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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876357/building-a-new-field-of-computational-psychiatry
#1
Michael Moutoussis, Eran Eldar, Raymond J Dolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855769/-cognitive-impairment-after-depression-leads-to-disability
#2
Anja Friis Elliott, Morten Dvoracek Hell, Abigail Sheldrick-Michel, Bent Nielsen
Cognitive impairment plays a crucial role in the course of depression and often persists after remission, which leads to considerable socio-occupational disability. In detecting cognitive deficits, the Danish translation of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry has proven useful. No current pharmacotherapy has been approved for treating cognitive dysfunction in depression, but selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may have beneficial effects. Cognitive computer training and psychoeducation are promising in the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with depression...
November 7, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830935/use-of-computer-vision-tools-to-identify-behavioral-markers-of-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#3
Gail A Bernstein, Tasoulla Hadjiyanni, Kathryn R Cullen, Julia W Robinson, Elizabeth C Harris, Austin D Young, Joshua Fasching, Nicholas Walczak, Susanne Lee, Vassilios Morellas, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos
OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentation of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is heterogeneous, which is a stumbling block to understanding pathophysiology and to developing new treatments. A major shift in psychiatry, embodied in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of National Institute of Mental Health, recognizes the pitfalls of categorizing mental illnesses using diagnostic criteria. Instead, RDoC encourages researchers to use a dimensional approach, focusing on narrower domains of psychopathology to characterize brain-behavior relationships...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817095/polygenic-score-%C3%A3-intervention-moderation-an-application-of-discrete-time-survival-analysis-to-model-the-timing-of-first-marijuana-use-among-urban-youth
#4
Rashelle J Musci, Brian Fairman, Katherine E Masyn, George Uhl, Brion Maher, Danielle Y Sisto, Sheppard G Kellam, Nicholas S Ialongo
The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial and its effects on a discrete-time survival analysis of time to first smoking marijuana. Research has suggested that initiation of substances is both genetically and environmentally driven (Rhee et al., Archives of general psychiatry 60:1256-1264, 2003; Verweij et al., Addiction 105:417-430, 2010). A previous work has found a significant interaction between the polygenic score and the same elementary school-based intervention with tobacco smoking (Musci et al...
November 5, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798176/behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-reduced-updating-of-alternative-options-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-during-flexible-decision-making
#5
Andrea M F Reiter, Lorenz Deserno, Thomas Kallert, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
: Addicted individuals continue substance use despite the knowledge of harmful consequences and often report having no choice but to consume. Computational psychiatry accounts have linked this clinical observation to difficulties in making flexible and goal-directed decisions in dynamic environments via consideration of potential alternative choices. To probe this in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 43) versus healthy volunteers (n = 35), human participants performed an anticorrelated decision-making task during functional neuroimaging...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784534/toward-understanding-thalamocortical-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-through-computational-models-of-neural-circuit-dynamics
#6
REVIEW
John D Murray, Alan Anticevic
The thalamus is implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia, and multiple modalities of noninvasive neuroimaging provide converging evidence for altered thalamocortical dynamics in the disorder, such as functional connectivity and oscillatory power. However, it remains a challenge to link these neuroimaging biomarkers to underlying neural circuit mechanisms. One potential path forward is a "Computational Psychiatry" approach that leverages computational models of neural circuits to make predictions for the dynamical impact dynamical impact on specific thalamic disruptions hypothesized to occur in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
October 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755933/psychoradiology-the-frontier-of-neuroimaging-in-psychiatry
#7
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517087/computational-phenotyping-in-psychiatry-a-worked-example
#8
Philipp Schwartenbeck, Karl Friston
Computational psychiatry is a rapidly emerging field that uses model-based quantities to infer the behavioral and neuronal abnormalities that underlie psychopathology. If successful, this approach promises key insights into (pathological) brain function as well as a more mechanistic and quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology-structuring therapeutic interventions and predicting response and relapse. The basic procedure in computational psychiatry is to build a computational model that formalizes a behavioral or neuronal process...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450778/the-dysconnection-hypothesis-2016
#9
REVIEW
Karl Friston, Harriet R Brown, Jakob Siemerkus, Klaas E Stephan
Twenty years have passed since the dysconnection hypothesis was first proposed (Friston and Frith, 1995; Weinberger, 1993). In that time, neuroscience has witnessed tremendous advances: we now live in a world of non-invasive neuroanatomy, computational neuroimaging and the Bayesian brain. The genomics era has come and gone. Connectomics and large-scale neuroinformatics initiatives are emerging everywhere. So where is the dysconnection hypothesis now? This article considers how the notion of schizophrenia as a dysconnection syndrome has developed - and how it has been enriched by recent advances in clinical neuroscience...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391680/linking-neuromodulated-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-with-the-free-energy-principle
#10
Takuya Isomura, Koji Sakai, Kiyoshi Kotani, Yasuhiko Jimbo
The free-energy principle is a candidate unified theory for learning and memory in the brain that predicts that neurons, synapses, and neuromodulators work in a manner that minimizes free energy. However, electrophysiological data elucidating the neural and synaptic bases for this theory are lacking. Here, we propose a novel theory bridging the information-theoretical principle with the biological phenomenon of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) regulated by neuromodulators, which we term mSTDP. We propose that by integrating an mSTDP equation, we can obtain a form of Friston's free energy (an information-theoretical function)...
September 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378955/can-bayesian-theories-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-help-improve-clinical-practice
#11
Helene Haker, Maya Schneebeli, Klaas Enno Stephan
Diagnosis and individualized treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represent major problems for contemporary psychiatry. Tackling these problems requires guidance by a pathophysiological theory. In this paper, we consider recent theories that re-conceptualize ASD from a "Bayesian brain" perspective, which posit that the core abnormality of ASD resides in perceptual aberrations due to a disbalance in the precision of prediction errors (sensory noise) relative to the precision of predictions (prior beliefs)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370064/-digital-game-addiction-among-adolescents-and-younger-adults-a-current-overview
#12
Aylin Yalçın Irmak, Semra Erdoğan
The games that adolescents and young people used to play in the play grounds and on the streets have been replaced in recent years with cyber games played in front of the computer on the internet or in game arcades. This changing culture has particularly brought up the concept of "digital game addiction", a condition that stems from the steadily growing passion for digital games and their excessived and uncontrolled usage among adolescents and young people. Game addiction in the psychiatry literature has been described as an impulse control disorder characterized by the symptoms such as "the inability to control the time spent on game-playing", "a loss of interest in other activities", "continuing to play despite the adverse effects" and "feeling psychologically deprived when not being able to play"...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306212/post-intensive-care-unit-syndrome-in-gynecologic-oncology-patients
#13
Camille C Gunderson, Adam C Walter, Rachel Ruskin, Kai Ding, Kathleen N Moore
PURPOSE: The purposes of the present study are to describe the demographic and treatment characteristics of women on the gynecologic oncology service who required intensive care and assess prevalence of risk factors for post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed encompassing patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) on the gynecology oncology service between 1/2008 and 12/2012. Descriptive statistics were computed using SAS version 9...
November 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301429/impaired-flexible-reward-based-decision-making-in-binge-eating-disorder-evidence-from-computational-modeling-and-functional-neuroimaging
#14
Andrea M F Reiter, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Florian Schlagenhauf, Lorenz Deserno
Despite its clinical relevance and the recent recognition as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5, binge eating disorder (BED) has rarely been investigated from a cognitive neuroscientific perspective targeting a more precise neurocognitive profiling of the disorder. BED patients suffer from a lack of behavioral control during recurrent binge eating episodes and thus fail to adapt their behavior in the face of negative consequences, eg, high risk for obesity. To examine impairments in flexible reward-based decision-making, we exposed BED patients (n=22) and matched healthy individuals (n=22) to a reward-guided decision-making task during functional resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265995/ischemic-colitis-associated-with-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-a-case-report
#15
REVIEW
Lindell K Weaver, Kayla Deru
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common, but it has rarely been reported to cause ischemic colitis. In this case, a 34-year-old female with depression presented to an emergency department after a period of unconsciousness, with urinary and bowel incontinence, following exposure to car exhaust. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 23%. She had metabolic acidosis. She was transferred to our facility for hyperbaric oxygen treatment, where she had intractable nausea/vomiting with abdominal pain and bright-red bleeding per rectum...
March 2016: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254827/computational-tracking-of-mental-health-in-youth-latin-american-contributions-to-a-low-cost-and-effective-solution-for-early-psychiatric-diagnosis
#16
Natália Bezerra Mota, Mauro Copelli, Sidarta Ribeiro
The early onset of mental disorders can lead to serious cognitive damage, and timely interventions are needed in order to prevent them. In patients of low socioeconomic status, as is common in Latin America, it can be hard to identify children at risk. Here, we briefly introduce the problem by reviewing the scarce epidemiological data from Latin America regarding the onset of mental disorders, and discussing the difficulties associated with early diagnosis. Then we present computational psychiatry, a new field to which we and other Latin American researchers have contributed methods particularly relevant for the quantitative investigation of psychopathologies manifested during childhood...
June 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240528/disrupted-habenula-function-in-major-depression
#17
R P Lawson, C L Nord, B Seymour, D L Thomas, P Dayan, S Pilling, J P Roiser
The habenula is a small, evolutionarily conserved brain structure that plays a central role in aversive processing and is hypothesised to be hyperactive in depression, contributing to the generation of symptoms such as anhedonia. However, habenula responses during aversive processing have yet to be reported in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Unmedicated and currently depressed MDD patients (N=25, aged 18-52 years) and healthy volunteers (N=25, aged 19-52 years) completed a passive (Pavlovian) conditioning task with appetitive (monetary gain) and aversive (monetary loss and electric shock) outcomes during high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging; data were analysed using computational modelling...
May 31, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239388/teaching-by-teleconference-a-model-for-distance-medical-education-across-two-continents
#18
Adeline Boatin, Joseph Ngonzi, Leslie Bradford, Blair Wylie, Annekathryn Goodman
INTRODUCTION: In Uganda, an estimated 120 obstetrician/gynecologists serve a population of 30 million people demonstrating the need to train additional skilled clinician leaders in reproductive health. In 2012, a partnership was formed with the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) in southwest Uganda and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, USA, in part to increase access to specialist training. This report presents an update in the development of a teaching conference between the institutions...
November 2015: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219342/interaction-and-behaviour-imaging-a-novel-method-to-measure-mother-infant-interaction-using-video-3d-reconstruction
#19
C Leclère, M Avril, S Viaux-Savelon, N Bodeau, C Achard, S Missonnier, M Keren, R Feldman, M Chetouani, D Cohen
Studying early interaction is essential for understanding development and psychopathology. Automatic computational methods offer the possibility to analyse social signals and behaviours of several partners simultaneously and dynamically. Here, 20 dyads of mothers and their 13-36-month-old infants were videotaped during mother-infant interaction including 10 extremely high-risk and 10 low-risk dyads using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) sensors. From 2D+3D data and 3D space reconstruction, we extracted individual parameters (quantity of movement and motion activity ratio for each partner) and dyadic parameters related to the dynamics of partners heads distance (contribution to heads distance), to the focus of mutual engagement (percentage of time spent face to face or oriented to the task) and to the dynamics of motion activity (synchrony ratio, overlap ratio, pause ratio)...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169464/polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-influences-cortical-gyrification-in-2-independent-general-populations
#20
Bing Liu, Xiaolong Zhang, Yue Cui, Wen Qin, Yan Tao, Jin Li, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang
Schizophrenia is highly heritable, whereas the effect of each genetic variant is very weak. Since clinical heterogeneity and complexity of schizophrenia is high, considerable effort has been made to relate genetic variants to underlying neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia (endophenotypes). Given the polygenic nature of schizophrenia, our goal was to form a measure of additive genetic risk and explore its relationship to cortical morphology. Utilizing the data from a recent genome-wide association study that included nearly 37 000 cases of schizophrenia, we computed a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each subject in 2 independent and healthy general populations...
May 11, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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