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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054742/failing-to-pay-heed-to-health-warnings-in-a-food-associated-environment
#1
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Poppy Watson, Sanne de Wit
People often fail to adhere to food-related health information. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stimuli interfere with good intentions by triggering choices relatively automatically. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we examined whether food-associated stimuli reduce health warnings' effectiveness. We expected that people adhere to health warnings in the absence, but not presence, of food-associated stimuli. In addition, we examined timing effects, i.e., whether health warnings are more effective when they are given prior to associative learning rather than afterwards...
October 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054289/cross-talk-between-the-epigenome-and-neural-circuits-in-drug-addiction
#2
Philipp Mews, Erin S Calipari
Drug addiction is a behavioral disorder characterized by dysregulated learning about drugs and associated cues that result in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Learning about drug rewards and predictive cues is a complex process controlled by a computational network of neural connections interacting with transcriptional and molecular mechanisms within each cell to precisely guide behavior. The interplay between rapid, temporally specific neuronal activation, and longer-term changes in transcription is of critical importance in the expression of appropriate, or in the case of drug addiction, inappropriate behaviors...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054285/paraventricular-thalamus-gateway-to-feeding-appetitive-motivation-and-drug-addiction
#3
E Zayra Millan, ZhiYi Ong, Gavan P McNally
This chapter reviews the anatomical and functional evidence demonstrating the contribution of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) to appetitive motivation, food intake control, and drug-seeking behaviors. We first consider the anatomical properties of the PVT to highlight its relevance in the control of appetitive motivation, feeding, and drug seeking. This is followed by a review of the available literature on PVT neurocircuitry, PVT involvement in food intake control, animal models of drug self-administration, withdrawal, and relapse...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052730/the-reward-of-seeing-different-types-of-visual-reward-and-their-ability-to-modify-oculomotor-learning
#4
Annegret Meermeier, Svenja Gremmler, Kerstin Richert, Til Eckermann, Markus Lappe
Saccadic adaptation is an oculomotor learning process that maintains the accuracy of eye movements to ensure effective perception of the environment. Although saccadic adaptation is commonly considered an automatic and low-level motor calibration in the cerebellum, we recently found that strength of adaptation is influenced by the visual content of the target: pictures of humans produced stronger adaptation than noise stimuli. This suggests that meaningful images may be considered rewarding or valuable in oculomotor learning...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052112/divergences-in-learning-and-memory-among-wild-zebrafish-do-sex-and-body-size-play-a-role
#5
Tamal Roy, Anuradha Bhat
Given its diverse ecological distribution, zebrafish has great potential for investigations on the effect of habitat characteristics on cognition. Studies were conducted on four wild-caught zebrafish populations to understand the role of native habitat, sex, and body size in determining learning through a novel task associated with a food reward. The habitat variables, namely, the relative abundances of zebrafish and predatory fish and the substrate and vegetation diversity, were quantified during fish sampling...
October 19, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051739/impaired-feedback-processing-for-symbolic-reward-in-individuals-with-internet-game-overuse
#6
Jinhee Kim, Hackjin Kim, Eunjoo Kang
Reward processing, which plays a critical role in adaptive behavior, is impaired in addiction disorders, which are accompanied by functional abnormalities in brain reward circuits. Internet gaming disorder, like substance addiction, is thought to be associated with impaired reward processing, but little is known about how it affects learning, especially when feedback is conveyed by less-salient motivational events. Here, using both monetary (±500 KRW) and symbolic (Chinese characters "right" or "wrong") rewards and penalties, we investigated whether behavioral performance and feedback-related neural responses are altered in Internet game overuse (IGO) group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049406/distinct-prediction-errors-in-mesostriatal-circuits-of-the-human-brain-mediate-learning-about-the-values-of-both-states-and-actions-evidence-from-high-resolution-fmri
#7
Jaron T Colas, Wolfgang M Pauli, Tobias Larsen, J Michael Tyszka, John P O'Doherty
Prediction-error signals consistent with formal models of "reinforcement learning" (RL) have repeatedly been found within dopaminergic nuclei of the midbrain and dopaminoceptive areas of the striatum. However, the precise form of the RL algorithms implemented in the human brain is not yet well determined. Here, we created a novel paradigm optimized to dissociate the subtypes of reward-prediction errors that function as the key computational signatures of two distinct classes of RL models-namely, "actor/critic" models and action-value-learning models (e...
October 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045575/shared-and-disorder-specific-neurocomputational-mechanisms-of-decision-making-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often share phenotypes of repetitive behaviors, possibly underpinned by abnormal decision-making. To compare neural correlates underlying decision-making between these disorders, brain activation of boys with ASD (N = 24), OCD (N = 20) and typically developing controls (N = 20) during gambling was compared, and computational modeling compared performance. Patients were unimpaired on number of risky decisions, but modeling showed that both patient groups had lower choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning compared to controls...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045351/awareness-and-implementation-of-the-2014%C3%A2-espghan-naspghan-guideline-for-childhood-functional-constipation
#9
Ilan J N Koppen, M H Vriesman, M M Tabbers, C Di Lorenzo, M A Benninga
OBJECTIVE: To assess if physicians approach children with functional constipation according to the 2014 ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN guideline. METHODS: We invited pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists in the Netherlands and the U.S. to participate in this anonymous survey using a self-developed questionnaire containing 19 multiple-choice questions concerning evaluation and treatment of children with constipation. RESULTS: We included 328 physicians (67% from the U...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040494/beyond-reward-prediction-errors-human-striatum-updates-rule-values-during-learning
#10
Ian Ballard, Eric M Miller, Steven T Piantadosi, Noah D Goodman, Samuel M McClure
Humans naturally group the world into coherent categories defined by membership rules. Rules can be learned implicitly by building stimulus-response associations using reinforcement learning or by using explicit reasoning. We tested if the striatum, in which activation reliably scales with reward prediction error, would track prediction errors in a task that required explicit rule generation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a categorization task, we show that striatal responses to feedback scale with a "surprise" signal derived from a Bayesian rule-learning model and are inconsistent with RL prediction error...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039413/vta-mtor-signaling-regulates-dopamine-dynamics-cocaine-induced-synaptic-alterations-and-reward
#11
Xiaojie Liu, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Casey R Vickstrom, Qing-Song Liu
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates long-term synaptic plasticity, learning and memory by controlling dendritic protein synthesis. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has been shown to attenuate the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Using viral vectors to selectively delete mTOR in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in adult male mTOR(loxP/loxP) mice, we investigated the role of mTOR in regulating neuronal morphology, basal synaptic transmission, dopamine dynamics and cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038598/male-specific-deficits-in-natural-reward-learning-in-a-mouse-model-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#12
N M Grissom, S E McKee, H Schoch, N Bowman, R Havekes, W T O'Brien, E Mahrt, S Siegel, K Commons, C Portfors, T Nickl-Jockschat, T M Reyes, T Abel
Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, are highly male biased, but the underpinnings of this are unknown. Striatal dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, raising the question of whether there are sex differences in how the striatum is impacted by genetic risk factors linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report male-specific deficits in striatal function important to reward learning in a mouse model of 16p11.2 hemideletion, a genetic mutation that is strongly associated with the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038562/interacting-learning-processes-during-skill-acquisition-learning-to-control-with-gradually-changing-system-dynamics
#13
Nicolas Ludolph, Martin A Giese, Winfried Ilg
There is increasing evidence that sensorimotor learning under real-life conditions relies on a composition of several learning processes. Nevertheless, most studies examine learning behaviour in relation to one specific learning mechanism. In this study, we examined the interaction between reward-based skill acquisition and motor adaptation to changes of object dynamics. Thirty healthy subjects, split into two groups, acquired the skill of balancing a pole on a cart in virtual reality. In one group, we gradually increased the gravity, making the task easier in the beginning and more difficult towards the end...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038310/free-ranging-dogs-prefer-petting-over-food-in-repeated-interactions-with-unfamiliar-humans
#14
Debottam Bhattacharjee, Shubhra Sau, Jayjit Das, Anindita Bhadra
Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are the first species to have been domesticated, and unlike other domesticated species, they have developed a special bonding with their owners. The ability to respond to human gestures and language, and the hypersocial behaviours of dogs are considered key factors that have led them to become man's best friend. Free-ranging dogs provide an excellent model system for understanding the dog-human relationship in various social contexts. In India, free-ranging dogs occur in all possible human habitations...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038230/ghrelin-receptor-constitutive-activity-reduces-surface-expression-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-a-cav%C3%AE-dependent-manner
#15
Emilio R Mustafá, Eduardo J López Soto, Valentina Martínez Damonte, Silvia S Rodríguez, Diane Lipscombe, Jesica Raingo
Voltage gated calcium (CaV) channels couple membrane depolarization to calcium influx, triggering a range of calcium-dependent cellular processes. CaV channels are therefore critical in shaping neuronal activity and function, depending on their individual temporal and spatial properties. Furthermore, many neurotransmitters and drugs that act through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), modulate neuronal activity by altering the expression, trafficking, or function of CaV channels. GPCR-dependent mechanisms that down regulate CaV channel expression levels are observed in many neurons but are, by comparison, less studied...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037660/nmda-receptor-blockade-specifically-impedes-the-acquisition-of-incentive-salience-attribution
#16
Jonathan J Chow, Joshua S Beckmann
Glutamatergic signaling plays an important role in learning and memory. Using Pavlovian conditioned approach procedures, the mechanisms that drive stimulus-reward learning and memory have been investigated. However, there are instances where reward-predictive stimuli can function beyond being solely predictive and can be attributed with "motivational value" or incentive salience. Using a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure consisting of two different but equally predictive stimuli (lever vs. tone) we investigated the role NMDA receptor function has in the attribution of incentive salience...
October 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035335/selectivity-enhancement-in-electronic-nose-based-on-an-optimized-dqn
#17
Yu Wang, Jianguo Xing, Shu Qian
In order to enhance the selectivity of metal oxide gas sensors, we use a flow modulation method to exploit transient sensor information. The method is based on modulating the flow of the carrier gas that brings the species to be measured into the sensor chamber. We present an active perception strategy by using a DQN which can optimize the flow modulation online. The advantage of DQN is not only that the classification accuracy is higher than traditional methods such as PCA, but also that it has a good adaptability under small samples and labeled data...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034482/deep-reinforcement-learning-for-automated-radiation-adaptation-in-lung-cancer
#18
Huan-Hsin Tseng, Yi Luo, Sunan Cui, Jen-Tzung Chien, Randall K Ten Haken, Issam El Naqa
PURPOSE: To investigate deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based on historical treatment plans for developing automated radiation adaptation protocols for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that aim to maximize tumor local control at reduced rates of radiation pneumonitis grade 2 (RP2). METHODS: In a retrospective population of 114 NSCLC patients who received radiotherapy, a 3-component neural networks framework was developed for deep reinforcement learning (DRL) of dose fractionation adaptation...
October 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034318/mediodorsal-thalamic-neurons-mirror-the-activity-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-responding-to-movement-and-reinforcement-during-a-dynamic-dnmtp-task
#19
Rikki L A Miller, Miranda J Francoeur, Brett M Gibson, Robert G Mair
The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034315/emergence-of-%C3%AE-band-oscillations-in-the-aged-rat-amygdala-during-discrimination-learning-and-decision-making-tasks
#20
Rachel D Samson, Adam W Lester, Leroy Duarte, Anu Venkatesh, Carol A Barnes
Older adults tend to use strategies that differ from those used by young adults to solve decision-making tasks. MRI experiments suggest that altered strategy use during aging can be accompanied by a change in extent of activation of a given brain region, inter-hemispheric bilateralization or added brain structures. It has been suggested that these changes reflect compensation for less effective networks to enable optimal performance. One way that communication can be influenced within and between brain networks is through oscillatory events that help structure and synchronize incoming and outgoing information...
September 2017: ENeuro
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