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Daniel M Laby
SIGNIFICANCE: Despite our inability to attenuate the course of many ocular diseases that can ultimately lead to loss or significantly decreased visual function, this report describes a potential technique to aid such patients in maximizing the use of the vision that remains. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of utilizing sports vision training to improve objective and subjective visuomotor function in a low-vision patient. CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old woman with Usher syndrome presented with reduced central visual acuity and visual field...
May 17, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Pablo I Burgos, Juan J Mariman, Scott Makeig, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
The ability to transfer sensorimotor skill components to new actions and the capacity to use skill components from whole actions are characteristic of the adaptability of the human sensorimotor system. However, behavioral evidence suggests complex limitations for transfer after combined or modular learning of motor adaptations. Also, to date, only behavioral analysis of the consequences of the modular learning has been reported, with little understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of control and the interaction between cortical areas...
May 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Vinh Kha, Aguida S Foerster, Susan Bennett, Michael A Nitsche, Filip Stefanovic, Anirban Dutta
Induction of neuroplasticity by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning of the upper extremities in healthy humans. The impact of tDCS on lower limb functions has not been studied extensively so far. In this study, we applied a system identification approach to investigate the impact of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex via the human visuo-myoelectric controller. The visuo-myoelectric reaching task (VMT) involves ballistic muscle contraction after a visual cue...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kristin-Marie Neville, Erin K Cressman
Explicit (strategic) and implicit (unconscious) processes play a role in visuomotor adaptation (Bond and Taylor, J Neurophysiol 113:3836-3849, , 2015; Werner et al., PLoS ONE 10:1-18, , 2015). We investigated the contributions of explicit and implicit processes to visuomotor adaptation when awareness was manipulated directly vs. indirectly, and asked how these contributions changed over time. Participants were assigned to a Strategy or No-Strategy group...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Aram Kim, Kari S Kretch, Zixuan Zhou, James M Finley
Successful negotiation of obstacles during walking relies on the integration of visual information about the environment with ongoing locomotor commands. When information about the body and environment are removed through occlusion of the lower visual field, individuals increase downward head pitch angle, reduce foot placement precision, and increase safety margins during crossing. However, whether these effects are mediated by loss of visual information about the lower extremities, the obstacle, or both remains to be seen...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Virginia Lopez-Alonso, Sook-Lei Liew, Miguel Fernández Del Olmo, Binith Cheeran, Marco Sandrini, Mitsunari Abe, Leonardo G Cohen
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
Many sports require athletes to rapidly transform visual information into a targeted motor response, a process referred to as visuomotor reaction. On the behavioural level, athletes have long been established to achieve faster simple visuomotor reaction times when compared to non-athletes. However, although the superior performance in athletes has been attributed to the central nervous system, the underlying neural mechanisms remained poorly studied. More recently, a growing number of neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies systematically addressed the functional and structural modulations in the athletes' visual and motor systems as well as their contribution to visuomotor performance...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Maarten R C van den Heuvel, Erwin E H van Wegen, Peter J Beek, Gert Kwakkel, Andreas Daffertshofer
OBJECTIVE: In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), augmented visual feedback (VF) can improve functional motor performance. Conversely, they appear to rely more on visual information than healthy subjects, which is unfavorable when this information is unreliable. Cortical beta activity is thought to be associated with the need for motor adaptation. We here compared event-related EEG parameters during a whole-body postural weight-shifting task between congruent and incongruent feedback conditions...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Evangelia Liouta, George Stranjalis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Christos Koutsarnakis, Stavroula Pantinaki, Faidon Liakos, Spyros Komaitis, Lampis C Stavrinou
OBJECTIVE Although the parietal lobe is a common site for glioma formation, current literature is scarce, consists of retrospective studies, and lacks consistency with regard to the incidence, nature, and severity of parietal association deficits (PADs). The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics and incidence of PADs in patients suffering from parietal lobe gliomas through a prospective study and a battery of comprehensive neuropsychological tests. METHODS Between 2012 and 2016 the authors recruited 38 patients with glioma confined in the parietal lobe...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
M Kilintari, R J Bufacchi, G Novembre, Y Guo, P Haggard, G D Iannetti
Salient and sudden sensory events generate a remarkably large response in the human brain, the vertex wave (VW) The VW is coupled with a modulation of a voluntarily-applied isometric force Here, we tested whether the VW is also related to executing high-precision movements The execution of a voluntary high-precision movement remains relatively independent of the brain activity reflected by the preceding VW The apparent relationship between the positive VW and the movement onset time is explained by goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities These results highlight the need of considering such goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities when attempting to relate ERP amplitude with perceptual and behavioural performance ABSTRACT: Salient and fast-rising sensory events generate a large biphasic vertex wave (VW) in the human electroencephalogram (EEG)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Sélim Yahia Coll, Leonardo Ceravolo, Sascha Frühholz, Didier Grandjean
Different parts of our brain code the perceptual features and actions related to an object, causing a binding problem, in which the brain has to integrate information related to an event without any interference regarding the features and actions involved in other concurrently processed events. Using a paradigm similar to Hommel, who revealed perception-action bindings, we showed that emotion could bind with motor actions when relevant, and in specific conditions, irrelevant for the task. By adapting our protocol to a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging paradigm we investigated, in the present study, the neural bases of the emotion-action binding with task-relevant angry faces...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elisa Santandrea, Rossella Breveglieri, Annalisa Bosco, Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
Over the years, electrophysiological recordings in macaque monkeys performing visuomotor tasks brought about accumulating evidence for the expression of neuronal properties (e.g., selectivity in the visuospatial and somatosensory domains, encoding of visual affordances and motor cues) in the posterior parietal area V6A that characterize it as an ideal neural substrate for online control of prehension. Interestingly, neuroimaging studies suggested a role of putative human V6A also in action preparation; moreover, pre-movement population activity in monkey V6A has been recently shown to convey grip-related information for upcoming grasping...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katerina Lukasova, Mariana P Nucci, Raymundo Machado de Azevedo Neto, Gilson Vieira, João R Sato, Edson Amaro
Saccades were assessed in 21 adults (age 24 years, SD = 4) and 15 children (age 11 years, SD = 1), using combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and eye-tracking. Subjects visually tracked a point on a horizontal line in four conditions: time and position predictable task (PRED), position predictable (pPRED), time predictable (tPRED) and visually guided saccades (SAC). Both groups in the PRED but not in pPRED, tPRED and SAC produced predictive saccades with latency below 80 ms. In task versus group comparisons, children's showed less efficient learning compared to adults for predictive saccades (adults = 48%, children = 34%, p = 0...
2018: PloS One
Marcel Jan de Haan, Thomas G Brochier, Sonja Grün, Alexa Riehle, Frederic Vincent Barthelemy
Large-scale network dynamics in multiple visuomotor areas is of great interest in the study of eye-hand coordination in both human and monkey. To explore this, it is essential to develop a setup that allows for precise tracking of eye and hand movements. It is desirable that it is able to generate mechanical or visual perturbations of hand trajectories so that eye-hand coordination can be studied in a variety of conditions. There are simple solutions that satisfy these requirements for hand movements performed in the horizontal plane while visual stimuli and hand feedback are presented in the vertical plane...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Adam F Carpenter, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Apostolos P Georgopoulos, Giuseppe Pellizzer
We have adapted Sternberg's context-recall task to investigate the neural mechanisms of encoding serial order information in working memory, in two male rhesus monkeys. We recorded from primary motor, premotor, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while the monkeys performed the task. In each cortical area, most neurons displayed marked modulation of activity during the list presentation period of the task, while the serial order of the stimuli needed to be encoded in working memory. The activity of many neurons changed in a consistent manner over the course of the list presentation period, without regard to the location of the stimuli presented...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Benedicte Strugstad, Bjørn Lau, Merete Glenne Øie
The present follow-up study examines the associations between cognition and parent-rated internalizing problems among adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) at baseline (T1) and self-rated internalizing problems 13 years later (T2). Twelve individuals (8 male/4 female) with EOS and 30 healthy controls (16 male/14 female) were included in the study. All were between 12 and 18 years of age at T1. Internalizing problems were measured with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Internalizing Scale...
April 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Indrit Sinanaj, Rebekah Blakemore, Julian Klug, Yann Cojan, Silvio Galli, Alexandre Berney, Selma Aybek, Patrik Vuilleumier
Motor conversion disorder (CD) entails genuine disturbances in the subjective experience of patients who maintain they are unable to perform a motor function, despite lack of apparent neurological damage. Abilities by which individuals assess their own capacities during performance in a task are called metacognitive, and distinctive impairment of such abilities is observed in several disorders of self-awareness such as blindsight and anosognosia. In CD, previous research has focused on the recruitment of motor and emotional brain systems, generally linking symptoms to altered limbic-motor interactions; however, metacognitive function has not been studied to our knowledge...
April 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Katinka van der Kooij, Jeroen B J Smeets
Recently it has been shown that rewarded variability can be used to adapt visuomotor behavior. However, its relevance seems limited because adaptation to binary rewards has been demonstrated only when the same movement is repeated throughout the experiment. We therefore investigated whether the adaptation is action-specific and whether the amount of exploration depends on spatial complexity. Participants pointed to 3-D visual targets without seeing their hand and could use only binary reward feedback to adapt their movements...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Christopher Fueger, Wendy E Huddleston
Athletes must be able to successfully navigate the soccer pitch or hockey rink to win the game, requiring maximal cognitive resources to successfully compete. Concussions potentially deplete these resources, and the long-term impact of concussions on an individual's goal-directed visually guided behavior continues to elude the scientific community. While the acute effects on cognition and the motor system have been elucidated elsewhere, long-term effects on performance have been less clear. Additionally, most investigations into long-term postinjury motor behaviors have focused on balance and gait, with little focus on functional upper extremity movements...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Ahmad Beyh, Giuseppe Zappalà, Anoushka Leslie, Andrew Simmons, Declan G Murphy, Marco Catani
Humans show a preference for using the right hand over the left for tasks and activities of everyday life. While experimental work in non-human primates has identified the neural systems responsible for reaching and grasping, the neural basis of lateralized motor behavior in humans remains elusive. The advent of diffusion imaging tractography for studying connectional anatomy in the living human brain provides the possibility of understanding the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry, hand preference, and manual specialization...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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