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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740470/manual-dexterity-in-schizophrenia-a-neglected-clinical-marker
#1
Maxime Térémetz, Loïc Carment, Lindsay Brénugat-Herne, Marta Croca, Jean-Pierre Bleton, Marie-Odile Krebs, Marc A Maier, Isabelle Amado, Påvel G Lindberg
Impaired manual dexterity is commonly observed in schizophrenia. However, a quantitative description of key sensorimotor components contributing to impaired dexterity is lacking. Whether the key components of dexterity are differentially affected and how they relate to clinical characteristics also remains unclear. We quantified the degree of dexterity in 35 stabilized patients with schizophrenia and in 20 age-matched control subjects using four visuomotor tasks: (i) force tracking to quantify visuomotor precision, (ii) sequential finger tapping to measure motor sequence recall, (iii) single-finger tapping to assess temporal regularity, and (iv) multi-finger tapping to measure independence of finger movements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733770/distinct-and-flexible-rates-of-online-control
#2
John de Grosbois, Luc Tremblay
Elliott et al. (Hum Mov Sci 10:393-418, 1991) proposed a pseudocontinuous model of online control whereby overlapping corrections lead to the appearance of smooth kinematic profiles in the presence of online feedback. More recently, it was also proposed that online control is not a singular process [see Elliott et al. (Psychol Bull 136(6):1023-1044, 2010)]. However, support for contemporary models of online control were based on methodologies that were not designed to be sensitive to different online control sub-processes...
July 21, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702735/is-the-extrastriate-body-area-part-of-the-dorsal-visuomotor-stream
#3
Marius Zimmermann, Rogier B Mars, Floris P de Lange, Ivan Toni, Lennart Verhagen
The extrastriate body area (EBA) processes visual information about body parts, and it is considered one among a series of category-specific perceptual modules distributed across the occipito-temporal cortex. However, recent evidence raises the possibility that EBA might also provide an interface between perception and action, linking the ventral and dorsal streams of visual information processing. Here, we assess anatomical evidence supporting this possibility. We localise EBA in individual subjects using a perceptual task and compare the characteristics of its functional and structural connectivity to those of two perceptual areas, the lateral occipital complex (LOC) and the fusiform body area (FBA), separately for each hemisphere...
July 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701984/is-there-a-competition-between-functional-and-situational-affordances-during-action-initiation-with-everyday-tools
#4
Kévin Roche, Hanna Chainay
Most studies of human-tool interactions focus on the typical use of a tool (e.g., cutting in the case of a knife). However, little is known about situations requiring atypical tool use (e.g., using a knife to tighten a screw). The present study focused on a selection of atypical uses of everyday tools which might be in conflict with their typical use. Our objective was to study how tool function influences the selection of the relevant action. In Experiment 1, which involved visuomotor priming, two everyday tools (a knife and a screwdriver) and two neutral tools (two bars, with no strong functional affordance) were used as primes and targets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698615/influence-of-the-body-schema-on-multisensory-integration-evidence-from-the-mirror-box-illusion
#5
Yuqi Liu, Jared Medina
When placing one hand on each side of a mirror and making synchronous bimanual movements, the mirror-reflected hand feels like one's own hand that is hidden behind the mirror. We developed a novel mirror box illusion to investigate whether motoric, but not spatial, visuomotor congruence is sufficient for inducing multisensory integration, and importantly, if biomechanical constraints encoded in the body schema influence multisensory integration. Participants placed their hands in a mirror box in opposite postures (palm up, palm down), creating a conflict between visual and proprioceptive feedback for the hand behind the mirror...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686607/cerebellar-anodal-tdcs-increases-implicit-learning-when-strategic-re-aiming-is-suppressed-in-sensorimotor-adaptation
#6
Li-Ann Leow, Welber Marinovic, Stephan Riek, Timothy J Carroll
Neurophysiological and neuroimaging work suggests that the cerebellum is critically involved in sensorimotor adaptation. Changes in cerebellar function alter behaviour when compensating for sensorimotor perturbations, as shown by non-invasive stimulation of the cerebellum and studies involving patients with cerebellar degeneration. It is known, however, that behavioural responses to sensorimotor perturbations reflect both explicit processes (such as volitional aiming to one side of a target to counteract a rotation of visual feedback) and implicit, error-driven updating of sensorimotor maps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668221/human-neuroimaging-reveals-the-subcomponents-of-grasping-reaching-and-pointing-actions
#7
Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi, Jason D Connolly, Simona Monaco, Teresa D Figley, A David Milner, Thomas Schenk, Jody C Culham
Although the neural underpinnings of visually guided grasping and reaching have been well delineated within lateral and medial fronto-parietal networks (respectively), the contributions of subcomponents of visuomotor actions have not been explored in detail. Using careful subtraction logic, here we investigated which aspects of grasping, reaching, and pointing movements drive activation across key areas within visuomotor networks implicated in hand actions. For grasping tasks, we find activation differences based on the precision required (fine > coarse grip: anterior intraparietal sulcus, aIPS), the requirement to lift the object (grip + lift > grip: aIPS; dorsal premotor cortex, PMd; and supplementary motor area, SMA), and the number of digits employed (3-/5- vs...
June 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660844/socioeconomic-emotional-and-physical-execution-variables-as-predictors-of-cognitive-performance-in-a-spanish-sample-of-middle-aged-and-older-community-dwelling-participants
#8
Mari Feli González, David Facal, Onésimo Juncos-Rabadán, Javier Yanguas
BACKGROUND: Cognitive performance is not easily predicted, since different variables play an important role in the manifestation of age-related declines. The objective of this study is to analyze the predictors of cognitive performance in a Spanish sample over 50 years from a multidimensional perspective, including socioeconomic, affective, and physical variables. Some of them are well-known predictors of cognition and others are emergent variables in the study of cognition. METHODS: The total sample, drawn from the "Longitudinal Study Aging in Spain (ELES)" project, consisted of 832 individuals without signs of cognitive impairment...
June 29, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659839/effects-of-an-additional-sequence-of-color-stimuli-on-visuomotor-sequence-learning
#9
Kanji Tanaka, Katsumi Watanabe
Through practice, people are able to integrate a secondary sequence (e.g., a stimulus-based sequence) into a primary sequence (e.g., a response-based sequence), but it is still controversial whether the integrated sequences lead to better learning than only the primary sequence. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a sequence that integrated space and color sequences on early and late learning phases (corresponding to effector-independent and effector-dependent learning, respectively) and how the effects differed in the integrated and primary sequences in each learning phase...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659458/impaired-visuomotor-generalization-by-inconsistent-attentional-contexts
#10
Tony S L Wang, Joo-Hyun Song
In daily life, people are constantly presented with situations to learn and acquire new motor skills in complex environments, where attention is often distracted by other events. Being able to generalize and perform the acquired motor action in different environments is a crucial part of visuomotor learning. The current study examined whether attentional distraction impairs generalization of visuomotor adaptation or whether consistent distraction can operate as an internal cue to facilitate generalization. Using a dual-task paradigm combining visuomotor rotational adaptation and an attention-demanding secondary task, we showed that switching the attentional context from training (dual-task) to generalization (single-task) reduced the range of transfer of visuomotor adaptation to untrained directions...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655039/speech-motor-sequence-learning-effect-of-parkinson-disease-and-normal-aging-on-dual-task-performance
#11
Jason A Whitfield, Alexander M Goberman
Purpose: Everyday communication is carried out concurrently with other tasks. Therefore, determining how dual tasks interfere with newly learned speech motor skills can offer insight into the cognitive mechanisms underlying speech motor learning in Parkinson disease (PD). The current investigation examines a recently learned speech motor sequence under dual-task conditions. Method: A previously learned sequence of 6 monosyllabic nonwords was examined using a dual-task paradigm...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648411/visual-feedback-explains-why-propointing-is-better-than-antipointing-in-spatial-neglect
#12
Kathrin S Utz, Constanze Hesse, Annika Hintz, Daniela Grüneberger, Hartwig Kulke, Inga Roth, Thomas Klos, Vaclav Kromichal, Arthur Melms, Wilfried Schupp, Detlef Kohl, Thomas Schenk
Rossit et al. (2011) showed that neglect patients perform normally in a propointing task but not in an antipointing task which requires pointing towards the mirrored position of a target. It is assumed that antipointing relies on information from the perceptual pathway of our visual brain. Therefore, this finding supports the notion that neglect is a disorder that primarily affects perceptual spatial representations within the brain leaving spatial maps used for visuomotor guidance intact. Alternatively, performance of patients might be compromised in both tasks, but only obviously so in tasks in which online corrections are made more difficult...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642150/inter-limb-transfer-of-kinematic-adaptation-in-individuals-with-motor-difficulties
#13
Jin Bo, Chimei M Lee
A previous study suggested that adults with greater motor difficulties demonstrated less adaptation under a regular error feedback schedule (gain=1:1) but reached a similar level of adaptation compared to controls when feedback was enhanced (gain=1:2). In light of these findings, the present study examined inter-limb transfer after adults adapted to visuomotor distortions with their dominant hand on either regular or enhanced feedback schedules. Results revealed that successful transfer related to the magnitude of adaptation with their dominant hand regardless of the individuals' motor abilities on the regular feedback schedule...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639357/cerebellar-projections-to-the-ventral-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-the-cat
#14
Hiroyuki Nakamura
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) is a retinorecipient part of the ventral thalamus and in cats, it consists of medial (M), medial intermediate (IM), lateral intermediate (IL), lateral (L), and dorsal (D) subdivisions. These subdivisions can be differentiated not only by their cytoarchitecture, but also by their connectivity and putative functions. The LGNv may play a role in visuomotor gating, in that there is evidence of cerebellar afferent projections to the intermediate subdivisions. The cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) and lateral (LC) nuclei are known to project to IM and IL, but the specifics of these projections are unclear...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637818/the-cerebellum-does-more-than-sensory-prediction-error-based-learning-in-sensorimotor-adaptation-tasks
#15
Peter A Butcher, Richard B Ivry, Sheng-Han Kuo, David Rydz, John W Krakauer, Jordan A Taylor
Individuals with damage to the cerebellum perform poorly in sensorimotor adaptation paradigms. This deficit has been attributed to impairment in sensory-prediction-error-based updating of an internal forward model, a form of implicit learning. These individuals can, however, successfully counter a perturbation when instructed with an explicit aiming strategy. This successful use of an instructed aiming strategy presents a paradox: In adaptation tasks, why don't individuals with cerebellar damage come up with an aiming solution on their own to compensate for their implicit learning deficit? To explore this question, we employed a variant of a visuomotor rotation task in which, prior to executing a movement on each trial, the participants verbally reported their intended aiming location...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628379/visuomotor-behaviors-and-performance-in-a-dual-task-paradigm-with-and-without-vibrotactile-feedback-when-using-a-myoelectric-controlled-hand
#16
Eitan Raveh, Jason Friedman, Sigal Portnoy
Prosthesis users allocate visual attention to their prosthetic hand while performing activities of daily living (ADLs), due to absence of sensory feedback. Dual-task assignments present competition for visual attention and may affect the performance of ADLs. Vibrotactile feedback (VTF) is a frequently-used method to provide prosthesis users with tactile feedback. However, the effect of adding VTF on visual attention and performance in a motor dual-task paradigm has not been investigated. Our aim was to compare visual attention and performance during ADLs in a motor dual-task paradigm when using binary VTF and without using VTF...
June 19, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625485/motor-cortical-visuomotor-feedback-activity-is-initially-isolated-from-downstream-targets-in-output-null-neural-state-space-dimensions
#17
Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
Neural circuits must transform new inputs into outputs without prematurely affecting downstream circuits while still maintaining other ongoing communication with these targets. We investigated how this isolation is achieved in the motor cortex when macaques received visual feedback signaling a movement perturbation. To overcome limitations in estimating the mapping from cortex to arm movements, we also conducted brain-machine interface (BMI) experiments where we could definitively identify neural firing patterns as output-null or output-potent...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619233/do-we-have-distinct-systems-for-immediate-and-delayed-actions-a-selective-review-on-the-role-of-visual-memory-in-action
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Schenk, Constanze Hesse
The perception-action model with its assumptions of distinct visual pathways for perception and visuomotor control has been highly influential but also contentious. The controversy largely focused on the evidence from studies on perceptual illusions and this scientific field has been reviewed quite a few times in recent years. In contrast another aspect of the model, namely the role of visual memory in action control, received comparatively little attention. With respect to visual memory the perception-action model proposes that only the perceptual or ventral stream can maintain a sustained representation of the visual world while the visuomotor system or dorsal stream has to rely on currently available visual information...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611148/failure-to-account-for-practice-effects-leads-to-clinical-misinterpretation-of-cognitive-outcome-following-carotid-endarterectomy
#19
Christopher J Marley, Andrew Sinnott, Judith E Hall, Gareth Morris-Stiff, Paul V Woodsford, Michael H Lewis, Damian M Bailey
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure to remove stenotic atherosclerotic plaque from the origin of the carotid artery to reduce the risk of major stroke. Its impact on postoperative cognitive function (POCF) remains controversial; complicated, in part, by a traditional failure to account for practice effects incurred during consecutive psychometric testing. To address this for the first time, we performed psychometric testing (learning and memory, working memory, attention and information processing, and visuomotor coordination) in 15 male patients aged 68 ± 8 years with symptomatic carotid stenosis the day before and 24 h following elective CEA (two consecutive tests, 48 h apart)...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608768/effects-of-dog-assisted-therapy-on-communication-and-basic-social-skills-of-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-pilot-study
#20
Ivano Scorzato, Leonardo Zaninotto, Michela Romano, Chiara Menardi, Lino Cavedon, Alessandra Pegoraro, Laura Socche, Piera Zanetti, Deborah Coppiello
Thirty-nine adults with severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 18). Assessment was blinded and included selected items from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the Behavioral Assessment Battery (BAB), and the Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP). The experimental group, who attended a dog-assisted treatment intervention over a 20-week period, showed significant improvements in several cognitive domains, including attention to movement (BAB-AM), visuomotor coordination (BAB-VM), exploratory play (BAB-EP), and motor imitation (BAB-CO-MI), as well as in some social skills, as measured by LAP items...
June 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
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