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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926418/hemispheric-dominance-for-stereognosis-in-a-patient-with-an-infarct-of-the-left-postcentral-sensory-hand-area
#1
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The concept of left hemispheric dominance for praxis, speech, and language has been one of the pillars of neurology since the mid-19th century. In 1906, Hermann Oppenheim reported a patient with bilateral stereoagnosia (astereognosis) caused by a left parietal lobe tumor and proposed that the left hemisphere was also dominant for stereognosis. Surprisingly, few cases of bilateral stereoagnosia caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion have been documented in the literature since then. Here we report a 75-year-old right-handed man who developed bilateral stereoagnosia after suffering a small infarct in the crown of the left postcentral gyrus...
September 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900673/eye-hand-coordination-during-visuomotor-adaptation-effects-of-hemispace-and-joint-coordination
#2
Miya K Rand, Sebastian Rentsch
We previously examined adaptive changes of eye-hand coordination during learning of a visuomotor rotation. Gazes during reaching movements were initially directed to a feedback cursor in early practice, but were gradually shifted toward the target with more practice, indicating an emerging gaze anchoring behavior. This adaptive pattern reflected a functional change of gaze control from exploring the cursor-hand relation to guiding the hand to the task goal. The present study further examined the effects of hemispace and joint coordination associated with target directions on this behavior...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895316/action-observation-produces-motor-resonance-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Judith Bek, Emma Gowen, Stefan Vogt, Trevor Crawford, Ellen Poliakoff
Observation of movement activates the observer's own motor system, influencing the performance of actions and facilitating social interaction. This motor resonance is demonstrated behaviourally through visuomotor priming, whereby response latencies are influenced by the compatibility between an intended action and an observed (task-irrelevant) action. The impact of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) on motor resonance is unclear, as previous studies of visuomotor priming have not separated imitative compatibility (specific to human movement) from general stimulus-response compatibility effects...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887626/probability-differently-modulating-the-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-visuomotor-adaptation
#4
Yanlong Song, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
Recent human motor learning studies revealed that punishment seemingly accelerated motor learning but reward enhanced consolidation of motor memory. It is not evident how intrinsic properties of reward and punishment modulate the potentially dissociable effects of reward and punishment on motor learning and motor memory. It is also not clear what causes the dissociation of the effects of reward and punishment. By manipulating probability of distribution, a critical property of reward and punishment, the present study demonstrated that probability had distinct modulation on the effects of reward and punishment in adapting to a sudden visual rotation and consolidation of the adaptation memory...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878462/effect-of-task-oriented-activities-on-hand-functions-cognitive-functions-and-self-expression-of-elderly-patients-with-dementia
#5
Bo-Young Son, Yo-Soon Bang, Min-Ji Hwang, Eun-Ju Oh
[Purpose] This study investigates the effects of task-oriented activities on hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression of the elderly with dementia, and then identify the influencing factors on self-expression in sub-factors of dependent variables. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly persons were divided into two groups: intervention group (n=20) and control group (n=20). The interventions were applied to the subjects 3 times a week, 50 minutes per each time, for a total of five weeks. We measured the jamar hand dynamometer test for grip strength, the jamar hydraulic pinch gauge test for prehension test, nine-hole pegboard test for coordination test, and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric Population for cognitive function, and self-expression rating scale for self-expression test...
August 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871420/weber-s-law-in-2d-and-3d-grasping
#6
Aviad Ozana, Tzvi Ganel
Visually guided grasping movements directed to real, 3D objects are characterized by a distinguishable trajectory pattern that evades the influence of Weber's law, a basic principle of perception. Conversely, grasping trajectories directed to 2D line drawings of objects adhere to Weber's law. It can be argued, therefore, that during 2D grasping, the visuomotor system fails at operating in analytic mode and is intruded by irrelevant perceptual information. Here, we explored the visual and tactile cues that enable such analytic processing during grasping...
September 4, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868651/the-effects-of-preterm-birth-on-visual-development
#7
REVIEW
Myra Ps Leung, Benjamin Thompson, Joanna Black, Shuan Dai, Jane M Alsweiler
Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care...
September 3, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864874/close-interpersonal-proximity-modulates-visuomotor-processing-of-object-affordances-in-shared-social-space
#8
Elizabeth J Saccone, Ancret Szpak, Owen Churches, Michael E R Nicholls
Research suggests that the human brain codes manipulable objects as possibilities for action, or affordances, particularly objects close to the body. Near-body space is not only a zone for body-environment interaction but also is socially relevant, as we are driven to preserve our near-body, personal space from others. The current, novel study investigated how close proximity of a stranger modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. Participants performed a behavioural object recognition task both alone and with a human confederate...
September 1, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856241/structural-learning-in-a-visuomotor-adaptation-task-is-explicitly-accessible
#9
Krista M Bond, Jordan A Taylor
Structural learning is a phenomenon characterized by faster learning in a new situation that shares features of previously experienced situations. One prominent example within the sensorimotor domain is that human participants are faster to counter a novel rotation following experience with a set of variable visuomotor rotations. This form of learning is thought to occur implicitly through the updating of an internal forward model, which predicts the sensory consequences of motor commands. However, recent work has shown that much of rotation learning occurs through an explicitly accessible process, such as movement re-aiming...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853037/does-visuomotor-adaptation-contribute-to-illusion-resistant-grasping
#10
Evan Cesanek, Carlo Campagnoli, Jordan A Taylor, Fulvio Domini
Do illusory distortions of perceived object size influence how wide the hand is opened during a grasping movement? Many studies on this question have reported illusion-resistant grasping, but this finding has been contradicted by other studies showing that grasping movements and perceptual judgments are equally susceptible. One largely unexplored explanation for these contradictions is that illusion effects on grasping can be reduced with repeated movements. Using a visuomotor adaptation paradigm, we investigated whether an adaptation model could predict the time course of Ponzo illusion effects on grasping...
August 29, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840275/the-effects-of-a-two-step-transfer-on-a-visuomotor-adaptation-task
#11
Christopher A Aiken, Zhujun Pan, Arend W A Van Gemmert
The literature has shown robust effects of transfer-of-learning to the contralateral side and more recently transfer-of-learning effects to a new effector type on the ipsilateral side. Few studies have investigated the effects of transfer-of-learning when skills transfer to both a new effector type and the contralateral side (two-step transfer). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of two-step transfer and to examine which aspects of the movement transfer and which aspects do not...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837967/stereovision-for-action-reflects-our-perceptual-experience-of-distance-and-depth
#12
Carlo Campagnoli, Sholei Croom, Fulvio Domini
Binocular vision is widely recognized as the most reliable source of 3D information within the peripersonal space, where grasping takes place. Since grasping is normally successful, it is often assumed that stereovision for action is accurate. This claim contradicts psychophysical studies showing that observers cannot estimate the 3D properties of an object veridically from binocular information. In two experiments, we compared a front-to-back grasp with a perceptual depth estimation task and found that in both conditions participants consistently relied on the same distorted 3D representation...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835530/rapid-visuomotor-feedback-gains-are-tuned-to-the-task-dynamics
#13
Sae Franklin, Daniel M Wolpert, David W Franklin
Adaptation to novel dynamics requires learning a motor memory, or a new pattern of predictive feedforward motor commands. Recently we demonstrated the up-regulation of rapid visuomotor feedback gains early in curl force field learning, which decrease once a predictive motor memory is learned. However, even after learning is complete, these feedback gains are higher than those observed in the null field trials. Interestingly these up-regulated feedback gains in the curl field were not observed in a constant force field...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835524/distinct-coordinate-systems-for-adaptations-of-movement-direction-and-extent
#14
Eugene Poh, Timothy John Carroll, Aymar de Rugy
Learned compensations for perturbed visual feedback of movement extent and direction generalize differently to unpractised movement directions, which suggests different underlying neural mechanisms. Here we investigated whether gain and rotation adaptations are consistent with representation in different coordinate systems. Subjects performed a force aiming task with the wrist, and learned different gains or rotations for different force directions. Generalization was tested without visual feedback for the same extrinsic directions but with the forearm in a different pronation-supination orientation...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835519/impact-of-prior-errors-on-visuomotor-adaptation-and-savings-experimental-considerations-and-clinical-implications
#15
Morgan Wright
The motor system retains learning from visuomotor adaptation tasks in the form of "savings" to enable faster readaptation to similar perturbations in the future. Leow et al. (J Neurophysiol 116: 1603-1614, 2016) suggest that the experience of prior errors during relearning is necessary for savings while repetition of prior actions may not be sufficient. These findings provide novel insight into factors that contribute to visuomotor adaptation and can be applied to future experimental and clinical research.
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832013/model-and-experiments-to-optimize-co-adaptation-in-a-simplified-myoelectric-control-system
#16
Mathilde Couraud, Daniel Cattaert, Florent Paclet, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Aymar de Rugy
OBJECTIVE: To compensate for a limb lost in an amputation, myoelectric prostheses use surface electromyography (EMG) from the remaining muscles to control the prosthesis. Despite considerable progress, myoelectric controls remain markedly different from the way we normally control movements, and require intense user adaptation. To overcome this, our goal is to explore concurrent machine co-adaptation techniques that are developed in the field of brain-machine interface, and that are beginning to be used in myoelectric controls...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828186/learning-how-to-learn-super-declarative-motor-learning-is-impaired-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Lucio Marinelli, Carlo Trompetto, Stefania Canneva, Laura Mori, Flavio Nobili, Francesco Fattapposta, Antonio Currà, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Maria Felice Ghilardi
Learning new information is crucial in daily activities and occurs continuously during a subject's lifetime. Retention of learned material is required for later recall and reuse, although learning capacity is limited and interference between consecutively learned information may occur. Learning processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD); however, little is known about the processes related to retention and interference. The aim of this study is to investigate the retention and anterograde interference using a declarative sequence learning task in drug-naive patients in the disease's early stages...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827154/dance-expertise-modulates-visual-sensitivity-to-complex-biological-movements
#18
Andrea Orlandi, Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Motor resonance processes that occur when observing an individual perform an action may be modulated by acquired visuomotor expertise. We used the event-related potential (EEG/ERP) technique to investigate the ability to automatically recognize a subtle difference between very similar novel contemporary dance movements. Twelve professional dancers and twelve non-dancers were shown 212 pairs of videos of complex whole-body movements that lasted 3s. The second of each pair was the repetition of the previous movement or a slight variation of it (deviance)...
August 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825703/virtual-reality-for-freely-moving-animals
#19
John R Stowers, Maximilian Hofbauer, Renaud Bastien, Johannes Griessner, Peter Higgins, Sarfarazhussain Farooqui, Ruth M Fischer, Karin Nowikovsky, Wulf Haubensak, Iain D Couzin, Kristin Tessmar-Raible, Andrew D Straw
Standard animal behavior paradigms incompletely mimic nature and thus limit our understanding of behavior and brain function. Virtual reality (VR) can help, but it poses challenges. Typical VR systems require movement restrictions but disrupt sensorimotor experience, causing neuronal and behavioral alterations. We report the development of FreemoVR, a VR system for freely moving animals. We validate immersive VR for mice, flies, and zebrafish. FreemoVR allows instant, disruption-free environmental reconfigurations and interactions between real organisms and computer-controlled agents...
August 21, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821719/neural-physiological-and-behavioral-correlates-of-visuomotor-cognitive-load
#20
S M Hadi Hosseini, Jennifer L Bruno, Joseph M Baker, Andrew Gundran, Lene K Harbott, J Christian Gerdes, Allan L Reiss
Visuomotor ability is quite crucial for everyday functioning, particularly in driving and sports. While there is accumulating evidence regarding neural correlates of visuomotor transformation, less is known about the brain regions that accommodate visuomotor mapping under different cognitive demands. We concurrently measured cortical activity and pupillary response, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and eye-tracking glasses, to examine the neural systems linked to pupil dilation under varying cognitive demands...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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