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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#1
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330986/use-of-psychoactive-drugs-among-medical-undergraduates-in-abbottabad
#2
Haq Nawaz, Aftab Alam Khan, Saima Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#3
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Method: We have recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 MAM rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314761/keratinous-matrices-for-the-assessment-of-drugs-of-abuse-consumption-a-correlation-study-between-hair-and-nails
#4
Delphine Cappelle, Steven De Keukeleire, Hugo Neels, Frederic Been, Mireille De Doncker, Geert Dom, Cleo L Crunelle, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs
Keratinous matrices - hair and nails - accumulate substances over time and allow retrospective investigation of past consumption. Analysis of these matrices can provide information complementary to blood and urine analysis or can be used as standalone. So far, research has primarily focused on the detection of substances in hair, while studies in nails are scarce. In this study, we assessed concentrations of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in hair, finger- and toenails collected from the same individuals to evaluate differences and correlations between matrices...
January 5, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314376/validation-of-a-behavioral-economic-purchase-task-for-assessing-drug-abuse-liability
#5
James MacKillop, Nicholas I Goldenson, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Adam M Leventhal
Behavioral economic purchase tasks quantify drug demand (i.e. reinforcing value of a drug) and have been used extensively to assess the value of various drugs among current users. However, purchase tasks have been rarely used with unfamiliar drugs to address a compound's abuse liability, and the current study sought to validate the paradigm in this capacity. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled within-subjects drug challenge design, the study evaluated differential drug demand on an experimental drug purchase task for a 20 mg dose of oral D-amphetamine (versus placebo), a prototypic psychostimulant, in 98 stimulant-naïve participants...
January 5, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312837/recreational-marijuana-use-and-acute-myocardial-infarction-insights-from-nationwide-inpatient-sample-in-the-united-states
#6
Rupak Desai, Upenkumar Patel, Shobhit Sharma, Parth Amin, Rushikkumar Bhuva, Malav S Patel, Nitin Sharma, Manan Shah, Smit Patel, Sejal Savani, Neha Batra, Gautam Kumar
Background Marijuana is a widely used recreational substance. Few cases have been reported of acute myocardial infarction following marijuana use. To our knowledge, this is the first ever study analyzing the lifetime odds of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with marijuana use and the outcomes in AMI patients with versus without marijuana use. Methods We queried the 2010-2014 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for 11-70-year-old AMI patients. Pearson Chi-square test for categorical variables and Student T-test for continuous variables were used to compare the baseline demographic and hospital characteristics between two groups (without vs...
November 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301050/field-detection-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-oral-fluid-using-the-alere%C3%A2-dds%C3%A2-2-mobile-test-system-with-confirmation-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#7
Alex J Krotulski, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Barry K Logan
The collection and analysis of drugs in oral fluid (OF) at the roadside has become more feasible with the introduction of portable testing devices such as the Alere™ DDS®2 Mobile Test System (DDS®2). The objective of this study was to compare the on-site results for the DDS®2 to laboratory-based confirmatory assays with respect to detection of drugs of abuse in human subjects. As part of a larger Institutional Review Board approved study, two OF samples were collected from each participant at a music festival in Miami, FL, USA...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284546/medical-emergencies-related-to-ethanol-and-illicit-drugs-at-an-annual-nocturnal-indoor-electronic-dance-music-event
#8
Paul Calle, Nora Sundahl, Kristof Maudens, Sarah Mr Wille, Diederik Van Sassenbroeck, Koen De Graeve, Stefan Gogaert, Peter De Paepe, Dieter Devriese, Geert Arno, Peter Blanckaert
Introduction Medical problems are frequently encountered during electronic dance music (EDM) events. Problem There are uncertainties about the frequencies and severity of intoxications with different types of recreational drugs: ethanol, "classical" illicit party drugs, and new psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: Statistical data on the medical problems encountered during two editions of an indoor electronic dance event with around 30,000 attendants were retrieved from the Belgian Red Cross (Mechelen, Belgium) database...
December 29, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258368/lisdexamfetamine-chemistry-pharmacodynamics-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-in-the-treatment-of-binge-eating-disorder
#9
Kristen Ward, Leslie Citrome
The indications for lisdexamfetamine (LDX), a central nervous system stimulant, were recently expanded to include treatment of moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED). Areas covered: This review aims to describe the chemistry and pharmacology of LDX, as well as the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of this medication for the management of BED. Expert opinion: LDX is the first medication with United States Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of BED. It is an inactive prodrug of d-amphetamine that extends the half-life of d-amphetamine to allow for once daily dosing...
January 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249517/khat-and-synthetic-cathinones-emerging-drugs-of-abuse-with-dental-implications
#10
REVIEW
Worku Abebe
The rising global availability of the stimulant and euphoric substances, khat and synthetic cathinones, has become a cause for concern in many countries, including the United States. Both substances are illegal in United States, although this has not deterred their use. Besides central nervous system effects, these drugs also cause sympathomimetic and orodental adverse effects, similar to those of amphetamine. Although synthetic cathinones are stronger than khat in most cases, the latter additionally contains tannins, which have astringent effects on tissues components, including those in the oral cavity...
November 22, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248810/fast-screening-tests-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-11-drugs-of-abuse-in-urine-specimens-a-forensic-epidemiology-study-of-28-298-cases-in-tunisia
#11
B Moslah, M Araoud, M A Nouioui, S Najjar, D Amira, A Hedhili
Forensic investigation performed on people suspected to be drug abusers covering all Tunisian cities was conducted by monitoring an epidemiological study of human urine samples surveying positive rates of consumption for drugs of abuse. The forensic investigations were conducted on a total of 28,298 arrested individuals suspected to be drug addicts during five years (January 2010-December 2015). An immunoassay screening tests to detect elevated levels of drugs classes in urine samples was performed. These screening assays provide a preliminary qualitative test result...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225566/cdk5-is-essential-for-amphetamine-to-increase-dendritic-spine-density-in-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#12
Soledad Ferreras, Guillermo Fernández, Víctor Danelon, María V Pisano, Luján Masseroni, Christopher A Chapleau, Favio A Krapacher, Estela C Mlewski, Daniel H Mascó, Carlos Arias, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, María G Paglini
Psychostimulant drugs of abuse increase dendritic spine density in reward centers of the brain. However, little is known about their effects in the hippocampus, where activity-dependent changes in the density of dendritic spine are associated with learning and memory. Recent reports suggest that Cdk5 plays an important role in drug addiction, but its role in psychostimulant's effects on dendritic spines in hippocampus remain unknown. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that amphetamine increases dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216482/enantiomeric-profiling-of-chiral-illicit-drugs-in-a-pan-european-study
#13
Erika Castrignanò, Zhugen Yang, Richard Bade, Jose A Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Emma Gracia-Lor, Felix Hernandez, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt, Ettore Zuccato, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205946/surveillance-of-drug-abuse-in-hong-kong-by-hair-analysis-using-lc-ms-ms
#14
K Wing Leung, Zack C F Wong, Janet Y M Ho, Ada W S Yip, Jerry K H Cheung, Karen K L Ho, Ran Duan, Karl W K Tsim
The aim of this study is to reveal the habits of drug abusers in hair samples from drug rehabilitation units in Hong Kong. With the application of LC-MS/MS technology, a total of 1,771 hair samples were analyzed during the period (Jan 2012 to Mar 2016) of hair testing service provided to fourteen drug rehabilitation units including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), rehabilitation centers and medical clinics. Hair samples were analyzed for abused drugs and their metabolites simultaneously, including ketamine, norketamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, codeine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine and methadone...
December 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194289/lack-of-detection-of-new-amphetamine-like-drugs-using-conventional-urinary-immunoassays
#15
A Begeman, E J F Franssen
BACKGROUND: The number of reports of serious adverse effects and intoxication after the use of the new drug 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) increases. At the Emergency Department of the OLVG-Oost Hospital in Amsterdam an on-site drug test, the Triage® TOX Drug Screen, is available to assist in a rapid diagnosis. In less urgent cases, an EMIT® II Plus immunoassay is used to determine semi-quantitatively the presence of drugs of abuse. The antibodies in these immunoassays are designed to detect classic drugs of abuse and its urinary metabolites...
November 29, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185593/behavioral-cross-sensitization-between-testosterone-and-fenproporex-in-adolescent-and-adult-rats
#16
C Q Conceição, S A Engi, F C Cruz, C S Planeta
The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex...
November 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175958/amphetamine-reverses-escalated-cocaine-intake-via-restoration-of-dopamine-transporter-conformation
#17
Cody A Siciliano, Kaustuv Saha, Erin S Calipari, Steve C Fordahl, Rong Chen, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Sara R Jones
Cocaine abuse disrupts dopamine system function, including reduced cocaine inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT), which results in tolerance. Although tolerance is a hallmark of cocaine addiction and a DSM-V criteria for substance abuse disorders, the molecular adaptations producing tolerance are unknown, and testing the impact of DAT changes on drug taking behaviors has proven difficult. In regard to treatment, amphetamine has shown efficacy in reducing cocaine intake; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been explored...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154785/a-rapid-enhancement-of-locomotor-sensitization-to-amphetamine-by-estradiol-in-female-rats
#18
Iva B Zovkic, Cheryl M McCormick
Estradiol moderates the effects of drugs of abuse in both humans and rodents. Estradiol's enhancement of behavioral effects resulting from high (>2.5mg/kg) doses of amphetamine is established in rats; there is less evidence for the role of estradiol in locomotor effects elicited by lower doses, which are less aversive, increase incentive motivation, involve different neural mechanisms than higher doses, and often more readily reveal group differences than do higher doses. Further, the extent to which estradiol is required for the induction versus the expression of sensitization is unknown...
November 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#19
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation, and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119924/deaths-in-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-united-kingdom-communities-associated-with-ghb-and-precursors
#20
John M Corkery, Barbara Loi, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Fabrizio Schifano
Background Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Objective and method This paper presents an overview of GHB pharmacotoxicology and provides analyses of cases in the LGBT population associated with use of these substances extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, to which notification is voluntary...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
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