Read by QxMD icon Read


Erez Freud, Amanda K Robinson, Marlene Behrmann
An evolving view in cognitive neuroscience is that the dorsal visual pathway not only plays a key role in visuomotor behavior but that it also contributes functionally to the recognition of objects. To characterize the nature of the object representations derived by the dorsal pathway, we assessed perceptual performance in the context of the continuous flash suppression paradigm, which suppresses object processing in the ventral pathway while sparing computation in the dorsal pathway. In a series of experiments, prime stimuli, which were rendered imperceptible by the continuous flash suppression, still contributed to perceptual decisions related to the subsequent perceptible target stimuli...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Maritta Välimäki, Kaisa Mishina, Johanna K Kaakinen, Suvi K Holm, Jukka Vahlo, Markus Kirjonen, Virve Pekurinen, Olli Tenovuo, Jyrki Korkeila, Heikki Hämäläinen, Jaana Sarajuuri, Pekka Rantanen, Tage Orenius, Aki Koponen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem that often requires intensive and long-term rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether rehabilitative digital gaming facilitates cognitive functioning and general well-being in people with TBI. METHODS: A total of 90 Finnish-speaking adults with TBI (18-65 years) were recruited from an outpatient neuroscience clinic. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: a rehabilitation gaming group (n=29, intervention), an entertainment gaming group (n=29, active control), or a passive control group (n=32)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Govinda R Poudel, Carrie R H Innes, Richard D Jones
Even when it is critical to stay awake, such as when driving, sleep deprivation weakens one's ability to do so by substantially increasing the propensity for microsleeps. Microsleeps are complete lapses of consciousness but, paradoxically, are associated with transient increases in cortical activity. But do microsleeps provide a benefit in terms of attenuating the need for sleep? And is the neural response to microsleeps altered by the degree of homeostatic drive to sleep? In this study, we continuously monitored eye-video, visuomotor responsiveness, and brain activity via fMRI in 20 healthy subjects during a 20-min visuomotor tracking task following a normally-rested night and a sleep-restricted (4-h) night...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Arantzazu Zabala, Monika Salgueiro, Oihane Sáez-Atxukarro, Javier Ballesteros, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Rafael Segarra
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Its most prevalent manifestation is neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE), which is characterized by increased involvement of the nervous system, with relevant symptoms, such as marked cognitive deficits, which are directly involved in subsequent functional disability. The objective of this study is to identify and compare the profile of cognitive deficits in patients with NP-SLE and patients with non-neuropsychiatric SLE (nonNP-SLE) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Sima Chalavi, Lisa Pauwels, Kirstin-Friederike Heise, Hamed Zivariadab, Celine Maes, Nicolaas A J Puts, Richard A E Edden, Stephan P Swinnen
Efficient practice organization maximizes learning outcome. Although randomization of practice as compared to blocked practice damages training performance, it boosts retention performance, an effect called contextual interference. Motor learning modulates the GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) system within the sensorimotor cortex (SM); however, it is unclear whether different practice regimes differentially modulate this system and whether this is impacted by aging. Young and older participants were trained on 3 variations of a visuomotor task over 3 days, following either blocked or random practice schedule and retested 6 days later...
February 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Xiao-Ling Yang, Yolandi van der Merwe, Jeffrey Sims, Carlos Parra, Leon C Ho, Joel S Schuman, Gadi Wollstein, Kira L Lathrop, Kevin C Chan
Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and age are major risk factors for glaucoma, their effects on glaucoma pathogenesis remain unclear. This study examined the onset and progression of glaucomatous changes to ocular anatomy and physiology, structural and physiological brain integrity, and visuomotor behavior in the DBA/2J mice via non-invasive tonometry, multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optokinetic assessments from 5 to 12 months of age. Using T2-weighted MRI, diffusion tensor MRI, and manganese-enhanced MRI, increasing IOP elevation at 9 and 12 months old coincided with anterior chamber deepening, altered fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity of the optic nerve and optic tract, as well as reduced anterograde manganese transport along the visual pathway respectively in the DBA/2J mice...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emily K Prentiss, Colleen L Schneider, Zoë R Williams, Bogachan Sahin, Bradford Z Mahon
The division of labour between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways is well established. The ventral stream supports object identification, while the dorsal stream supports online processing of visual information in the service of visually guided actions. Here, we report a case of an individual with a right inferior quadrantanopia who exhibited accurate spontaneous rotation of his wrist when grasping a target object in his blind visual field. His accurate wrist orientation was observed despite the fact that he exhibited no sensitivity to the orientation of the handle in a perceptual matching task...
March 15, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Peter James Holland, Olivier Codol, Joseph M Galea
Despite increasing interest in the role of reward in motor learning, the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. In particular, the contribution of explicit processes to reward-based motor learning is unclear. To address this, we examined subject's (n=30) ability to learn to compensate for a gradually introduced 25⁰ visuomotor rotation with only reward-based feedback (binary success/failure). Only two-thirds of subjects (n=20) were successful at the maximum angle. The remaining subjects initially followed the rotation but after a variable number of trials began to reach at an insufficiently large angle and subsequently returned to near baseline performance (n=10)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Fiona M Z van den Heiligenberg, Tanya Orlov, Scott N Macdonald, Eugene P Duff, David Henderson Slater, Christian F Beckmann, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
The human brain contains multiple hand-selective areas, in both the sensorimotor and visual systems. Could our brain repurpose neural resources, originally developed for supporting hand function, to represent and control artificial limbs? We studied individuals with congenital or acquired hand-loss (hereafter one-handers) using functional MRI. We show that the more one-handers use an artificial limb (prosthesis) in their everyday life, the stronger visual hand-selective areas in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex respond to prosthesis images...
March 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Patricia Dore, Ardian Dumani, Geddes Wyatt, Alex J Shepherd
This study explored associations between local and global shape perception on coloured backgrounds, colour discrimination, and non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). Five background colours were chosen for the local and global shape tasks that were tailored for the cone-opponent pathways early in the visual system (cardinal colour directions: L-M, loosely, reddish-greenish; and S-(L+M), or tritan colours, loosely, blueish-yellowish; where L, M and S refer to the long, middle and short wavelength sensitive cones). Participants also completed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test (FM100) to determine whether performance on the local and global shape tasks correlated with colour discrimination overall, or with performance on the L-M and tritan subsets of the FM100 test...
March 9, 2018: Vision Research
Steven M Barlow, Mohsen Hozan, Jaehoon Lee, Jake Greenwood, Rebecca Custead, Brianna Wardyn, Kaytlin Tippin
The relation among several parameters of the ramp-and-hold isometric force contraction (peak force and dF/dtmax during the initial phase of force recruitment, and the proportion of hold-phase at target) was quantified for the right and left thumb-index finger pinch, and lower lip midline compression in 40 neurotypical right-handed young adults (20 female/20 males) using wireless force sensors and data acquisition technology developed in our laboratory. In this visuomotor control task, participants produced ramp-and-hold isometric forces as 'rapidly and accurately' as possible to end-point target levels at 0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
We assessed the effect of an acute intense exercise bout on the adaptation and consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task in children. We also sought to assess if exercise and learning task presentation order could affect task consolidation. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) exercise before the learning task, (b) exercise after the learning task, and (c) only learning task. Baseline performance was assessed by practicing the learning task in a 0° rotation condition...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Hui-Feng Zhang, Lan Shuai, Jin-Song Zhang, Yu-Feng Wang, Teng-Fei Lu, Xin Tan, Jing-Xue Pan, Li-Xiao Shen
Background: Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. Methods: The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Magdalena Chechlacz
In 1909 Rezsö Bálint published an extraordinary case study of a man with complex visuospatial deficits resulting from bilateral parietal lesions. Despite some controversies over the nature of reported symptoms, in 1954 Hecaen and Ajuriaguerra conceived the term "Bálint syndrome," not only to honor Bálint's influential work but to firmly conceptualize this striking neurologic disorder. Nowadays it is largely agreed that, while Bálint syndrome may result from multiple etiologies, it is principally diagnosed based on the presence of three symptoms: simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and ocular apraxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yves Rossetti, Laure Pisella
This chapter reviews clinical and scientific approaches to optic ataxia. This double historic track allows us to address important issues such as the link between Bálint syndrome and optic ataxia, the alleged double dissociation between optic ataxia and visual agnosia, and the use of optic ataxia to argue for a specific vision-for-action occipitoposterior parietal stream. Clinical cases are described and reveal that perceptual deficits have been long shown to accompany ataxia. Importantly, the term ataxia appears to be misleading as patients exhibit a combination of visual and nonvisual perceptual, attentional, and visuomotor guidance deficits, which are confirmed by experimental approaches...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Katinka van der Kooij, Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes, Tessa Rigterink, Krista E Overvliet, Joeren B J Smeets
The brain rapidly adapts reaching movements to changing circumstances by using visual feedback about errors. Providing reward in addition to error feedback facilitates the adaptation but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether the proportion of trials rewarded (the 'reward abundance') influences how much participants adapt to their errors. We used a 3D multi-target pointing task in which reward alone is insufficient for motor adaptation. Participants (N = 423) performed the pointing task with feedback based on a shifted hand-position...
2018: PloS One
Arran T Reader, Ben P Royce, Jade E Marsh, Katy-Jayne Chivers, Nicholas P Holmes
Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e., unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the inferior parietal lobule is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left inferior parietal lobule, or how different types of action (i...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Michael Leung, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Dawson Kidgell
This study aimed to identify the ipsilateral corticospinal responses of the contralateral limb following different types of unilateral motor-training. Three groups performing unilateral slow-paced strength training (SPST), non-paced strength training (NPST) or visuomotor skill training (VT) were compared to a control group. It was hypothesised that 4 weeks of unilateral SPST and VT, but not NPST, would increase ipsilateral corticospinal excitability (CSE) and reduce short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), resulting in greater performance gains of the untrained limb...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Priscilla Salas, Vall Vinaithirthan, Erin Newman-Smith, Matthew J Kourakis, William C Smith
The swimming tadpole larva of Ciona has one of the simplest central nervous systems known, with only 177 neurons. Despite its simplicity, the Ciona CNS shares common structure with the CNS of its close chordate relatives, the vertebrates. The recent completion of a larval Ciona CNS connectome creates enormous potential for detailed understanding of chordate CNS function, yet our understanding of Ciona larval behavior is incomplete. We show here that Ciona larvae have a surprisingly rich and dynamic set of visual responses, including a looming-object escape behavior characterized by erratic circular swims, as well as negative phototaxis characterized by sustained directional swims...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Anna Sadnicka, Anna Stevenson, Kailash P Bhatia, John C Rothwell, Mark J Edwards, Joseph M Galea
For the healthy motor control system, an essential regulatory role is maintaining the equilibrium between keeping unwanted motor variability in check whilst allowing informative elements of motor variability. Kinematic studies in children with generalised dystonia (due to mixed aetiologies) show that movements are characterised by increased motor variability. In this study, the mechanisms by which high motor variability may influence movement generation in dystonia were investigated. Reaching movements in the symptomatic arm of 10 patients with DYT1 dystonia and 12 age-matched controls were captured using a robotic manipulandum and features of motor variability were extracted...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"