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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215622/on-the-neural-basis-of-sensory-weighting-alpha-beta-and-gamma-modulations-during-complex-movements
#1
Nicolas Lebar, Jérémy Danna, Simon Moré, Laurence Mouchnino, Jean Blouin
Previous studies have revealed that visual and somatosensory information is processed as a function of its relevance during movement execution. We thus performed spectral decompositions of ongoing neural activities within the somatosensory and visual areas while human participants performed a complex visuomotor task. In this task, participants followed the outline of irregular polygons with a pen-controlled cursor. At unpredictable times, the motion of the cursor deviated 120° with respect to the actual pen position creating an incongruence between visual and somatosensory inputs, thus increasing the importance of visual feedback to control the movement as suggested in previous studies...
February 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209634/cognitive-decline-in-prostate-cancer-patients-undergoing-adt
#2
Niamh Liana Mundell, Robin M Daly, Helen Macpherson, Steve F Fraser
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective and widely prescribed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), but it is associated with multiple treatment induced adverse effects that impact on various musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Emerging research has shown that ADT is also associated with cognitive impairment, which has been linked to a loss of independence, increased falls and fracture risk and greater use of medical services. The aim of this review is to outline the evidence related to the effect of ADT use on cognitive function, and propose a role for exercise training as part of usual care to prevent and/or manage cognitive impairments for PCa survivors on ADT...
February 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205499/motor-adaptation-deficits-in-ideomotor-apraxia
#3
Pratik K Mutha, Lee H Stapp, Robert L Sainburg, Kathleen Y Haaland
OBJECTIVES: The cardinal motor deficits seen in ideomotor limb apraxia are thought to arise from damage to internal representations for actions developed through learning and experience. However, whether apraxic patients learn to develop new representations with training is not well understood. We studied the capacity of apraxic patients for motor adaptation, a process associated with the development of a new internal representation of the relationship between movements and their sensory effects...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203635/grounded-understanding-of-abstract-concepts-the-case-of-stem-learning
#4
REVIEW
Justin C Hayes, David J M Kraemer
Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199835/rapid-automatic-motor-encoding-of-competing-reach-options
#5
Jason P Gallivan, Brandie M Stewart, Lee A Baugh, Daniel M Wolpert, J Randall Flanagan
Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196647/the-dorsal-visual-stream-revisited-stable-circuits-or-dynamic-pathways
#6
REVIEW
Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
In both macaque and human brain, information regarding visual motion flows from the extrastriate area V6 along two different paths: a dorsolateral one towards areas MT/V5, MST, V3A, and a dorsomedial one towards the visuomotor areas of the superior parietal lobule (V6A, MIP, VIP). The dorsolateral visual stream is involved in many aspects of visual motion analysis, including the recognition of object motion and self motion. The dorsomedial stream uses visual motion information to continuously monitor the spatial location of objects while we are looking and/or moving around, to allow skilled reaching for and grasping of the objects in structured, dynamically changing environments...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192818/-benefits-of-measures-to-promote-development-in-language-mathematics-and-singing-in-kindergardeners-analysis-of-data-collected-at-school-entrance-examination-in-the-county-of-biberach
#7
Ulrike Hart, Manfred Wildner, Daniela Krämer, Alexander Crispin
To evaluate the benefits of implementing measures to promote skills in the areas of language, mathematics and singing in kindergardeners by statistical analysis of data collected during the school entrance examination (ESU) of 4-5-year-old children from the county of Biberach. Study 1 employs multivariate regression analysis to analyse - in chronological order - the ESU data on 4 cohorts (2011-2014; n=7 148) of children of the Biberach county. Study 2 qualitatively compares identical data representative of the entire state of Baden-Württemberg (N=3×80 000) with the Biberach results...
February 13, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189001/functional-outcome-at-school-age-of-children-born-with-gastroschisis
#8
Chiara C M M Lap, Sandra W Bolhuis, Koenraad N J A Van Braeckel, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Gwendolyn T R Manten, Arend F Bos, Jan B F Hulscher
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. STUDY DESIGN: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1999 and 2006 with 32 controls matched for gender, gestational age, birth weight, and corrected for small for gestational age (SGA) and parental socioeconomic status (SES)...
February 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182963/over-facilitation-of-unadapted-cognitive-processes-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-as-assessed-with-the-computerized-mirror-pointing-task
#9
Guillaume Dulude, Kieron O'Connor, Jean-Sebastien Audet, Marc-André Bedard
Response inhibition has been suggested to be dysfunctional in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, this process involves intentional cognitive control, which does not correspond to the automatic emergence of stereotyped thoughts and behaviours usually reported by patients with OCD. In the present study, the excessive facilitation of unintentional processes was assessed in OCD by using the Computerized Mirror Pointing Task (CMPT). Seventy-six volunteers participated in this study, including 39 patients with OCD and 37 healthy controls...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182742/interactive-effects-of-visuomotor-perturbation-and-an-afternoon-nap-on-performance-and-the-flow-experience
#10
Kosuke Kaida, Yoshihiro Itaguchi, Sunao Iwaki
The present study was designed (1) to clarify the relationship between the flow experience and improvements in visuomotor skills, (2) to examine the effects of rotating the axis of a computer mouse on visuomotor skills, and (3) to investigate the effects of sleep for improving visuomotor skills. Participants (N = 18) responded to Perturbation and nap (PER+Nap), No-perturbation and nap (NoPER+Nap) and Perturbation and rest (PER+Rest) conditions. In the PER+Nap condition, participants conducted a visuomotor tracking task using a computer mouse, which was accompanied by perturbation caused by rotating the axis of their mouse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181219/developmental-relations-among-motor-and-cognitive-processes-and-mathematics-skills
#11
Helyn Kim, Chelsea A K Duran, Claire E Cameron, David Grissmer
This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade...
February 9, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166317/effects-of-reduced-acuity-and-stereo-acuity-on-saccades-and-reaching-movements-in-adults-with-amblyopia-and-strabismus
#12
Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, Herbert C Goltz, Linda Colpa, Manokaraananthan Chandrakumar, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: Our previous work has shown that amblyopia disrupts the planning and execution of visually-guided saccadic and reaching movements. We investigated the association between the clinical features of amblyopia and aspects of visuomotor behavior that are disrupted by amblyopia. Methods: A total of 55 adults with amblyopia (22 anisometropic, 18 strabismic, 15 mixed mechanism), 14 adults with strabismus without amblyopia, and 22 visually-normal control participants completed a visuomotor task while their eye and hand movements were recorded...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165881/subtle-visuomotor-deficits-and-reduced-benefit-from-practice-in-early-treated-phenylketonuria
#13
Claudia Caprile, Jaume Campistol, Laura Puigcerver, Alfonso-Pablo Gutiérrez-Mata, Itziar Alonso-Colmenero, Roser Colomé, Jordi Navarra
INTRODUCTION: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare metabolic disease that causes slight-to-severe neurological symptoms. Slow performance has been observed in PKU but the influence of high-order (i.e., not purely motor) deficits and of temporary variations of the phenylalanine (Phe) level on this slowness has not been fully corroborated as yet. Response speed and the effect of motor practice during the performance of a visuomotor coordination task were measured, in a group of patients with early-treated phenylketonuria (ET PKU)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153687/error-related-negativity-in-the-skilled-brain-of-pianists-reveals-motor-simulation
#14
Alice Mado Proverbio, Matteo Cozzi, Andrea Orlandi, Manuel Carminati
Evidences have been provided of a crucial role of multimodal audio-visuomotor processing in subserving the musical ability. In this paper we investigated whether musical audiovisual stimulation might trigger the activation of motor information in the brain of professional pianists, due to the presence of permanent gestures/sound associations. At this aim EEG was recorded in 24 pianists and naive participants engaged in the detection of rare targets while watching hundreds of video clips showing a pair of hands in the act of playing, along with a compatible or incompatible piano soundtrack...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146589/the-phes-battery-does-not-detect-all-cirrhotic-patients-with-early-neurological-deficits-which-are-different-in-different-patients
#15
Carla Giménez-Garzó, Juan José Garcés, Amparo Urios, Alba Mangas-Losada, Raquel García-García, Olga González-López, Remedios Giner-Durán, Desamparados Escudero-García, Miguel Angel Serra, Emilio Soria, Vicente Felipo, Carmina Montoliu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) is the "gold standard" for minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) diagnosis. Some reports suggest that some cirrhotic patients "without" MHE according to PHES show neurological deficits and other reports that neurological alterations are not homogeneous in all cirrhotic patients. This work aimed to assess whether: 1) a relevant proportion of cirrhotic patients show neurological deficits not detected by PHES; 2) cirrhotic patients with mild neurological deficits are a homogeneous population or may be classified in sub-groups according to specific deficits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137969/cerebellar-m1-connectivity-changes-associated-to-motor-learning-are-somatotopic-specific
#16
D Spampinato, H J Block, P Celnik
: One of the functions of the cerebellum in motor learning is to predict and account for systematic changes to the body or environment. This form of adaptive learning is mediated by plastic changes occurring within the cerebellar cortex. The strength of cerebellar-to- cerebral pathways for a given muscle may reflect aspects of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation. These connections with motor cortex (M1) can be estimated as cerebellar inhibition (CBI): a conditioning pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered to the cerebellum prior to a test pulse over motor cortex...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123020/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-visuomotor-related-functional-connectivity-networks
#17
Andrea Brovelli, Jean-Michel Badier, Francesca Bonini, Fabrice Bartolomei, Olivier Coulon, Guillaume Auzias
: Cognitive functions arise from the coordination of large-scale brain networks. However, the principles governing interareal functional connectivity dynamics (FCD) remain elusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human executive functions arise from the dynamic interplay of multiple networks. To do so, we investigated FCD mediating a key executing function, known as arbitrary visuomotor mapping, using brain connectivity analyses of high-gamma activity recorded using MEG and intracranial EEG...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116988/efficacy-of-home-based-visuomotor-feedback-training-in-stroke-patients-with-chronic-hemispatial-neglect
#18
Stéphanie Rossit, Christopher S Y Benwell, Larissa Szymanek, Gemma Learmonth, Laura McKernan-Ward, Elaine Corrigan, Keith Muir, Ian Reeves, George Duncan, Philip Birschel, Margaret Roberts, Katrina Livingstone, Hazel Jackson, Pauline Castle, Monika Harvey
Hemispatial neglect is a severe cognitive condition frequently observed after a stroke, associated with unawareness of one side of space, disability and poor long-term outcome. Visuomotor feedback training (VFT) is a neglect rehabilitation technique that involves a simple, inexpensive and feasible training of grasping-to-lift rods at the centre. We compared the immediate and long-term effects of VFT vs. a control training when delivered in a home-based setting. Twenty participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (who received VFT) or a control group (n = 10 each)...
January 24, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114481/asymmetric-representations-of-upper-and-lower-visual-fields-in-egocentric-and-allocentric-references
#19
Yang Zhou, Gongchen Yu, Xuefei Yu, Si Wu, Mingsha Zhang
Two spatial reference systems, i.e., the observer-centered (egocentric) and object-centered (allocentric) references, are most commonly used to locate the position of the external objects in space. Although we sense the world as a unified entity, visual processing is asymmetric between upper and lower visual fields (VFs). For example, the goal-directed reaching responses are more efficient in the lower VF. Such asymmetry suggests that the visual space might be composed of different realms regarding perception and action...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113982/forces-that-supplement-visuomotor-learning-a-sensory-crossover-experiment
#20
Moria Fisher Bittmann, James L Patton
Previous studies on reaching movements have shown that people can adapt to either visuomotor (e.g., prism glasses) or mechanical distortions (e.g., force fields) through repetitive practice. Recent work has shown that adaptation to one type of distortion might have implications on learning the other type, suggesting that neural resources are common to both kinematic and kinetic adaptation. This study investigated whether training with a novel force field might benefit the learning of a visual distortion - specifically, when forces were designed to produce aftereffects that aligned with the ideal trajectory for a visual rotation...
September 23, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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