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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526888/brain-structural-networks-associated-with-intelligence-and-visuomotor-ability
#1
Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Won-Gyo Shin, Tae Young Lee, Ji-Won Hur, Kang Ik K Cho, William Seunghyun Sohn, Seung-Goo Kim, Kwang-Hyuk Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Increasing evidence indicates that multiple structures in the brain are associated with intelligence and cognitive function at the network level. The association between the grey matter (GM) structural network and intelligence and cognition is not well understood. We applied a multivariate approach to identify the pattern of GM and link the structural network to intelligence and cognitive functions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 92 healthy individuals. Source-based morphometry analysis was applied to the imaging data to extract GM structural covariance...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523986/inter-and-intrahemispheric-eeg-coherence-and-visuomotor-performance-during-shooting-competition-and-practice
#2
Minjung Woo, Yujin Kim
This study compared inter- and intrahemispheric cortical networking and visuomotor performance during practice and competition in 14 air pistol athletes (mean age of 17.8 years). Participants self-reported their competitiveness, stress, confidence, and relaxation through visual analog scales; shooting score and aiming time were measured by the SCATT program. Inter- and intrahemispheric coherences during aiming were analyzed. Under competition following the practice condition, self-reported competitiveness and stress were higher, but confidence was lower...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506002/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-combined-with-visuo-motor-training-as-treatment-for-chronic-stroke-patients
#3
Elena L Pavlova, Påvel Lindberg, Amirah Khan, Sigurd Ruschkowski, Michael A Nitsche, Jörgen Borg
BACKGROUND: Recent studies exploring the combined effect of motor learning and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for stroke rehabilitation have shown partially conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of an optimized hand training approach combined with tDCS in stroke patients. METHODS: In the present pilot study we investigated motor effects of four-week training with a visuomotor grip force tracking task combined with tDCS in 11 chronic stroke patients...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504523/decomposition-of-a-sensory-prediction-error-signal-for-visuomotor-adaptation
#4
Peter A Butcher, Jordan A Taylor
To accomplish effective motor control, the brain contains an internal forward model that predicts the expected sensory consequence of a motor command. When this prediction is inaccurate, a sensory prediction error is produced which adapts the forward model to make more accurate predictions of future movements. Other types of errors, such as task performance errors or reward, play less of a role in adapting a forward model. This raises the following question: What unique information is conveyed by the sensory prediction error that results in forward model adaptation? sensory prediction errors typically contain both the magnitude and direction of the error, but it is unclear if both components are necessary for adaptation or a single component is sufficient...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503804/neural-correlates-of-visuomotor-adjustments-during-scaling-of-human-finger-movements-fmri-during-visuomotor-scaling-of-finger-movements
#5
Johannes Brand, Lars Michels, Romy Bakker, Marie-Claude Hepp-Reymond, Daniel Kiper, Manfred Morari, Kynan Eng
Visually guided finger movements include online feedback of current effector position to guide target approach. This visual feedback may be scaled or otherwise distorted by unpredictable perturbations. Although adjustments to visual feedback scaling have been studied before, the underlying brain activation differences between upscaling (visual feedback larger than real movement) and downscaling (feedback smaller than real movement) are currently unknown. Brain activation differences between upscaling and downscaling might be expected because within-trial adjustments during upscaling require corrective backwards accelerations, whereas correcting for downscaling requires forward accelerations...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501420/manipulation-of-visual-information-affects-control-strategy-during-a-visuomotor-tracking-task
#6
Paulina J M Bank, Lucas R M Dobbe, Carel G M Meskers, Jurriaan H de Groot, Erwin de Vlugt
Proper understanding of motor control requires insight into the extent and manner in which task performance and control strategy are influenced by various aspects of visual information. We therefore systematically manipulated the visual presentation (i.e., scaling factor and optical flow density) of a visuomotor tracking task without changing the task itself, and investigated the effect on performance, effort, motor control strategy (i.e., anticipatory or corrective steering) and underlying neuromechanical parameters (i...
May 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496425/verbalizations-affect-visuomotor-control-in-hitting-objects-to-distant-targets
#7
Raimey Olthuis, John Van Der Kamp, Simone Caljouw
There is a long-standing proposal for the existence of two neuroanatomically and functionally separate visual systems; one supported by the dorsal pathway to control action and the second supported by the ventral pathway to handle explicit perceptual judgments. The dorsal pathway requires fast access to egocentric information, while the ventral pathway primarily requires allocentric information. Despite the evidence for functionally distinct systems, researchers have posited important interactions. This paper examines evidence to what degree the interaction becomes more important when target-identity, the perception of which is supported by the ventral stream, is verbalized during the execution of a target-directed far-aiming movement...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482682/longitudinal-development-of-cognitive-visuomotor-and-adaptive-behavior-skills-in-hiv-uninfected-children-aged-3-5-years-of-age-exposed-pre-and-perinatally-to-anti-retroviral-medications
#8
Mary Lou Smith, Klajdi Puka, Ramandeep Sehra, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Little is known about the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children older than 3 years of age born to HIV infected mother but who are HIV-uninfected (HEU), and who have been exposed in utero and early in life to HIV and to antiretroviral medications (ARVs). We conducted a longitudinal study of cognitive, visuomotor and adaptive function of HEU children, who were assessed at two ages, 3.5 and 5.5 years. Sixty-four children (33 female) were assessed. In comparison with population norms for their age, at 3.5 years of age they had scores significantly below age expectations on aspects of adaptive behavior, but at age 5...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473909/limited-plasticity-of-prismatic-visuomotor-adaptation
#9
Karoline Spang, Sven Wischhusen, Manfred Fahle
Movements toward an object displaced optically through prisms adapt quickly, a striking example for the plasticity of neuronal visuomotor programs. We investigated the degree and time course of this system's plasticity. Participants performed goal-directed throwing or pointing movements with terminal feedback before, during, and after wearing prism goggles shifting the visual world laterally either to the right or to the left. Prism adaptation was incomplete even after 240 throwing movements, still deviating significantly laterally by on average of 0...
March 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473761/acute-exercise-improves-motor-memory-consolidation-in-preadolescent-children
#10
Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Kasper Skriver, Jens B Nielsen, Marc Roig
Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472262/interplay-between-grip-and-vision-in-the-monkey-medial-parietal-lobe
#11
Rossella Breveglieri, Marina De Vitis, Annalisa Bosco, Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
We aimed at understanding the relative contribution of visual information and hand shaping to the neuronal activity of medial posterior parietal area V6A, a newly added area in the monkey cortical grasping circuit. Two Macaca fascicularis performed a Reach-to-Grasp task in the dark and in the light, grasping objects of different shapes. We found that V6A contains Visual cells, activated only during grasping in the light; Motor neurons, equally activated during grasping in the dark and in the light; Visuomotor cells, differently activated while grasping in the dark and in the light...
May 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455540/a-prospective-study-of-corpus-callosum-regional-volumes-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-following-cranial-radiation-for-pediatric-brain-tumors
#12
Arif Rashid, Ashwin N Ram, Wendy R Kates, Kristin J Redmond, Moody Wharam, E Mark Mahone, Alena Horska, Stephanie Terezakis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) may disrupt the corpus callosum (CC), which plays an important role in basic motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to assess changes in CC mid-sagittal areas, CC volumes, and performance on neuropsychological (NP) tests related to the CC in children following CRT. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve pediatric patients were treated with CRT for primary brain malignancies. Thirteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as controls...
April 28, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439779/searching-for-an-internal-representation-of-stimulus-kinematics-in-the-response-of-ventral-paraflocculus-purkinje-cells
#13
Pablo M Blazquez, GyuTae Kim, Tatyana A Yakusheva
Motor control theories propose that the central nervous system builds internal representations of the motion of both our body and external objects. These representations, called forward models, are essential for accurate motor control. For instance, to produce a precise reaching movement to catch a flying ball, the central nervous system must build predictions of the current and future states of both the arm and the ball. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cerebellar cortex contains a forward model of an individual's body movement...
April 24, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437760/the-effects-of-object-height-and-visual-information-on-the-control-of-obstacle-crossing-during-locomotion-in-healthy-older-adults
#14
Sho Kunimune, Shuichi Okada
In order to safely avoid obstacles, humans must rely on visual information regarding the position and shape of the object obtained in advance. The present study aimed to reveal the duration of obstacle visibility necessary for appropriate visuomotor control during obstacle avoidance in healthy older adults. Participants included 13 healthy young women (mean age: 21.5±1.4years) and 15 healthy older women (mean age: 68.5±3.5years) who were instructed to cross over an obstacle along a pressure-sensitive pathway at a self-selected pace while wearing liquid crystal shutter goggles...
April 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435122/global-motion-perception-is-related-to-motor-function-in-4-5-year-old-children-born-at-risk-of-abnormal-development
#15
Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola S Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Nabin Paudel, Linda L LaGasse, Barry M Lester, Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane E Harding, Trecia A Wouldes, Benjamin Thompson
Global motion perception is often used as an index of dorsal visual stream function in neurodevelopmental studies. However, the relationship between global motion perception and visuomotor control, a primary function of the dorsal stream, is unclear. We measured global motion perception (motion coherence threshold; MCT) and performance on standardized measures of motor function in 606 4.5-year-old children born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Visual acuity, stereoacuity and verbal IQ were also assessed...
April 28, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-microstimulation-of-prefrontal-cortex
#16
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses, perhaps through modulating activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the PFC can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends on the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431286/age-related-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-and-intracortical-inhibition-after-upper-extremity-motor-learning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Kelly M M Berghuis, John G Semmler, George M Opie, Aylin K Post, Tibor Hortobágyi
It is unclear how old age affects the neuronal mechanisms of motor learning. We reviewed the neuronal mechanisms of how healthy old and young adults acquire motor skills as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Quantitative meta-analyses of 11 studies, involving ballistic and visuomotor tasks performed by upper extremity muscles in 132 healthy old and 128 young adults, revealed that the motor practice-induced increase in corticospinal excitability (CSE) is task-dependent but not age-dependent, with an increase in CSE in both age groups after visuomotor but not ballistic training...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429733/sites-of-overt-and-covert-attention-define-simultaneous-spatial-reference-centers-for-visuomotor-response
#18
Yang Zhou, Lixin Liang, Yujun Pan, Ning Qian, Mingsha Zhang
The site of overt attention (fixation point) defines a spatial reference center that affects visuomotor response as indicated by the stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) effect: When subjects press, e.g., a left key to report stimuli, their reaction time is shorter when stimuli appear to the left than to the right of the fixation. Covert attention to a peripheral site appears to define a similar reference center but previous studies did not control for confounding spatiotemporal factors or investigate the relationship between overt- and covert-attention-defined centers...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409319/the-effect-of-gamma-enhancing-binaural-beats-on-the-control-of-feature-bindings
#19
Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro
Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance...
April 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406936/enhancing-consolidation-of-a-rotational-visuomotor-adaptation-task-through-acute-exercise
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets, Virginia Lopez-Alonso, Miguel Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
We assessed the effect of a single bout of intense exercise on the adaptation and consolidation of a rotational visuomotor task, together with the effect of the order of exercise presentation relative to the learning task. Healthy adult participants (n = 29) were randomly allocated to one of three experimental groups: (1) exercise before task practice, (2) exercise after task practice, and (3) task practice only. After familiarization with the learning task, participants undertook a baseline practice set. Then, four 60° clockwise rotational sets were performed, comprising an adaptation set and three retention sets at 1 h, 24 h, and 7 days after the adaptation set...
2017: PloS One
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