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computational psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#1
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076638/the-future-of-psychiatric-research
#2
Marco Antonio Caldieraro
Psychiatric disorders place considerable burden on individuals and on public health. Funding for research in psychiatry is less than ideal, but even so high quality research is being conducted at many centers. However, these studies have not impacted clinical practice as much as expected. The complexity of psychiatric disorders is one of the reasons why we face difficulties in translating research results to patient care. New technologies and improved methodologies are now available and must be incorporated to deal with this complexity and to accelerate the translational process...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065850/deep-grey-matter-iron-accumulation-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Michal Juhás, Hongfu Sun, Matthew R G Brown, Marnie B MacKay, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Alan H Wilman, Serdar M Dursun, Andrew J Greenshaw
PURPOSE: Evaluate brain iron accumulation in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients compared to controls using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: QSM was performed retrospectively by using phase images from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 male AUD patients and 15 matched healthy controls were examined. Susceptibility values were manually traced in deep grey matter regions including caudate nucleus, combined putamen and globus pallidus, combined substantia nigra and red nucleus, dentate nucleus, and a reference white matter region in the internal capsule...
January 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049075/abnormal-brain-oscillations-persist-after-recovery-from-bipolar-depression
#4
P Canali, S Casarotto, M Rosanova, G Sferrazza-Papa, A G Casali, O Gosseries, M Massimini, E Smeraldi, C Colombo, F Benedetti
When directly perturbed in healthy subjects, premotor cortical areas generate electrical oscillations in the beta range (20-40Hz). In schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (BD), these oscillations are markedly reduced, in terms of amplitude and frequency. However, it still remains unclear whether these abnormalities can be modulated over time, or if they can be still observed after treatment. Here, we employed transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with EEG to assess the frontal oscillatory activity in eighteen BD patients before/after antidepressant treatments (sleep deprivation and light therapy), relative to nine healthy controls...
December 27, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041692/neurofeedback-one-of-today-s-techniques-in-psychiatry
#5
M Arns, J-M Batail, S Bioulac, M Congedo, C Daudet, D Drapier, T Fovet, R Jardri, M Le-Van-Quyen, F Lotte, D Mehler, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, D Purper-Ouakil, F Vialatte
OBJECTIVES: Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry...
December 29, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032396/computational-neuroscience-approach-to-biomarkers-and-treatments-for-mental-disorders
#6
Noriaki Yahata, Kiyoto Kasai, Mitsuo Kawato
Psychiatry research has long experienced a stagnation stemming from a lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of phenomenologically defined mental disorders. Recently, the application of computational neuroscience to psychiatry research has shown great promise in establishing a link between phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of mental disorders, thereby recasting current nosology in more biologically meaningful dimensions. In this review, we highlight recent investigations in computational neuroscience that undertook either theory- or data-driven approaches to quantitatively delineate the mechanisms of mental disorders...
December 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031587/short-term-cost-of-suicides-in-india
#7
Gopala Sarma Poduri
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing increasing suicides that have much economic impact. OBJECTIVE: To calculate the short-term costs of suicide in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the official data of suicides in India in 2014 formed the base of computation. Both direct and indirect costs were computed basing on market rates and official estimates. Perceived gains were deducted to arrive at the total cost. RESULTS: The contribution of middle age group in the loss was high...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018986/a-roadmap-for-the-development-of-applied-computational-psychiatry
#8
Martin P Paulus, Quentin J M Huys, Tiago V Maia
BACKGROUND: Computational psychiatry is a burgeoning field that utilizes mathematical approaches to investigate psychiatric disorders, derive quantitative predictions, and integrate data across multiple levels of description. Computational psychiatry has already led to many new insights into the neurobehavioral mechanisms that underlie several psychiatric disorders, but its usefulness from a clinical standpoint is only now starting to be considered. METHODS: Examples of computational psychiatry are highlighted, and a phase-based pipeline for the development of clinical computational-psychiatry applications is proposed, similar to the phase-based pipeline used in drug development...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017817/towards-a-better-understanding-on-the-role-of-prediction-error-on-memory-processes-from-bench-to-clinic
#9
María C Krawczyk, Rodrigo S Fernández, María E Pedreira, Mariano M Boccia
psychology defines Prediction Error (PE) as a mismatch between expected and current events. It represents a unifier concept within the memory field, as it is the driving force of memory acquisition and updating. Prediction error induces updating of consolidated memories in strength or content by memory reconsolidation. This process has two different neurobiological phases, which involves the destabilization (labilization) of a consolidated memory followed by its restabilization. The aim of this work is to emphasize the functional role of PE on the neurobiology of learning and memory, integrating and discussing different research areas: behavioural, neurobiological, computational and clinical psychiatry...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986430/computational-approaches-to-schizophrenia-a-perspective-on-negative-symptoms
#10
REVIEW
Lorenz Deserno, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous spectrum disorder often associated with detrimental negative symptoms. In recent years, computational approaches to psychiatry have attracted growing attention. Negative symptoms have shown some overlap with general cognitive impairments and were also linked to impaired motivational processing in brain circuits implementing reward prediction. In this review, we outline how computational approaches may help to provide a better understanding of negative symptoms in terms of the potentially underlying behavioural and biological mechanisms...
December 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969074/assessing-catatonia-using-four-different-instruments-inter-rater-reliability-and-prevalence-in-inpatient-clinical-population
#11
Siddharth Sarkar, Sreekanth Sakey, Kaliaperumal Mathan, Balaji Bharadwaj, Shivanand Kattimani, Ravi P Rajkumar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study aimed to assess inter-rater reliability and prevalence of catatonia according to four diagnostic methods: Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) both screening and complete scale, Braunig's Catatonia Rating Scale (CRS), ICD 10 and DSM5. METHODS: For inter-rater reliability, different raters evaluated patients using the definitions provides by the four scales: BFCRS Screen and Total, CRS, ICD10 and DSM5. Kippendorff'α was used to compute the inter-rater reliability...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965599/computational-psychiatry-and-psychometrics-based-on-non-conscious-stimuli-input-and-pupil-response-output
#12
Luca Puviani, Sidita Rama, Giorgio Matteo Vitetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876357/building-a-new-field-of-computational-psychiatry
#13
Michael Moutoussis, Eran Eldar, Raymond J Dolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855769/-cognitive-impairment-after-depression-leads-to-disability
#14
Anja Friis Elliott, Morten Dvoracek Hell, Abigail Sheldrick-Michel, Bent Nielsen
Cognitive impairment plays a crucial role in the course of depression and often persists after remission, which leads to considerable socio-occupational disability. In detecting cognitive deficits, the Danish translation of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry has proven useful. No current pharmacotherapy has been approved for treating cognitive dysfunction in depression, but selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may have beneficial effects. Cognitive computer training and psychoeducation are promising in the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with depression...
November 7, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830935/use-of-computer-vision-tools-to-identify-behavioral-markers-of-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#15
Gail A Bernstein, Tasoulla Hadjiyanni, Kathryn R Cullen, Julia W Robinson, Elizabeth C Harris, Austin D Young, Joshua Fasching, Nicholas Walczak, Susanne Lee, Vassilios Morellas, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos
OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentation of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is heterogeneous, which is a stumbling block to understanding pathophysiology and to developing new treatments. A major shift in psychiatry, embodied in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of National Institute of Mental Health, recognizes the pitfalls of categorizing mental illnesses using diagnostic criteria. Instead, RDoC encourages researchers to use a dimensional approach, focusing on narrower domains of psychopathology to characterize brain-behavior relationships...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817095/polygenic-score-%C3%A3-intervention-moderation-an-application-of-discrete-time-survival-analysis-to-model-the-timing-of-first-marijuana-use-among-urban-youth
#16
Rashelle J Musci, Brian Fairman, Katherine E Masyn, George Uhl, Brion Maher, Danielle Y Sisto, Sheppard G Kellam, Nicholas S Ialongo
The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial and its effects on a discrete-time survival analysis of time to first smoking marijuana. Research has suggested that initiation of substances is both genetically and environmentally driven (Rhee et al., Archives of general psychiatry 60:1256-1264, 2003; Verweij et al., Addiction 105:417-430, 2010). A previous work has found a significant interaction between the polygenic score and the same elementary school-based intervention with tobacco smoking (Musci et al...
November 5, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798176/behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-reduced-updating-of-alternative-options-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-during-flexible-decision-making
#17
Andrea M F Reiter, Lorenz Deserno, Thomas Kallert, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
: Addicted individuals continue substance use despite the knowledge of harmful consequences and often report having no choice but to consume. Computational psychiatry accounts have linked this clinical observation to difficulties in making flexible and goal-directed decisions in dynamic environments via consideration of potential alternative choices. To probe this in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 43) versus healthy volunteers (n = 35), human participants performed an anticorrelated decision-making task during functional neuroimaging...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784534/toward-understanding-thalamocortical-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-through-computational-models-of-neural-circuit-dynamics
#18
REVIEW
John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
The thalamus is implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia, and multiple modalities of noninvasive neuroimaging provide converging evidence for altered thalamocortical dynamics in the disorder, such as functional connectivity and oscillatory power. However, it remains a challenge to link these neuroimaging biomarkers to underlying neural circuit mechanisms. One potential path forward is a "Computational Psychiatry" approach that leverages computational models of neural circuits to make predictions for the dynamical impact dynamical impact on specific thalamic disruptions hypothesized to occur in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
October 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755933/psychoradiology-the-frontier-of-neuroimaging-in-psychiatry
#19
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517087/computational-phenotyping-in-psychiatry-a-worked-example
#20
Philipp Schwartenbeck, Karl Friston
Computational psychiatry is a rapidly emerging field that uses model-based quantities to infer the behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that underlie psychopathology. If successful, this approach promises key insights into (pathological) brain function as well as a more mechanistic and quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology-structuring therapeutic interventions and predicting response and relapse. The basic procedure in computational psychiatry is to build a computational model that formalizes a behavioral or neuronal process...
July 2016: ENeuro
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