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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222129/visual-associative-learning-in-wood-ants
#1
A Sofia D Fernandes, C L Buckley, J E Niven
Wood ants are a model system for studying visual learning and navigation. They can forage for food and navigate to their nests effectively by forming memories of visual features in their surrounding environment. Previous studies of freely behaving ants have revealed many of the behavioural strategies and environmental features necessary for successful navigation. However, little is known about the exact visual properties of the environment that animals learn or the neural mechanisms that allow them to achieve this...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221752/chronic-nicotine-exposure-impairs-uncertainty-modulation-on-reinforcement-learning-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-serotonin-system
#2
Zhengde Wei, Long Han, Xiuying Zhong, Ying Liu, Rujing Zha, Ying Wang, Li-Zhuang Yang, Junjie Bu, Hongwen Song, Wenjuan Wang, Yifeng Zhou, Ping Gao, Xiaochu Zhang
Deficits in the computational processes of reinforcement learning have been suggested to underlie addiction. Additionally, environmental uncertainty, which is encoded in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), modulates reward prediction errors (RPEs) during reinforcement learning and exacerbates addiction. The present study tested whether and how the ACC would have an essential role in drug addiction by failing to use uncertainty to modulate the RPEs during reinforcement learning. In Experiment I, we found that the ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) did not modulate RPE learning according to uncertainty in smokers...
December 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220589/first-year-internal-medicine-residents-reflections-on-nonmedical-home-visits-to-high-risk-patients
#3
Stephanie K Nothelle, Colleen Christmas, Laura A Hanyok
PROBLEM: Patients who are high utilizers of care often experience health-related challenges that are not readily visible in an office setting but paramount for residents to learn. A nonmedical home visit performed at the beginning of residency training may help residents better understand social underpinnings related to their patient's health and place subsequent care within the context of the patient's life. INTERVENTION: First-year internal medicine residents completed a nonmedical home visit to an at-risk patient prior to seeing the patient in the office for his or her first medical visit...
December 8, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#4
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212919/neuronal-dynamics-supporting-formation-and-recombination-of-cross-modal-olfactory-tactile-association-in-the-rat-hippocampal-formation
#5
Lise Boisselier, Damien Gervasoni, Samuel Garcia, Barbara Ferry, Remi Gervais
The present study is aimed at describing some aspects of the neural dynamics supporting discrimination of olfactory-tactile paired-associated stimuli during acquisition of new pairs and during recombination of previously-learned pairs in the rat. To solve the task, animals have to identify one odor-texture (OT) combination associated with a food reward among three cups with overlapping elements. Previous experiments demonstrated that the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is involved in the processes underlying OT acquisition while the dorsal hippocampus (DH) is selectively involved in the recombination processes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209999/elaborative-feedback-engaging-reward-and-task-relevant-brain-regions-promotes-learning-in-pseudoword-reading-aloud
#6
Samantha R Mattheiss, Edward J Alexander, William W Graves
Although much is known about the cognitive and neural basis of establishing letter-sound mappings in learning word forms, relatively little is known about what makes for the most effective feedback during this process. We sought to determine the neural basis by which elaborative feedback (EF), which contains both reward-related and content-specific information, may be more helpful than feedback containing only one kind of information (simple positive feedback, PF) or the other (content feedback, CF) in learning orthography-phonology (spelling-sound) mappings for novel letter strings...
December 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209058/learning-the-value-of-information-and-reward-over-time-when-solving-exploration-exploitation-problems
#7
Irene Cogliati Dezza, Angela J Yu, Axel Cleeremans, William Alexander
To flexibly adapt to the demands of their environment, animals are constantly exposed to the conflict resulting from having to choose between predictably rewarding familiar options (exploitation) and risky novel options, the value of which essentially consists of obtaining new information about the space of possible rewards (exploration). Despite extensive research, the mechanisms that subtend the manner in which animals solve this exploitation-exploration dilemma are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate human decision-making in a gambling task in which the informational value of each trial and the reward potential were separately manipulated...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208491/feedback-information-and-the-reward-positivity
#8
Jeffrey Cockburn, Clay B Holroyd
The reward positivity is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) sensitive to neural mechanisms of reward processing. Multiple studies have demonstrated that reward positivity amplitude indices a reward prediction error signal that is fundamental to theories of reinforcement learning. However, whether this ERP component is also sensitive to richer forms of performance information important for supervised learning is less clear. To investigate this question, we recorded the electroencephalogram from participants engaged in a time estimation task in which the type of error information conveyed by feedback stimuli was systematically varied across conditions...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197412/does-motivation-matter-in-upper-limb-rehabilitation-after-stroke-armeosenso-reward-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Mario Widmer, Jeremia P Held, Frieder Wittmann, Olivier Lambercy, Kai Lutz, Andreas R Luft
BACKGROUND: Fifty percent of all stroke survivors remain with functional impairments of their upper limb. While there is a need to improve the effectiveness of rehabilitative training, so far no new training approach has proven to be clearly superior to conventional therapy. As training with rewarding feedback has been shown to improve motor learning in humans, it is hypothesized that rehabilitative arm training could be enhanced by rewarding feedback. In this paper, we propose a trial protocol investigating rewards in the form of performance feedback and monetary gains as ways to improve effectiveness of rehabilitative training...
December 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196772/correlation-of-cue-locked-frn-and-feedback-locked-frn-in-the-auditory-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#10
Elena Krugliakova, Vasily Klucharev, Tommaso Fedele, Alexey Gorin, Aleksandra Kuznetsova, Anna Shestakova
Reflecting the discrepancy between received and predicted outcomes, the reward prediction error (RPE) plays an important role in learning in a dynamic environment. A number of studies suggested that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) component of an event-related potential, known to be associated with unexpected outcomes, encodes RPEs. While FRN was clearly shown to be sensitive to the probability of outcomes, the effect of outcome magnitude on FRN remains to be further clarified. In studies on the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation and outcome evaluation, a monetary incentive delay (MID) task proved to be particularly useful...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189017/the-dorsomedial-striatum-mediates-pavlovian-appetitive-conditioning-and-food-consumption
#11
Sindy Cole, Andrew D Stone, Gorica D Petrovich
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) is an important sensorimotor region mediating the acquisition of goal-directed instrumental reward learning and behavioral flexibility. However, whether the DMS also regulates Pavlovian cue-food learning is less clear. The current study used excitotoxic lesions to determine whether the DMS is critical in Pavlovian appetitive learning and behavior, using discriminative conditioning and reversal paradigms. The results showed that DMS lesions transiently retarded cue-food learning and subsequent reversal of this learning...
December 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188399/the-alcoholic-brain-neural-bases-of-impaired-reward-based-decision-making-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#12
Caterina Galandra, Gianpaolo Basso, Stefano Cappa, Nicola Canessa
Neuroeconomics is providing insights into the neural bases of decision-making in normal and pathological conditions. In the neuropsychiatric domain, this discipline investigates how abnormal functioning of neural systems associated with reward processing and cognitive control promotes different disorders, and whether such evidence may inform treatments. This endeavor is crucial when studying different types of addiction, which share a core promoting mechanism in the imbalance between impulsive subcortical neural signals associated with immediate pleasurable outcomes and inhibitory signals mediated by a prefrontal reflective system...
November 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187831/learning-where-to-look-for-high-value-improves-decision-making-asymmetrically
#13
Jaron T Colas, Joy Lu
Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing) decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187629/testing-differential-use-of-payoff-biased-social-learning-strategies-in-children-and-chimpanzees
#14
REVIEW
Gillian L Vale, Emma G Flynn, Jeremy Kendal, Bruce Rawlings, Lydia M Hopper, Steven J Schapiro, Susan P Lambeth, Rachel L Kendal
Various non-human animal species have been shown to exhibit behavioural traditions. Importantly, this research has been guided by what we know of human culture, and the question of whether animal cultures may be homologous or analogous to our own culture. In this paper, we assess whether models of human cultural transmission are relevant to understanding biological fundamentals by investigating whether accounts of human payoff-biased social learning are relevant to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We submitted 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 90) and captive chimpanzees (N = 69) to a token-reward exchange task...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183792/when-two-become-one-electrocortical-correlates-of-the-integration-of-multiple-action-consequences
#15
Roman Osinsky, Kristina Holst, Natalie Ulrich
In a recent study we have demonstrated that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) reflects the integrated value of instantaneous and delayed decision consequences (Osinsky et al. 2017). In the present work, we extend this research by using a novel choice task in which instant and delayed consequence values of a single decision outcome can be manipulated independently of each other in a trial-wise manner. Fifty-nine healthy participants completed this task while EEG was recorded. Twenty-two of them returned one week later for a retesting, allowing for investigating temporal stability of individual FRN indices...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182614/tiapride-prevents-the-aversive-but-not-the-rewarding-effect-induced-by-parabrachial-electrical-stimulation-in-a-place-preference-task
#16
María M Hurtado, Raquel García, Amadeo Puerto
The parabrachial complex has been related to the processing of both rewarding and aversive signals. This pontine area is activated after the gastrointestinal administration of rewarding nutrients, in taste aversion learning, and in response to the reinforcing and aversive effects of some drugs of abuse. Electrical stimulation of this region can induce, in different animals, preference or aversion behaviors towards a place in a rectangular three-chamber maze task. This study examined the effect of tiapride, a D2/D3 receptor antagonist, on the aversive or rewarding effects induced by electrical stimulation of the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (NLPBe)...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181094/carelli-on-art-the-dali-universe
#17
Francesco Carelli
Interactive and multimedia methods are the future, already developing in teaching and learning modules in Medicine. It happens and has to happen because: 1) It improves tools for the teacher in preparing and showing the bulk of materials on which students must study and learn; it enables interactivity with learners both in formative pathway and in final assessment. 2) It improves attention, interest and involvement of students and learners, and acts as a guideline to progressive broadening in researches, studies, considerations, and information exchanges among different learners...
November 2017: London Journal of Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177509/repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-are-linked-to-imbalance-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-a-functional-connectivity-mri-study
#18
Angela E Abbott, Annika Linke, Aarti Nair, Afrooz Jahedi, Laura A Alba, Christopher L Keown, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
The neural underpinnings of repetitive behaviors (RBs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), ranging from cognitive to motor characteristics, remain unknown. We assessed RB symptomatology in 50 ASD and 52 typically developing (TD) children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years), examining intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of corticostriatal circuitry, which is important for reward-based learning and integration of emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, and considered impaired in ASDs. Connectivity analyses were performed for three functionally distinct striatal seeds (limbic, frontoparietal, motor)...
November 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175512/altering-d1-receptor-activity-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-fear-suppression-during-a-safety-cue
#19
Ka H Ng, Michael W Pollock, Phillip J Urbanczyk, Susan Sangha
Accurate discrimination among cues signifying reward, danger or safety initiates the proper emotional response in order to guide behavior. Appropriate conditioned inhibition of fear in the presence of a safety cue would allow an organism to engage in reward seeking behaviors. There is currently little known about the mechanisms of reward, fear and safety cue discrimination and how a safety cue can inhibit fear and release reward seeking from inhibition. Here we assess reward, fear and safety cue learning together using a behavioral paradigm that has identified neurons that discriminate among these cues in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) (Sangha, Chadick, & Janak, 2013)...
November 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174946/fluoxetine-not-donepezil-reverses-anhedonia-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-hippocampal-proteome-changes-during-repeated-social-defeat-exposure
#20
M G Gottschalk, P Mortas, M Haman, S Ozcan, B Biemans, S Bahn
While anhedonia is considered a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), less attention has been paid to cognitive dysfunctions. We evaluated the behavioural and molecular effects of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI, fluoxetine) and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI, donepezil) on emotional-cognitive endophenotypes of depression and the hippocampal proteome. A chronic social defeat (SD) procedure was followed up by "reminder" sessions of direct and indirect SD. Anhedonia-related behaviour was assessed longitudinally by intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)...
November 23, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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