routine liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory methods commonly anchored at a 50 ng/mL lower limit of quantitation can span approximately a 100-fold concentration range before regions of non-linearity are reached deteriorating accurate quantitation and qualitative assessments. In our experience, approximately a quarter of amphetamine and methamphetamine positive samples are above a 5,000 ng/mL upper limit of quantitation and thus require reanalysis with dilution for accurate quantitative and acceptable qualitative results...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377698/striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-modulate-spike-timing-in-striosomes-and-matrix-by-an-amphetamine-sensitive-mechanism
#20
Jill R Crittenden, Carolyn J Lacey, Feng-Ju Weng, Catherine E Garrison, Daniel J Gibson, Yingxi Lin, Ann M Graybiel
The striatum is key for action-selection and the motivation to move. Dopamine and acetylcholine release sites are enriched in the striatum and are cross-regulated, possibly to achieve optimal behavior. Drugs of abuse, which promote abnormally high dopamine release, disrupt normal action-selection and drive restricted, repetitive behaviors (stereotypies). Stereotypies occur in a variety of disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease, as well as in addictive states...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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