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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745928/cancer-immunotherapy-and-the-pd-1-pd-l1-checkpoint-pathway
#1
Jonathan Barclay, Joanne Creswell, Juan León
Long-term survival for patients with advanced bladder cancer is precarious, with a 5-year survival of just 5% in metastatic cases. Normally, the binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 alters the immune activity by modulating it to inhibit autoimmune diseases or chronic inflammation. However, some cancers use this route to block the immune response of the patient and continue growing. The new immunotherapy against bladder cancer aims to block the ability of tumor cells to resist patient' immune response by acting on the checkpoints of immune cells...
May 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742518/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-neuroendocrine-neoplasia
#2
Matthias M Weber, Christian Fottner
BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are usually controlled by antiproliferative, local ablative and/or radionuclide therapies, whereas poorly differentiated NENs generally require cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, treatment options for patients with advanced/metastatic high-grade NENs remain limited. METHOD: Review of the literature and international congress abstracts on the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibition in advanced/metastatic NENs...
2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730461/evolution-of-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-gastric-cancers-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Julien Taieb, Markus Moehler, Narikazu Boku, Jaffer A Ajani, Eduardo Yañez Ruiz, Min-Hee Ryu, Silke Guenther, Vikram Chand, Yung-Jue Bang
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment options for patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC) are associated with limited efficacy and some toxicity. Recently, immunotherapy with antibodies that inhibit the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction has emerged as a new treatment option. This manuscript reviews early-phase and late-phase trials of immunotherapy in advanced GC/GEJC. METHODS: Searches for studies of immunotherapy in GC/GEJC were performed using PubMed, ClinicalTrials...
April 22, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705787/immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-gastro-oesophageal-cancer
#4
Elizabeth Smyth, Peter C Thuss-Patience
Recently some progress has been made in the palliative treatment of gastric cancer. It was shown that second-line chemotherapy and VEGF-R2-directed treatment can prolong survival. Despite these advances most patients with metastatic gastric cancer live for less than 2 years. Immune-checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies has revolutionised the treatment of many cancers. Significant benefit was also proven in gastric adenocarcinomas. Nivolumab improves overall survival as third-line treatment in Asian gastric cancer patients and is already registered in Japan...
2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703758/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-induced-gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-injury-pathologists-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Dipti M Karamchandani, Runjan Chetty
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are a relatively new class of 'miracle' dugs that have revolutionised the treatment and prognosis of some advanced-stage malignancies, and have increased the survival rates significantly. This class of drugs includes cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors such as ipilimumab; programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab and avelumab; and programmed cell death protein ligand-1 inhibitors such as atezolizumab. These drugs stimulate the immune system by blocking the coinhibitory receptors on the T cells and lead to antitumoural response...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689030/checkpoint-inhibitor-immune-therapy-systemic-indications-and-ophthalmic-side-effects
#6
Lauren A Dalvin, Carol L Shields, Marlana Orloff, Takami Sato, Jerry A Shields
PURPOSE: To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. METHODS: A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. RESULTS: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab)...
April 23, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670314/avelumab-for-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#7
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Australian Prescriber
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644490/emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-in-advanced-urothelial-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Vadim S Koshkin, Petros Grivas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC) has long been treated preferably with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but many patients are cisplatin-ineligible whereas for those who progress on a platinum-based regimen treatment options are limited. We review key recent data regarding immune checkpoint inhibitors that are changing this treatment landscape. RECENT FINDINGS: Since May 2016, five different agents targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway (atezolizumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, avelumab, durvalumab) have received FDA approval for the treatment of aUC in the platinum-refractory setting, while pembrolizumab and atezolizumab are FDA-approved for cisplatin-ineligible patients in the first-line setting...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623110/clinical-assessment-of-immune-related-adverse-events
#9
REVIEW
Aaron Sosa, Esther Lopez Cadena, Cristina Simon Olive, Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
Immunotherapy through checkpoint inhibitors is now standard practice for a growing number of cancer types, supported by overall improvement of clinical outcomes and better tolerance. One anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab), two anti-PD-1 antibodies (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and three anti-PD-L1 antibodies (atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab) have been approved for clear benefits across diverse trials. Adverse events of an immune nature associated with these agents frequently affect the skin, colon, endocrine glands, lungs and liver...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616562/avelumab-a-review-of-its-application-in-metastatic-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#10
Jocelyn Joseph, Chrystia Zobniw, Jennifer Davis, Jaime Anderson, Van Anh Trinh
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical development of avelumab and its clinical relevance in metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). DATA SOURCES: An English-language literature search using PubMed was performed using the terms avelumab, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and MCC from January of 1950 to March 2018. Data were also obtained from package inserts, meeting abstracts, and clinical registries. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: All relevant published articles of avelumab were reviewed...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606979/pd-1-and-pd-l1-inhibitors-after-platinum-based-chemotherapy-or-in-first-line-therapy-in-cisplatin-ineligible-patients-dramatic-improvement-of-prognosis-and-overall-survival-after-decades-of-hopelessness-in-patients-with-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Irene Resch, Shahrokh F Shariat, Kilian M Gust
Until recently, there were no true innovations in the management of locally advanced (aUC) and metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) in the last three decades. Vinflunine has been approved by the EMA (European Medicines Agency) with only limited improvement compared to best supportive care in second line treatment. In addition, gemcitabine/cisplatin has been established as an alternative to methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC). The advent of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) revolutionized the care of these patients, transforming a unanimously deadly disease into one with hope through sustained disease control...
2018: Memo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584456/avelumab-anti-pd-l1-in-platinum-resistant-refractory-ovarian-cancer-javelin-ovarian-200-phase-iii-study-design
#12
Eric Pujade-Lauraine, Keiichi Fujiwara, Samuel S Dychter, Geeta Devgan, Bradley J Monk
Avelumab is a human anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor with clinical activity in multiple solid tumors. Here, we describe the rationale and design for JAVELIN Ovarian 200 (NCT02580058), the first randomized Phase III trial to evaluate the role of checkpoint inhibition in women with ovarian cancer. This three-arm trial is comparing avelumab administered alone or in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin alone in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer...
March 27, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571563/-pd-l1-testing-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-guidelines-from-the-pattern-group-of-thoracic-pathologists
#13
Sylvie Lantuejoul, Julien Adam, Nicolas Girard, Mickael Duruisseaux, Audrey Mansuet-Lupo, Aurélie Cazes, Isabelle Rouquette, Laure Gibault, Stéphane Garcia, Martine Antoine, Jean Michael Vignaud, Françoise Galateau-Sallé, Christine Sagan, Cécile Badoual, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, Diane Damotte
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in France with low response rates to conventional chemotherapy. Nevertheless, new therapies have emerged recently, among which PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), such as nivolumab (OPDIVO® , Bristol-Myers Squibb) and pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA® , Merck & Co), or PD-L1 ICI, such as atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ® , Genentech), durvalumab (IMFINZI® , Astra-Zeneca), and avelumab (BAVENCIO® , EMD Serono). The prescription of pembrolizumab for advanced stages non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients requires the demonstration of PD-L1 expression by tumor cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC) (minimum of 50% of positive tumor cells is required for first-line setting, and of 1% for second-line and beyond) and PD-L1 assay is now considered as a companion diagnostic tool for this drug...
March 20, 2018: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566106/efficacy-and-safety-of-first-line-avelumab-treatment-in-patients-with-stage-iv-metastatic-merkel-cell-carcinoma-a-preplanned-interim-analysis-of-a-clinical-trial
#14
Sandra P D'Angelo, Jeffery Russell, Céleste Lebbé, Bartosz Chmielowski, Thilo Gambichler, Jean-Jacques Grob, Felix Kiecker, Guilherme Rabinowits, Patrick Terheyden, Isabella Zwiener, Marcis Bajars, Meliessa Hennessy, Howard L Kaufman
Importance: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer that is associated with poor survival outcomes in patients with distant metastatic disease. Results of part A of the JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial (avelumab in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma) showed that avelumab, an anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody, demonstrated efficacy in second-line or later treatment of patients with metastatic MCC (mMCC). Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of avelumab as first-line treatment for patients with distant mMCC...
March 22, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540084/avelumab-for-the-treatment-of-urothelial-cancer
#15
Alejo Rodriguez-Vida, Joaquim Bellmunt
Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) remains an aggressive disease associated with limited treatment options and a reduced survival. In spite of this, the first-line treatment based on platinum-based combinations has remained virtually unchanged for the last 20-30 years. Similarly, before the advent of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, there were no FDA-approved drugs for second-line therapy. In the last few years, impressive signs of anti-tumor activity have been reported with several immunotherapy agents targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538029/18f-fdg-pet-ct-for-monitoring-response-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-to-the-novel-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-inhibitor-avelumab
#16
Naghmehossadat Eshghi, Tamara F Lundeen, Lea MacKinnon, Ryan Avery, Phillip H Kuo
An 85-year-old man with stage IIIA Merkel cell carcinoma of the left arm was initially treated with local excision and axillary node dissection followed by radiation therapy. Eight months after surgery, whole-body FDG PET/CT demonstrated intensely hypermetabolic hepatic metastases and abdominal lymphadenopathy. Given his age and comorbidities, he was considered a poor candidate for chemotherapy, and therefore the novel programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitor avelumab was initiated. FDG PET/CT after 4 cycles showed complete resolution of hepatic and nodal metastases...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535979/immunotherapy-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma-role-of-avelumab
#17
REVIEW
Amruth R Palla, Donald Doll
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, immune check point inhibitors have shown very good durable responses, leading to the approval of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor Avelumab for these patients. We briefly review the epidemiology and immune basis of the pathogenesis of MCC, which therefore explains the excellent response to check point inhibitors, and throw light on future directions of immunotherapy for this cancer...
2018: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530667/preliminary-results-for-avelumab-plus-axitinib-as-first-line-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-javelin-renal-100-an-open-label-dose-finding-and-dose-expansion-phase-1b-trial
#18
Toni K Choueiri, James Larkin, Mototsugu Oya, Fiona Thistlethwaite, Marcella Martignoni, Paul Nathan, Thomas Powles, David McDermott, Paul B Robbins, David D Chism, Daniel Cho, Michael B Atkins, Michael S Gordon, Sumati Gupta, Hirotsugu Uemura, Yoshihiko Tomita, Anna Compagnoni, Camilla Fowst, Alessandra di Pietro, Brian I Rini
BACKGROUND: The combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a VEGF pathway inhibitor to treat patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma might increase the clinical benefit of these drugs compared with their use alone. Here, we report preliminary results for the combination of avelumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein ligand PD-L1, and axitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma...
March 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523198/compassionate-use-programs-in-italy-ethical-guidelines
#19
Ludovica De Panfilis, Roberto Satolli, Massimo Costantini
BACKGROUND: This article proposes a retrospective analysis of a compassionate use (CU), using a case study of request for Avelumab for a patient suffering from Merkel Cell Carcinoma. The study is the result of a discussion within a Provincial Ethics Committee (EC) following the finding of a high number of requests for CU program. The primary objective of the study is to illustrate the specific ethical and clinical profiles that emerge from the compassionate use program (CUP) issue. The secondary goals are: a) to promote a moral reflection among physicians who require approval for the CUP and b) provide the basis for recommendations on how to request CUP...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517083/durvalumab-for-the-treatment-of-urothelial-carcinoma
#20
M Alsharedi, R Srivastava, N Elmsherghi
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer care in the modern era of oncology. Research in immunotherapy has led to important advances in the treatment of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and other malignancies using checkpoint inhibition. Multiple systemic immunotherapies have been approved or are currently being investigated for the management of urothelial malignancies (1). Five antibodies targeting the programmed cell death protein 1--programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-1--PD-L1) pathway have been approved by the U...
December 2017: Drugs of Today
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