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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426971/metaplasticity-as-a-neural-substrate-for-adaptive-learning-and-choice-under-uncertainty
#1
Shiva Farashahi, Christopher H Donahue, Peyman Khorsand, Hyojung Seo, Daeyeol Lee, Alireza Soltani
Value-based decision making often involves integration of reward outcomes over time, but this becomes considerably more challenging if reward assignments on alternative options are probabilistic and non-stationary. Despite the existence of various models for optimally integrating reward under uncertainty, the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here we propose that reward-dependent metaplasticity (RDMP) can provide a plausible mechanism for both integration of reward under uncertainty and estimation of uncertainty itself...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421669/misfortune-may-be-a-blessing-in-disguise-fairness-perception-and-emotion-modulate-decision-making
#2
Hong-Hsiang Liu, Yin-Dir Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yung-Fong Hsu, Wen-Sung Lai
Fairness perception and equality during social interactions frequently elicit affective arousal and affect decision making. By integrating the dictator game and a probabilistic gambling task, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a negative experience induced by perceived unfairness on decision making using behavioral, model fitting, and electrophysiological approaches. Participants were randomly assigned to the neutral, harsh, or kind groups, which consisted of various asset allocation scenarios to induce different levels of perceived unfairness...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#3
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416452/associated-motivational-salience-impacts-early-sensory-processing-of-human-faces
#4
Wiebke Hammerschmidt, Holger Sennhenn-Reulen, Annekathrin Schacht
Facial expressions of emotion have an undeniable processing advantage over neutral faces, discernible both at behavioral level and in emotion-related modulations of several event-related potentials (ERPs). Recently it was proposed that also inherently neutral stimuli might gain salience through associative learning mechanisms. The present study investigated whether acquired motivational salience leads to processing advantages similar to biologically determined origins of inherent emotional salience by applying an associative learning paradigm to human face processing...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415138/the-roles-of-valuation-and-reward-processing-in-cognitive-function-and-psychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Sébastien Hélie, Farzin Shamloo, Keisha Novak, Dan Foti
In neuroeconomics, valuation refers to the process of assigning values to states and actions on the basis of the animal's current representation of the environment, while reward processing corresponds to processing the feedback received from the environment to update the values of states and actions. In this article, we review the brain circuits associated with valuation and reward processing and argue that these are fundamental processes critical to many cognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on the role of valuation and reward processing in attention, memory, decision making, and learning...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413988/cognitive-mechanisms-in-decision-making-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-disease
#6
Jose Ramón Alameda-Bailén, María Pilar Salguero-Alcañiz, Ana Merchán-Clavellino, Susana Paíno-Quesada
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's dementia is characterized by significant cortical and subcortical atrophy, causing diverse neuropsychological deficits. According to the somatic marker hypothesis, the areas responsible for generating the somatic markers that anticipate the consequences of a decision and thereby optimize the process would be affected in these patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this experiment is to study the decision-making processes in Alzheimer type dementia patients to determine potential deficits in these processes as a result of the disease, aside from the cognitive impairment that is typical of aging...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413927/-it-has-changed-my-life-an-exploration-of-caregiver-experiences-in-serious-illness
#7
Eric W Anderson, Katie M White
BACKGROUND: Informal, unpaid caregivers shoulder much of the care burden for individuals with serious illness. As part of a project to create an innovative model of supportive care for serious illness, a series of user interviews were conducted, forming the basis for this article. OBJECTIVE: To understand both individual and interpersonal aspects of caregiving for serious illness. METHODS: Twelve semistructured group interviews were conducted with patients, families, and professionals as part of a larger study of late-life serious illness...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#8
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407527/top-down-control-over-feedback-processing-the-probability-of-valid-feedback-affects-feedback-related-brain-activity
#9
Benjamin Ernst, Marco Steinhauser
Adaptive decision-making requires that feedback about decision outcomes is adequately processed. Recent studies have shown that fronto-central event-related potentials (ERPs) are sensitive to feedback valence and can be used as an index of feedback processing. The present study investigated whether the processes involved in feedback evaluation are affected by top-down mechanisms driven by knowledge about feedback validity. In a simple decision task, participants had to make use of feedback to learn which one of two stimuli was associated with a reward in a later test phase...
April 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406677/no-impact-of-affective-person-knowledge-on-visual-awareness-evidence-from-binocular-rivalry-and-continuous-flash-suppression
#10
Timo Stein, Caitlyn Grubb, Maria Bertrand, Seh Min Suh, Sara C Verosky
Stimuli with intrinsic emotional value, like emotional faces, and stimuli associated with reward and punishment are often prioritized in visual awareness relative to neutral stimuli. Recently, Anderson, Siegel, Bliss-Moreau, and Barrett (2011) demonstrated that simply associating a face with affective knowledge can also influence visual awareness. Using a binocular rivalry task (BR), where a face was shown to one eye and a house to the other, they found that faces paired with negative versus neutral and positive behaviors dominated visual awareness...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406662/explicit-and-implicit-reinforcement-learning-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#11
Deanna M Barch, Cameron S Carter, James M Gold, Sheri L Johnson, Ann M Kring, Angus W MacDonald, Diego A Pizzagalli, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#12
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400103/common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus-as-a-primate-model-for-behavioral-neuroscience-studies
#13
Noeline W Prins, Eric Pohlmeyer, Shubham Debnath, Ramanamurthy Mylavarapu, Shijia Geng, Justin C Sanchez, Daniel Rothen, Abhishek Prasad
BACKGROUND: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been proposed as a suitable bridge between rodents and larger primates. They have been used in several types of research including auditory, vocal, visual, pharmacological and genetics studies. However, marmosets have not been used as much for behavioral studies. NEW METHOD: Here we present data from training 12 adult marmosets for behavioral neuroscience studies. We discuss the husbandry, food preferences, handling, acclimation to laboratory environments and neurosurgical techniques...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399881/the-influence-of-parental-practices-on-child-promotive-and-preventive-food-consumption-behaviors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Andrew Z H Yee, May O Lwin, Shirley S Ho
BACKGROUND: The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397140/separating-the-effect-of-reward-from-corrective-feedback-during-learning-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Michael Freedberg, Jonathan Schacherer, Kuan-Hua Chen, Ergun Y Uc, Nandakumar S Narayanan, Eliot Hazeltine
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with procedural learning deficits. Nonetheless, studies have demonstrated that reward-related learning is comparable between patients with PD and controls (Bódi et al., Brain, 132(9), 2385-2395, 2009; Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, Science, 306(5703), 1940-1943, 2004; Palminteri et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(45), 19179-19184, 2009). However, because these studies do not separate the effect of reward from the effect of practice, it is difficult to determine whether the effect of reward on learning is distinct from the effect of corrective feedback on learning...
April 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393399/decreased-feedback-learning-in-anorexia-nervosa-persists-after-weight-restoration
#16
Karin Foerde, Joanna E Steinglass
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious disorder, with a mortality rate the highest of any psychiatric illness. It is notoriously challenging to treat and mechanisms of illness are not well understood. Reward system abnormalities have been proposed across theoretical models of the persistence of AN. Feedback learning is an important component of how reward systems shape behavior and we hypothesized that individuals with AN would show poorer learning from feedback. METHODS: We administered the acquired equivalence task to measure both learning from incremental feedback and generalization of that learning to novel stimuli...
April 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#17
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390863/the-phasic-dopamine-signal-maturing-from-reward-via-behavioural-activation-to-formal-economic-utility
#18
REVIEW
Wolfram Schultz, Wiliam R Stauffer, Armin Lak
The phasic dopamine reward prediction error response is a major brain signal underlying learning, approach and decision making. This dopamine response consists of two components that reflect, initially, stimulus detection from physical impact and, subsequenttly, reward valuation; dopamine activations by punishers reflect physical impact rather than aversiveness. The dopamine reward signal is distinct from earlier reported and recently confirmed phasic changes with behavioural activation. Optogenetic activation of dopamine neurones in monkeys causes value learning and biases economic choices...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389249/it-wasn-t-me-it-was-my-brain-obesity-associated-characteristics-of-brain-circuits-governing-decision-making
#19
REVIEW
Annette Horstmann
Over the past years, evidence has accumulated that obesity is intimately linked to the integrity of the fronto-striatal system of the human brain. However, the nature and causality of this relationship remains elusive. The fronto-striatal system is responsible for higher order cognitive functions such as learning, working memory, decision-making and cognitive control. Further, it determines the individual propensity to actively seek out rewards in the environment or to avoid possibly punishing situations. One of the major neurotransmitters of this system is dopamine...
April 4, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387990/cdh13-and-adipoq-gene-knockout-alters-instrumental-and-pavlovian-drug-conditioning
#20
Christopher P King, Leah Militello, Amy Hart, Celine L St Pierre, Emily Leung, Cassandra L Versaggi, Nathaniel Roberson, James Catlin, Abraham A Palmer, Jerry B Richards, Paul J Meyer
Genome-wide association studies in humans have suggested that variants of the cadherin-13 (CDH13) gene are associated with substance use disorder, subjective response to amphetamine, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To examine the role of the Cdh13 and its peptide ligand adiponectin (AdipoQ) in addiction-related behaviors, we assessed Cdh13 knock-out rats and AdipoQ knock-out mice using intravenous cocaine self-administration and conditioned place preference paradigms. During intravenous cocaine self-administration, male Cdh13 heterozygous (+/-) and knock-out (-/-) rats showed increased cue-induced reinstatement compared to wild-type rats when presented with a cocaine-paired stimulus, whereas female Cdh13 rats showed no differences across genotype...
April 7, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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