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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453492/quantification-of-butyrylcholinesterase-activity-as-a-sensitive-and-specific-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Ian R Macdonald, Selena P Maxwell, G Andrew Reid, Meghan K Cash, Drew R DeBay, Sultan Darvesh
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, a significant number of cognitively normal older adults can also have Aβ plaques. Thus, distinguishing AD from cognitively normal individuals with Aβ plaques (NwAβ) based on Aβ plaque detection is challenging. It has been observed that butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) accumulates in plaques preferentially in AD. Thus, detecting BChE-associated plaques has the potential as an improved AD biomarker. We present Aβ, thioflavin-S, and BChE quantification of 26 postmortem brain tissues; AD (n = 8), NwAβ (n = 6), cognitively normal without plaques (n = 8), and other common dementias including corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal dementia with tau, dementia with Lewy bodies, and vascular dementia...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453489/changes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-peptides-due-to-tauopathy
#2
Petra Majerova, Peter Barath, Alena Michalicova, Stanislav Katina, Michal Novak, Andrej Kovac
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and progressive supranuclear palsy are two common neurodegenerative tauopathies, and the most common cause of progressive brain dementia in elderly affecting more than 35 million people. The tauopathies are characterized by abnormal deposition of microtubule associated protein tau into intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed mainly of the hyperphosphorylated form of the protein. The diagnosis of tauopathies is based on the presence of clinical features and pathological changes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453474/neuropsychological-profile-in-the-c9orf72-associated-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#3
Noora-Maria Suhonen, Ramona M Haanpää, Ville Korhonen, Jari Jokelainen, Anni Pitkäniemi, Anna-Leena Heikkinen, Johanna Krüger, Päivi Hartikainen, Seppo Helisalmi, Mikko Hiltunen, Tuomo Hänninen, Anne M Remes
While the C9ORF72 expansion is a major cause of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), little is known of the resultant cognitive profile. Our aim was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of the C9ORF72 associated bvFTD. We contrasted structured neuropsychological assessments of the C9ORF72 expansion carrier bvFTD patients (n = 26) with non-carrier bvFTD patients (n = 47) and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 47). As compared to the non-carrier bvFTD patients, the C9ORF72 expansion carriers performed at a higher level in an immediate verbal memory test while showing poorer phonemic verbal fluency...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453473/prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-a-comparison-of-the-cognitive-and-clinical-profiles
#4
Dilman Sadiq, Tim Whitfield, Lean Lee, Tim Stevens, Sergi Costafreda, Zuzana Walker
BACKGROUND: Dementia must be diagnosed accurately and early in the disease course to allow pathology-specific treatments to be effective. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially at the prodromal stage. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and neuropsychological profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients who, at follow-up, progressed to AD (retrospectively AD-MCI) or DLB (retrospectively DLB-MCI) or remained MCI...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448971/pre-esrd-dementia-and-post-esrd-mortality-in-a-large-cohort-of-incident-dialysis-patients
#5
Miklos Z Molnar, Keiichi Sumida, Abduzhappar Gaipov, Praveen K Potukuchi, Tibor Fülöp, Kiran Joglekar, Jun Ling Lu, Elani Streja, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND: Conservative management may be a desirable option for elderly, fragile, or demented patients who reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD), yet some patients with dementia are placed on renal replacement therapy nonetheless. METHODS: From a nationwide cohort of 45,076 US veterans who transitioned to ESRD over 4 contemporary years (October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2011), we identified 1,336 (3.0%) patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based dementia diagnosis during the prelude (predialysis) period...
April 28, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445082/the-impact-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-positron-emission-tomography-on-the-diagnostic-and-treatment-decisions-of-dementia-experts
#6
Michael L Ganz, Alie F Tawah, Shien Guo, Abhishek S Chitnis, Hedwig Silies, Barbara Schäuble, Aleksandar Jovalekic, Norman L Foster
AIM: Amyloid positron emission tomography (aPET) measurement of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology could improve the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders. Appropriate use criteria recommend that only dementia experts order aPET. MATERIALS & METHODS: We surveyed 145 dementia experts about their current approaches to evaluation and treatment and the likely influence of aPET. RESULTS: Experts expected aPET to alter diagnostic procedures and patient management and also increase diagnostic certainty...
April 26, 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441967/comparison-of-csf-markers-and-semi-quantitative-amyloid-pet-in-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-and-in-cognitive-impairment-prognosis-using-the-adni-2-database
#7
Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Pierre Payoux
BACKGROUND: The relative performance of semi-quantitative amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and predicting the cognitive evolution of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is still debated. METHODS: Subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 with complete baseline cognitive assessment (Mini Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale [ADAS-cog] scores), CSF collection (amyloid-β1-42 [Aβ], tau and phosphorylated tau) and (18)F-florbetapir scans were included in our cross-sectional cohort...
April 26, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441649/home-based-physical-behavior-in-late-stage-parkinson-disease-dementia-differences-between-cognitive-subtypes
#8
Bernhard Cerff, Walter Maetzler, Patricia Sulzer, Malte Kampmeyer, Jos Prinzen, Markus A Hobert, Dominik Blum, Rob van Lummel, Silvia Del Din, Susanne Gräber, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: For the early diagnosis of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), objective home-based tools are needed to quantify even mild stages of dysfunction of the activities of daily living (ADL). OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, home-based physical behavior was assessed to examine whether it is possible to distinguish mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) from PDD. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with mild to severe Parkinson disease (PD) participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 26, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439716/antipsychotic-prescribing-to-patients-diagnosed-with-dementia-without-a-diagnosis-of-psychosis-in-the-context-of-national-guidance-and-drug-safety-warnings-longitudinal-study-in-uk-general-practice
#9
S Jill Stocks, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Roger T Webb, Anthony J Avery, Alistair Burns, Darren M Ashcroft
INTRODUCTION: Policy interventions to address inappropriate prescribing of antipsychotic drugs to older people diagnosed with dementia are commonplace. In the UK, warnings were issued by the Medicines Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in 2004, 2009 and 2012 and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance was published in 2006. It is important to evaluate the impact of such interventions. METHODS: We analysed routinely collected primary-care data from 111,346 patients attending one of 689 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to describe the temporal changes in the prescribing of antipsychotic drugs to patients aged 65 years or over diagnosed with dementia without a concomitant psychosis diagnosis from 2001 to 2014 using an interrupted time series and a before-and-after design...
April 24, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438223/extrastriatal-changes-in-patients-with-late-onset-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-highlight-the-risk-of-long-term-neurotoxicity
#10
Nikolas Boy, Jana Heringer, Renate Brackmann, Olaf Bodamer, Angelika Seitz, Stefan Kölker, Inga Harting
BACKGROUND: Without neonatal initiation of treatment, 80-90% of patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) develop striatal injury during the first six years of life resulting in a complex, predominantly dystonic movement disorder. Onset of motor symptoms may be acute following encephalopathic crisis or insidious without apparent crisis. Additionally, so-called late-onset GA1 has been described in single patients diagnosed after the age of 6 years. With the aim of better characterizing and understanding late-onset GA1 we analyzed clinical findings, biochemical phenotype, and MRI changes of eight late-onset patients and compared these to eight control patients over the age of 6 years with early diagnosis and start of treatment...
April 24, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437317/dementia-comorbidity-and-physical-function-in-the-program-of-all-inclusive-care-for-the-elderly
#11
Jason R Falvey, Allison M Gustavson, Lisa Price, Lucine Papazian, Jennifer E Stevens-Lapsley
BACKGROUND: Participants in the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) are a unique clinical population of medically complex and highly disabled older adults who qualify for nursing home level care but receive services in the community. A main goal of PACE programs is to prevent further declines in physical function that may necessitate costly institutionalization. This study evaluates how multimorbidity and dementia impact both self-selected gait speed and Timed Up and Go (TUG) in this population...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437057/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-behavioral-disorders-in-dementia
#12
Sherri Morgan
Psychosis is one of the most common conditions in later life, with dementia being a main contributing factor. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), now categorizes the various types of dementia as neurocognitive disorders. Alzheimer disease is a common cause of dementia and psychosis. Psychosis also is seen in patients with vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Psychosis can be primary, caused by a psychiatric disorder listed in the DSM-5, or secondary, due to a medical or neurologic condition...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436344/inattention-tests-for-delirium
#13
Paul Regal
Voyer and colleagues (2016) report an interesting and important comparison of ten attention/concentration tests for DSM-5 delirium. I have a number of questions and comments as follows: (1) What training did the research assistants have? DSM-5 diagnosis is generally regarded as a decision by medical specialists. When the person has prior dementia, identifying delirium is a high-level medical skill. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia can closely mimic delirium unless the examiner focuses on behavioral triggers and the speed of cognitive decline...
April 24, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#14
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434243/-clinical-and-neuropathological-characteristics-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
János Bencze, Viktória Simon, Erika Bereczki, Réka Majer, Gréta Varkoly, Balázs Murnyák, János Kálmán, Tibor Hortobágyi
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia. The accurate diagnosis is often possible only by neuropathological examination. The morphologic hallmarks are the presence of α-synuclein-rich Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, identical to those seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Neurotransmitter deficits, synaptic and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction play major role in the pathomechanism. Characteristic symptoms are cognitive fluctuation, parkinsonism and visual hallucinations...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432641/dentatorubro-pallidoluysian-atrophy-drpla-among-700-families-with-ataxia-in-brazil
#16
Pedro Braga-Neto, José Luiz Pedroso, Gabriel Vasata Furtado, Tailise Conte Gheno, Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Laura Bannach Jardim, Orlando G P Barsottini
Dentatorubro-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) very rare in non-Asian populations. To date, DRPLA was undetected in the general Brazilian population. Adult-onset ataxic patients have been recruited from several Brazilian neurology and neurogenetics centers. CAG lengths at SCA1, SCA2, SCA3/MJD, SCA6, SCA7, SCA12, SCA17 and DRPLA associated genes, and ATTCT expansions at SCA10 gene were studied. A single DRPLA case detected is reported. Proband was a 69-year-old Brazilian woman of mixed ancestry, with a late-onset pure ataxia: her alleles at the associated gene, ATN1, presented 14/52 CAG repeats...
April 21, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431620/role-of-inflammatory-molecules-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-and-diagnosis
#17
REVIEW
Eva Bagyinszky, Vo Van Giau, Kyuhwan Shim, Kyoungho Suk, Seong Soo A An, SangYun Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex disorder and the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Several genetic, environmental, and physiological factors, including inflammations and metabolic influences, are involved in the progression of AD. Inflammations are composed of complicated networks of many chemokines and cytokines with diverse cells. Inflammatory molecules are needed for the protection against pathogens, and maintaining their balances is important for normal physiological function. Recent studies demonstrated that inflammation may be involved in neurodegenerative dementia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431511/validation-of-the-short-version-of-the-10-66-dementia-diagnosis-in-multiethnic-asian-older-adults-in-singapore
#18
Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Louisa Picco, Boon Yiang Chua, Martin Prince, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: To validate the short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis against the standard version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis and clinical diagnosis and examine concurrent validity with the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment schedule and care needs in a multiethnic Asian older adult population in Singapore. METHODS: Data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study, a nationally representative survey of the older Singapore Resident population aged 60 years and above was used...
April 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428732/access-to-information-and-counselling-older-cancer-patients-self-report-a-cross-sectional-survey
#19
Kristin Vassbotn Guldhav, Randi Jepsen, Siri Ytrehus, Ellen Karine Grov
BACKGROUND: An increasingly older population, improved diagnostics and treatment increase the number of older cancer survivors, thus more than 60% of those affected by cancer are over the age of 65. Symptom relief and the prevention of functional impairment are important tasks for home care nursing, considering that patients can live a long time with their cancer disease and related side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which cancer patients over the age of 65 reported access to information and counselling from home care nursing services, including those offered by the cancer coordinator...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428473/technical-considerations-on-scanning-and-image-analysis-for-amyloid-pet-in-dementia
#20
Go Akamatsu, Akihito Ohnishi, Kazuki Aita, Yasuhiko Ikari, Yasuji Yamamoto, Michio Senda
Brain imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET), can provide essential and objective information for the early and differential diagnosis of dementia. Amyloid PET is especially useful to evaluate the amyloid-β pathological process as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews critical points about technical considerations on the scanning and image analysis methods for amyloid PET...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
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