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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456494/the-influence-of-feedback-on-task-switching-performance-a-drift-diffusion-modeling-account
#1
Russell Cohen Hoffing, Povilas Karvelis, Samuel Rupprechter, Peggy Seriès, Aaron R Seitz
Task-switching is an important cognitive skill that facilitates our ability to choose appropriate behavior in a varied and changing environment. Task-switching training studies have sought to improve this ability by practicing switching between multiple tasks. However, an efficacious training paradigm has been difficult to develop in part due to findings that small differences in task parameters influence switching behavior in a non-trivial manner. Here, for the first time we employ the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM) to understand the influence of feedback on task-switching and investigate how drift diffusion parameters change over the course of task switch training...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453443/role-of-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-in-relief-learning
#2
Dana Mayer, Evelyn Kahl, Taygun C Uzuneser, Markus Fendt
The relief from an aversive event is rewarding. Since organisms are able to learn which environmental cues can cease an aversive event, relief learning helps to better cope with future aversive events. Literature data suggest that relief learning is affected in various psychopathological conditions, such as anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system in relief learning. Using a relief learning procedure in Sprague Dawley rats, we applied a combination of behavioral experiments with anatomical tracing, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and local chemogenetic and pharmacological interventions to broadly characterize the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450789/control-by-association-transfer-of-implicitly-primed-attentional-states-across-linked-stimuli
#3
Christina Bejjani, Ziwei Zhang, Tobias Egner
Although cognitive control has traditionally been viewed in opposition to associative learning, recent studies show that people can learn to link particular stimuli with specific cognitive control states (e.g., high attentional selectivity). Here, we tested whether such learned stimulus-control associations can transfer across paired-associates. In the Stimulus-Stimulus (S-S) Association phase, specific face or house images repeatedly preceded the presentation of particular scene stimuli, creating paired face/house-scene associates in memory...
February 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449457/the-activity-of-thalamic-nucleus-reuniens-is-critical-for-memory-retrieval-but-not-essential-for-the-early-phase-of-off-line-consolidation
#4
Hao Mei, Nikos K Logothetis, Oxana Eschenko
Spatial navigation depends on the hippocampal function, but also requires bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus (HPC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cross-regional communication is typically regulated by critical nodes of a distributed brain network. The thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE) is reciprocally connected to both HPC and PFC and may coordinate the information flow within the HPC-PFC pathway. Here we examined if RE activity contributes to the spatial memory consolidation. Rats were trained to find reward following a complex trajectory on a crossword-like maze...
March 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445510/a-neurologist-and-ataxia-using-eye-movements-to-learn-about-the-cerebellum
#5
REVIEW
David S Zee
The cerebellum, its normal functions and its diseases, and especially its relation to the control of eye movements, has been at the heart of my academic career. Here I review how this came about, with an emphasis on epiphanies, "tipping points" and the influences of mentors, colleagues and trainees. I set a path for young academicians, both clinicians and basic scientists, with some guidelines for developing a productive and rewarding career in neuroscience.
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441579/brain-anatomy-of-the-4-day-old-european-rabbit
#6
Nanette Y Schneider, Frédérique Datiche, Gérard Coureaud
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a widely used model in fundamental, medical and veterinary neurosciences. Besides investigations in adults, rabbit pups are relevant to study perinatal neurodevelopment and early behaviour. To date, the rabbit is also the only species in which a pheromone - the mammary pheromone (MP) - emitted by lactating females and active on neonatal adaptation has been described. The MP is crucial since it contributes directly to nipple localisation and oral seizing in neonates, i...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441027/pragmatically-framed-cross-situational-noun-learning-using-computational-reinforcement-models
#7
Shamima Najnin, Bonny Banerjee
Cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theories are prominent mechanisms for learning word meanings (i.e., word-object pairs). In this paper, the role of reinforcement is investigated for early word-learning by an artificial agent. When exposed to a group of speakers, the agent comes to understand an initial set of vocabulary items belonging to the language used by the group. Both cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theory are taken into account. As social cues, joint attention and prosodic cues in caregiver's speech are considered...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439750/differential-neural-reward-mechanisms-in-treatment-responsive-and-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#8
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437980/temporal-prefrontal-cortical-network-for-discrimination-of-valuable-objects-in-long-term-memory
#9
Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, David A Leopold, Okihide Hikosaka
Remembering and discriminating objects based on their previously learned values are essential for goal-directed behaviors. While the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to object recognition, surprisingly little is known about its role in retaining long-term object-value associations. To address this question, we trained macaques to arbitrarily associate small or large rewards with many random fractal objects (>100) and then used fMRI to study the long-term retention of value-based response selectivity across the brain...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432300/dopamine-modulates-striatal-response-to-reward-and-punishment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pharmacological-challenge-fmri-study
#10
Miklos Argyelan, Mohammad Herzallah, Wataru Sako, Ivana DeLucia, Deepak Sarpal, An Vo, Toni Fitzpatrick, Ahmed A Moustafa, David Eidelberg, Mark Gluck
It is well established that Parkinson's disease leads to impaired learning from reward and enhanced learning from punishment. The administration of dopaminergic medications reverses this learning pattern. However, few studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of these cognitive processes. In this study, using fMRI, we tested a group of Parkinson's disease patients on and off dopaminergic medications and matched healthy individuals. All individuals completed an fMRI cognitive task that dissociates feedback learning from reward versus punishment...
February 9, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431652/dynamic-flexibility-in-striatal-cortical-circuits-supports-reinforcement-learning
#11
Raphael T Gerraty, Juliet Y Davidow, Karin Foerde, Adriana Galvan, Danielle S Bassett, Daphna Shohamy
Complex learned behaviors must involve the integrated action of distributed brain circuits. While the contributions of individual regions to learning have been extensively investigated, much less is known about how distributed brain networks orchestrate their activity over the course of learning. To address this gap, we used fMRI combined with tools from dynamic network neuroscience to obtain time-resolved descriptions of network coordination during reinforcement learning in humans. We found that learning to associate visual cues with reward involves dynamic changes in network coupling between the striatum and distributed brain regions, including visual, orbitofrontal, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=22, 13 females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430520/reward-predictive-neural-activities-in-striatal-striosome-compartments
#12
Tomohiko Yoshizawa, Makoto Ito, Kenji Doya
The striatum has been shown to play a critical role in reward prediction. It is composed of two neurochemically and anatomically distinct compartments known as the striosomes and the matrix. The striosomes comprise only about 15% of the striatum by volume and are distributed mosaically therein. Accordingly, it has been difficult to identify striosomal neurons in electrophysiological recordings and it has been unclear whether striosomal neurons, which project to midbrain dopaminergic neurons, engage in reward prediction...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429619/first-pass-processing-of-value-cues-in-the-ventral-visual-pathway
#13
Dennis Sasikumar, Erik Emeric, Veit Stuphorn, Charles E Connor
Real-world value often depends on subtle, continuously variable visual cues specific to particular object categories, like the tailoring of a suit, the condition of an automobile, or the construction of a house. Here, we used microelectrode recording in behaving monkeys to test two possible mechanisms for category-specific value-cue processing: (1) previous findings suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) identifies object categories, and based on category identity, PFC could use top-down attentional modulation to enhance visual processing of category-specific value cues, providing signals to PFC for calculating value, and (2) a faster mechanism would be first-pass visual processing of category-specific value cues, immediately providing the necessary visual information to PFC...
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429614/inversely-active-striatal-projection-neurons-and-interneurons-selectively-delimit-useful-behavioral-sequences
#14
Nuné Martiros, Alexandra A Burgess, Ann M Graybiel
Understanding neural representations of behavioral routines is critical for understanding complex behavior in health and disease. We demonstrate here that accentuated activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) at the beginning and end of such behavioral repertoires is a supraordinate representation specifically marking previously rewarded behavioral sequences independent of the individual movements making up the behavior. We recorded spike activity in the striatum and primary motor cortex as individual rats learned specific rewarded lever-press sequences, each one unique to a given rat...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427080/amphetamine-primes-enhanced-motivation-toward-uncertain-choices-in-rats-with-genetic-alcohol-preference
#15
Ville Oinio, Mikko Sundström, Pia Bäckström, Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Kalervo Kiianmaa, Atso Raasmaja, Petteri Piepponen
RATIONALE: Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. METHODS: In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423839/molecular-neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-interactions
#16
Paul M Klenowski, Andrew R Tapper
Ethanol and nicotine can modulate the activity of several neurotransmitter systems and signalling pathways. Interactions between ethanol and nicotine can also occur via common molecular targets including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These effects can induce molecular and synaptic adaptations that over time, are consolidated in brain circuits that reinforce drug-seeking behavior, contribute to the development of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and increase the susceptibility to relapse. This chapter will discuss the acute and chronic effects of ethanol and nicotine within the mesolimbic reward pathway and brain circuits involved in learning, memory, and withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421588/homeostatic-and-non-homeostatic-controls-of-feeding-behavior-distinct-vs-common-neural-systems
#17
Clarissa M Liu, Scott E Kanoski
Understanding the neurobiological controls of feeding behavior is critical in light of the growing obesity pandemic, a phenomenon largely based on excessive caloric consumption. Feeding behavior and its underlying biological substrates are frequently divided in the literature into two separate categories: [1] homeostatic processes involving energy intake based on caloric and other metabolic deficits, and [2] non-homeostatic processes that involve feeding driven by environmental and cognitive factors. The present review summarizes both historic and recent research examining the homeostatic regulation of feeding with specific emphasis on hypothalamic and hindbrain circuitry that monitor and regulate various metabolic signals...
February 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420932/dopamine-s-effects-on-corticostriatal-synapses-during-reward-based-behaviors
#18
REVIEW
Nigel S Bamford, R Mark Wightman, David Sulzer
Many learned responses depend on the coordinated activation and inhibition of synaptic pathways in the striatum. Local dopamine neurotransmission acts in concert with a variety of neurotransmitters to regulate cortical, thalamic, and limbic excitatory inputs to drive the direct and indirect striatal spiny projection neuron outputs that determine the activity, sequence, and timing of learned behaviors. We review recent advances in the characterization of stereotyped neuronal and operant responses that predict and then obtain rewards...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420469/dopamine-neuron-activity-before-action-initiation-gates-and-invigorates-future-movements
#19
Joaquim Alves da Silva, Fatuel Tecuapetla, Vitor Paixão, Rui M Costa
Deciding when and whether to move is critical for survival. Loss of dopamine neurons (DANs) of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease causes deficits in movement initiation and slowness of movement. The role of DANs in self-paced movement has mostly been attributed to their tonic activity, whereas phasic changes in DAN activity have been linked to reward prediction. This model has recently been challenged by studies showing transient changes in DAN activity before or during self-paced movement initiation...
February 8, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415770/early-brain-connectivity-alterations-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Raúl Tudela, Xavier López-Gil, Guadalupe Soria
BACKGROUND: Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain connectivity at an early stage (5 months of age) before a significant concentration of β-amyloid plaques is present...
February 7, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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