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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728424/annals-express-false-negative-results-in-the-immunoassay-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-can-adulterants-be-detected-by-sample-check-test
#1
Barbara Matriciani, Bernd Huppertz, Ruprecht Keller, Ralf Weiskirchen
BACKGROUND: The dilution or adulteration of urine is a serious problem in drugs of abuse (DOA) testing. Tests to identify adulteration are currently available. This study investigated the ability of the CEDIA® sample check to detect adulteration. METHODS: Eight different DOAs were added to a urine sample obtained from a healthy, drug free subject: 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, D-amphetaminesulfate, ethyl-D-glucuronide, morphine sulfate, oxazepam, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721538/-methamphetamine-epidemiology-clinical-importance-and-sequelae-of-abuse
#2
N Arnaud, T Thomasius
Methamphetamine (also known as meth and crystal meth) is a highly psychoactive synthetic amphetamine type stimulant, which falls under the German Federal Narcotics Law. The substance is similar to other stimulants but has distinct features with respect to psychoactive effects, clinical symptoms, user characteristics and short and long-term consequences including substance-induced problems and comorbidities. The consumption and misuse of crystal meth is still limited to certain regions in Germany; however, the substance causes significant clinical and public health concerns in the affected regions and beyond due to the associated high potential for misuse and dependence, neurotoxic and neurodegenerative effects as well as many other severe health risks...
July 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713291/an-expanding-world-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-opioids
#3
REVIEW
Jolanta B Zawilska
The abuse of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been increasing dramatically worldwide since late 2000s. By the end of 2015, more than 560 NPS had been reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Although the most popular compounds are synthetic cannabinoids and psychostimulatory derivatives of cathinone (so-called β-keto-amphetamines), novel synthetic opioids have recently emerged on the recreational drug market. They include fentanyl (a potent narcotic analgesic) and its analogs (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704276/effects-of-d1-and-d2-receptor-antagonists-on-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-methylendioxypyrovalerone-and-mephedrone-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats-trained-to-discriminate-d-amphetamine
#4
Eric L Harvey, Rachel L Burroughs, Lisa E Baker
Psychopharmacology research has amassed substantial evidence for similarities between synthetic cathinones and other commonly abused psychostimulants. Few studies have utilized drug discrimination methods to investigate synthetic cathinones, and the precise neurochemical substrates underlying their interoceptive effects have not been examined. The present study assessed the involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors in the stimulus effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and mephedrone (MEPH) in rats trained to discriminate D-amphetamine...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699480/adulteration-practices-of-psychoactive-illicit-drugs-an-updated-review
#5
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Manuela Pellegrini, Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Zaami
BACKGROUND: It is well known that powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. METHODS: The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse, which represent a matter of great concern because of the frequent fatalities...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695243/cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-insights-gained-from-1-h-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#6
REVIEW
S Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a matter of great concern for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. While most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
July 10, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690895/discrimination-between-drug-abuse-and-medical-therapy-case-report-of-a-tranylcypromine-overdose-related-fatality
#7
Maryam Akhgari, Farzaneh Jokar, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha, Ali Ghasemi
Tranylcypromine is an effective antidepressant from the class of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and is structurally related to amphetamine. However, reports differ regarding the potential metabolism of tranylcypromine to amphetamine and methamphetamine within the human body. We report a 25-year-old woman with severe depression who died due to a fatal tranylcypromine overdose in 2016. She had been prescribed tranylcypromine one day previously and had no history of previous suicide attempts or substance abuse. The body was transferred to a forensic medicine department in Tehran, Iran for the autopsy...
May 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686987/morning-administration-of-oral-methamphetamine-dose-dependently-disrupts-nighttime-sleep-in-recreational-stimulant-users
#8
Evan S Herrmann, Patrick S Johnson, Natalie R Bruner, Ryan Vandrey, Matthew W Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Use of amphetamine-type stimulants (e.g., methamphetamine) is associated with acute sleep disruptions. No prior reports have characterized the acute effects of methamphetamine on sleep using polysomnography, the gold standard for objective sleep monitoring. METHODS: Recreational stimulant users (n=19) completed a baseline assessment, which included questionnaires assessing demographic and substance use characteristics, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which assesses sleep quality over the past month...
June 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683783/polydrug-abuse-among-opioid-maintenance-treatment-patients-is-related-to-inadequate-dose-of-maintenance-treatment-medicine
#9
Pertti Kalevi Heikman, Leea Hellevi Muhonen, Ilkka Antero Ojanperä
BACKGROUND: Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients...
July 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670086/posterior-reversible-leukoencephalopathy-syndrome-after-kratom-ingestion
#10
Austin Castillo, J Drew Payne, Kenneth Nugent
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has been associated with hypertension, preeclampsia, cancer chemotherapy, and drugs of abuse, such as amphetamine and methamphetamine. We report a young man who suddenly developed severe headache, disorientation, and aphasia following ingestion of kratom and Adderall. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of his head revealed foci of vasogenic edema in the posterior occipital lobes, frontal lobes, and brainstem. In addition, he had a small area of hemorrhage in the left posterior occipital lobe...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614180/cocaine-inhibits-leptin-induced-increase-of-the-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-peptide-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-rats
#11
Bo Ram Cho, Hyung Shin Yoon, Wha Young Kim, Paul Vezina, Jeong-Hoon Kim
Two well-known appetite-regulatory peptides, leptin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), are known to be involved in the brain rewarding pathway. However, it is not yet known how they interact in the nucleus accumbens, an important region mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Using the immunoassay method, we found that a microinjection of leptin into the nucleus accumbens core induces an immediate and transient increase of the CART peptide in this site, whereas these effects were inhibited by cocaine...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612521/could-modafinil-prevent-psychostimulant-addiction-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#12
Verônica Tironi Dias, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Higor Zuquetto Rosa, Lívia Ferraz D'avila, Raquel Cristine Silva Barcelos, Marilise Escobar Burger
Addiction is a serious health problem which leads to general social impairment. The period of adolescence plays a significant role in drug abuse liability. Psychostimulants, such as modafinil (MOD), are majorly used by teenagers seeking improvements in cognition, which contributes to its indiscriminate use. This study aimed to investigate the influence of MOD (64 mg/kg by gavage, once a day) treatment during adolescence [post-natal day (PND) 28-42] on amphetamine (AMPH, 4 mg/kg i.p.)-conditioned place preference (CPP) in early adulthood (PND 60)...
June 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589520/role-of-mitochondria-in-methamphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-involvement-in-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-pro-apoptosis-a-review
#13
Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Phuong-Tram Nguyen, Ji Hoon Jeong, Seung-Yeol Nah, Choon-Gon Jang, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine-type psychostimulant, is associated with dopaminergic toxicity and has a high abuse potential. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that impaired mitochondria are critical in dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA. Mitochondria are important energy-producing organelles with dynamic nature. Evidence indicated that exposure to MA can disturb mitochondrial energetic metabolism by inhibiting the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fusion/fission, have recently been shown to contribute to dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579487/intoxication-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-and-related-analogues-clinical-characteristics-and-comparison-between-pure-intoxication-and-that-combined-with-other-substances-of-abuse
#14
Òscar Miró, Miguel Galicia, Paul Dargan, Alison M Dines, Isabelle Giraudon, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut E Hovda, Christopher Yates, David M Wood
OBJECTIVE: To study the profile of European gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gammabutyrolactone (GBL) intoxication and analyse the differences in the clinical manifestations produced by intoxication by GHB/GBL alone and in combination with other substances of abuse. METHOD: We prospectively collected data on all the patients attended in the Emergency Departments (ED) of the centres participating in the Euro-DEN network over 12 months (October 2013 to September 2014) with a primary presenting complaint of drug intoxication (excluding ethanol alone) and registered the epidemiological and clinical data and outcomes...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579351/preclinical-abuse-liability-assessment-of-abt-126-an-agonist-at-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr
#15
Thomas J Hudzik, Ana M Basso, James J Lynch, William M Bracken, Eric G Mohler, Kathy L Kohlhaas, Hongyu Xu, George Haig, Laura Gault
ABT-126 is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is selective for the α7 subtype of the receptor. nAChRs are thought to play a role in a variety of neurocognitive processes and have been a pharmacologic target for disorders with cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. As part of the preclinical safety package for ABT-126, its potential for abuse was assessed. While the involvement of the α4β2 subtype of the nicotinic receptor in the addictive properties of nicotine has been demonstrated, the role of the α7 receptor has been studied much less extensively...
July 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577420/reliability-of-point-of-collection-testing-devices-for-drugs-of-abuse-in-oral-fluid-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Taís Regina Fiorentin, Bruna Tassi Borille, Graciela Pasa, Tanara Rosangela Vieira Sousa, Lisia von Diemen, Renata Pereira Limberger, Flavio Pechansky
Point-of-collection testing (POCT) devices for drugs of abuse are used to screen for the presence of psychoactive substances (PAS) in different types of settings and environments. However, these quick and advantageous tools also present disadvantages, including low-reliability measures in comparison to chromatographic assays. Therefore, this article presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the reliability of measurements of PAS detection in oral fluid using POCT devices. The reliability measures for detection of the five most important drug classes - cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids and opioids, are reported...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573080/rapid-identification-of-psychoactive-drugs-in-drained-gastric-lavage-fluid-and-whole-blood-specimens-of-drug-overdose-patients-using-ambient-mass-spectrometry
#17
Chi-Wei Lee, Hung Su, You-Da Cai, Ming-Tsang Wu, Den-Chyang Wu, Jentaie Shiea
Psychoactive drug overdoses are life-threatening and require prompt and proper treatment in the emergency room to minimize morbidity and mortality. Prompt identification of the ingested psychoactive drugs is challenging, since witness recall is unreliable and patients' symptoms do not necessarily explain their loss of consciousness. Gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analyses have been the traditionally employed methods to detect and identify abused substances; however, these techniques are time-consuming and labor-intensive...
2017: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560628/fate-of-selected-drugs-in-the-wastewater-treatment-plants-wwtps-for-domestic-sewage
#18
Agostina Chiavola, Pierpaolo Tedesco, Maria Rosaria Boni
The wide diffusion of Emerging Organic Micropollutants (EOMs) in the environment is receiving increasing attention due to their potential toxicological effects on living organisms. So far, the Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) have not been designed with the purpose to remove these contaminants; therefore, they can represent the major source of release into the environment both through the effluent and the wasted sludge. The fate of EOMs in the WWTPs is still not completely known; further investigations are therefore needed to assess if it is possible to exploit the existing treatment units to reduce EOM concentrations or which processes must be implemented to this purpose...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559209/short-post-weaning-social-isolation-induces-long-term-changes-in-the-dopaminergic-system-and-increases-susceptibility-to-psychostimulants-in-female-rats
#19
Carine Lampert, Danusa Mar Arcego, Natividade de Sá Couto-Pereira, Aline Dos Santos Vieira, Ana Paula Toniazzo, Rachel Krolow, Emily Garcia, Deusa Aparecida Vendite, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto, Carla Dalmaz
Childhood and adolescence are sensitive periods of development, marked by high brain maturation and plasticity. Exposure to early life stress, such as social isolation, is able to prompt changes in sensitive brain circuitries, essentially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and increase the risk for addictive behaviors later in life. Post-weaning social isolation can stimulate the consumption of rewarding substances, like drugs of abuse and palatable foods. However, most studies analyze long periods of social isolation and very little is known about the effects of a brief social isolation in a sensitive period of development and its association with palatable food on the reward system sensitization...
May 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551534/tracing-methamphetamine-and-amphetamine-sources-in-wastewater-and-receiving-waters-via-concentration-and-enantiomeric-profiling
#20
Zeqiong Xu, Peng Du, Kaiyang Li, Tingting Gao, Zhenglu Wang, Xiaofang Fu, Xiqing Li
Wastewater analysis is a promising approach to monitor illicit drug abuse of a community. However, drug use estimation via wastewater analysis may be biased by sources other than abuse. This is especially true for methamphetamine and amphetamine as their presence in wastewater may come from many sources, such as direct disposal or excretion following administration of prescription drugs. Here we traced methamphetamine and amphetamine sources via concentration and enantiomeric profiling of the two compounds from black market to receiving waters...
May 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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