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Resilience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223087/oxidative-stress-in-birds-along-a-nox-and-urbanisation-gradient-an-interspecific-approach
#1
Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post, Caroline Isaksson
Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NOx), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222970/relaxation-of-structural-constraints-during-amicyanin-unfolding
#2
John J Kozak, Harry B Gray, Roberto A Garza-López
We study the thermal unfolding of amicyanin by quantifying the resiliency of the native state to structural perturbations. Three signatures characterizing stages of unfolding are identified. The first signature, lateral extension of the polypeptide chain, is calculated directly from the reported crystallographic data. Two other signatures, the radial displacement of each residue from Cu(II) and the angular spread in the chain as the protein unfolds, are calculated using crystallographic data in concert with a geometrical model we introduced previously (J...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222457/a-control-analysis-perspective-on-katz-centrality
#3
Kieran J Sharkey
Methods for efficiently controlling dynamics propagated on networks are usually based on identifying the most influential nodes. Knowledge of these nodes can be used for the targeted control of dynamics such as epidemics, or for modifying biochemical pathways relating to diseases. Similarly they are valuable for identifying points of failure to increase network resilience in, for example, social support networks and logistics networks. Many measures, often termed 'centrality', have been constructed to achieve these aims...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221781/longitudinal-associations-between-sleep-and-anxiety-during-pregnancy-and-the-moderating-effect-of-resilience-using-parallel-process-latent-growth-curve-models
#4
Judith Esi van der Zwan, Wieke de Vente, Mimmi Tolvanen, Hasse Karlsson, J Marieke Buil, Hans M Koot, E Juulia Paavonen, Päivi Polo-Kantola, Anja C Huizink, Linnea Karlsson
BACKGROUND: For many women, pregnancy-related sleep disturbances and pregnancy-related anxiety change as pregnancy progresses and both are associated with lower maternal quality of life and less favorable birth outcomes. Thus, the interplay between these two problems across pregnancy is of interest. In addition, psychological resilience may explain individual differences in this association, as it may promote coping with both sleep disturbances and anxiety, and thereby reduce their mutual effects...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221619/economic-susceptibility-of-fire-prone-landscapes-in-natural-protected-areas-of-the-southern-andean-range
#5
Juan Ramón Molina, Roberto Moreno, Miguel Castillo, Francisco Rodríguez Y Silva
Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220769/influence-of-urban-pattern-on-inundation-flow-in-floodplains-of-lowland-rivers
#6
M Bruwier, A Mustafa, D G Aliaga, P Archambeau, S Erpicum, G Nishida, X Zhang, M Pirotton, J Teller, B Dewals
The objective of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of various urban pattern characteristics on inundation flow. A set of 2000 synthetic urban patterns were generated using an urban procedural model providing locations and shapes of streets and buildings over a square domain of 1×1km2. Steady two-dimensional hydraulic computations were performed over the 2000 urban patterns with identical hydraulic boundary conditions. To run such a large amount of simulations, the computational efficiency of the hydraulic model was improved by using an anisotropic porosity model...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220765/transient-disturbance-of-engineered-zno-nanoparticles-enhances-the-resistance-and-resilience-of-anammox-process-in-wastewater-treatment
#7
Zheng-Zhe Zhang, Ya-Fei Cheng, Lian-Zeng-Ji Xu, Yu-Hui Bai, Jia-Jia Xu, Zhi-Jian Shi, Qian-Qian Zhang, Ren-Cun Jin
The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer and industrial products raises concerns about their environmental impacts, but their potential influence on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in wastewater treatment remains unknown. In this study, the response of granule-based anammox reactor to different loads of ZnONPs was investigated. The introduction of 1-5mgL-1 ZnONPs did not affect reactor performance, but 90% of the nitrogen removal capacity was deprived by a shock of 10mgL-1 ZnONPs within 3days...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220339/to-flavor-or-not-to-flavor-extemporaneous-omeprazole-liquid
#8
Monica C Chuong, Catherine A Taglieri, Stephen G Kerr
Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used to treat the symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease, ulcers, excess stomach acid, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and to control the gastric side effects of various drugs. The approved dosage forms in the U.S. are powder in compounding kits, delayed-release granules for oral suspension, oral delayed-release tablets, and oral delayed-release capsules. An extemporaneously compounded unsweetened oral liquid method, published in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, was found to be commonly used by pharmacists...
November 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219105/impact-of-extreme-weather-events-and-climate-change-for-health-and-social-care-systems
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Curtis, Alistair Fair, Jonathan Wistow, Dimitri V Val, Katie Oven
This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219100/food-borne-disease-and-climate-change-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
REVIEW
Iain R Lake
This review examined the likely impact of climate change upon food-borne disease in the UK using Campylobacter and Salmonella as example organisms. Campylobacter is an important food-borne disease and an increasing public health threat. There is a reasonable evidence base that the environment and weather play a role in its transmission to humans. However, uncertainty as to the precise mechanisms through which weather affects disease, make it difficult to assess the likely impact of climate change. There are strong positive associations between Salmonella cases and ambient temperature, and a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind this...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218763/single-cell-mass-spectrometry-approaches-to-explore-cellular-heterogeneity
#11
Linwen Zhang, Akos Vertes
Compositional diversity is a fundamental property in cell populations that is responsible for evolutionary adaptation and resilience. Single-cell analysis promises new insights into this cellular heterogeneity and the corresponding subpopulations on the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a label-free technique that enables the multiplexed analysis of proteins, peptides, lipids, and metabolites in individual cells. The abundances of these molecular classes are correlated with the physiological states and environmental responses of the cells...
December 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218059/warming-alters-the-energetic-structure-and-function-but-not-resilience-of-soil-food-webs
#12
Benjamin Schwarz, Andrew D Barnes, Madhav P Thakur, Ulrich Brose, Marcel Ciobanu, Peter B Reich, Roy L Rich, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Artur Stefanski, Nico Eisenhauer
Climate warming is predicted to alter the structure, stability, and functioning of food webs1-5. Yet, despite the importance of soil food webs for energy and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, warming effects on these food webs-particularly in combination with other global change drivers-are largely unknown. Here, we present results from two complementary field experiments testing the interactive effects of warming with forest canopy disturbance and drought on energy fluxes in boreal-temperate ecotonal forest soil food webs...
December 2017: Nature Climate Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217847/black-lives-matter-a-call-to-action-for-counseling-psychology-leaders
#13
Candice Crowell, Della Mosley, Jameca Falconer, Reuben Faloughi, Anneliese Singh, Danelle Stevens-Watkins, Kevin Cokley
Police brutality and widespread systemic racism represent historical and current sources of trauma in Black communities. Both the Black Lives Matter movement and counseling psychology propose to confront these realities at multiple levels. Black Lives Matter seeks to increase awareness about systemic racism and promote resilience among Black people. Counseling psychology states values of multiculturalism, social justice, and advocacy. Executive leadership in counseling psychology may seek to promote racial justice, yet struggle with how to participate in Black Lives Matter movements and address racial discrimination within larger systems spontaneously and consistently...
August 2017: Counseling Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217685/scale-free-amplitude-modulation-of-neuronal-oscillations-tracks-comprehension-of-accelerated-speech
#14
Ana Filipa Teixeira Borges, Anne-Lise Giraud, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Speech comprehension is preserved up to a three-fold acceleration but rapidly deteriorates at higher speeds. Current models posit that perceptual resilience to accelerated speech is limited by the brain's ability to parse speech into syllabic units using delta/theta oscillations. Here, we ask whether the involvement of neuronal oscillations in processing accelerated speech also relates to their scale-free amplitude modulation as indexed by the strength of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while 24 human subjects (12 females) listened to radio news uttered at different comprehensible rates, at a mostly unintelligible rate, and at this same speed interleaved with silence gaps...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217218/nature-based-solutions-for-resilient-landscapes-and-cities
#15
Raffaele Lafortezza, Jiquan Chen, Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Thomas B Randrup
Nature-based solutions (NBS) are increasingly applied to guide the design of resilient landscapes and cities to enable them to reach economic development goals with beneficial outcomes for the environment and society. The NBS concept is closely related to other concepts including sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, coupled human and environment, and green (blue) infrastructure; however, NBS represent a more efficient and cost-effective approach to development than traditional approaches. The European Commission is actively engaged in investing in NBS as a driver in developing ecosystem services-based approaches throughout Europe and the world...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216757/assessing-challenges-in-low-income-families-to-inform-a-life-skills-based-obesity-intervention
#16
Nivedita Bhushan, Maihan Vu, Randall Teal, Jessica Carda-Auten, Dianne Ward, Temitope Erinosho
BACKGROUND: This article describes the formative research undertaken to explore challenges of low-income parents of 3-to 5-year-olds to inform a parent-focused life skills-based intervention to prevent obesity in preschool-aged children. METHOD: A total of 40 parents completed surveys, 30 parents participated in focus groups, and 5 community stakeholders participated in individual interviews. In each data mode, participants were asked to prioritize a list of challenges centered on parenting, family care, and self-care...
December 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216595/optimizing-prescribed-fire-allocation-for-managing-fire-risk-in-central-catalonia
#17
Fermín J Alcasena, Alan A Ager, Michele Salis, Michelle A Day, Cristina Vega-Garcia
We used spatial optimization to allocate and prioritize prescribed fire treatments in the fire-prone Bages County, central Catalonia (northeastern Spain). The goal of this study was to identify suitable strategic locations on forest lands for fuel treatments in order to: 1) disrupt major fire movements, 2) reduce ember emissions, and 3) reduce the likelihood of large fires burning into residential communities. We first modeled fire spread, hazard and exposure metrics under historical extreme fire weather conditions, including node influence grid for surface fire pathways, crown fraction burned and fire transmission to residential structures...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216236/aggregated-responses-of-human-mobility-to-severe-winter-storms-an-empirical-study
#18
Yan Wang, Qi Wang, John E Taylor
Increasing frequency of extreme winter storms has resulted in costly damages and a disruptive impact on the northeastern United States. It is important to understand human mobility patterns during such storms for disaster preparation and relief operations. We investigated the effects of severe winter storms on human mobility during a 2015 blizzard using 2.69 million Twitter geolocations. We found that displacements of different trip distances and radii of gyration of individuals' mobility were perturbed significantly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216213/a-multi-scale-spatial-model-of-hepatitis-b-viral-dynamics
#19
Quentin Cangelosi, Shawn A Means, Harvey Ho
Chronic hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) afflicts around 250 million individuals globally and few options for treatment exist. Once infected, the virus entrenches itself in the liver with a notoriously resilient colonisation of viral DNA (covalently-closed circular DNA, cccDNA). The majority of infections are cleared, yet we do not understand why 5% of adult immune responses fail leading to the chronic state with its collateral morbid effects such as cirrhosis and eventual hepatic carcinoma. The liver environment exhibits particularly complex spatial structures for metabolic processing and corresponding distributions of nutrients and transporters that may influence successful HBV entrenchment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216200/development-and-application-of-coupled-system-dynamics-and-game-theory-a-dynamic-water-conflict-resolution-method
#20
Mehdi Zomorodian, Sai Hin Lai, Mehran Homayounfar, Shaliza Ibrahim, Gareth Pender
Conflicts over water resources can be highly dynamic and complex due to the various factors which can affect such systems, including economic, engineering, social, hydrologic, environmental and even political, as well as the inherent uncertainty involved in many of these factors. Furthermore, the conflicting behavior, preferences and goals of stakeholders can often make such conflicts even more challenging. While many game models, both cooperative and non-cooperative, have been suggested to deal with problems over utilizing and sharing water resources, most of these are based on a static viewpoint of demand points during optimization procedures...
2017: PloS One
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