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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103278/systematic-influence-of-perceived-grasp-shape-on-speech-production
#1
Lari Vainio, Aleksi Rantala, Mikko Tiainen, Kaisa Tiippana, Naeem Komeilipoor, Martti Vainio
Previous research has shown that precision and power grip performance is consistently influenced by simultaneous articulation. For example, power grip responses are performed relatively fast with the open-back vowel [a], whereas precision grip responses are performed relatively fast with the close-front vowel [i]. In the present study, the participants were presented with a picture of a hand shaped to the precision or power grip. They were required to pronounce speech sounds according to the front/above perspective of the hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102342/neural-activity-in-the-dorsal-medial-superior-temporal-area-of-monkeys-represents-retinal-error-during-adaptive-motor-learning
#2
Aya Takemura, Tomoyo Ofuji, Kenichiro Miura, Kenji Kawano
To adapt to variable environments, humans regulate their behavior by modulating gains in sensory-to-motor processing. In this study, we measured a simple eye movement, the ocular following response (OFR), in monkeys to study the neuronal basis of adaptive motor learning in the visuomotor processing stream. The medial superior temporal (MST) area of the cerebral cortex is a critical site for contextual gain modulation of the OFR. However, the role of MST neurons in adaptive gain modulation of the OFR remains unknown...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094320/improved-motor-performance-in-patients-with-acute-stroke-using-the-optimal-individual-attentional-strategy
#3
Takeshi Sakurada, Takeshi Nakajima, Mitsuya Morita, Masahiro Hirai, Eiju Watanabe
It is believed that motor performance improves when individuals direct attention to movement outcome (external focus, EF) rather than to body movement itself (internal focus, IF). However, our previous study found that an optimal individual attentional strategy depended on motor imagery ability. We explored whether the individual motor imagery ability in stroke patients also affected the optimal attentional strategy for motor control. Individual motor imagery ability was determined as either kinesthetic- or visual-dominant by a questionnaire in 28 patients and 28 healthy-controls...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089855/peripheral-electrical-stimulation-increases-corticomotor-excitability-and-enhances-the-rate-of-visuomotor-adaptation
#4
Simon J Summers, Siobhan M Schabrun, Welber Marinovic, Lucy S Chipchase
Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) modulates corticomotor excitability but its effect on motor performance has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess whether increases and/or decreases in corticomotor excitability, induced by PES, influenced motor performance using a visuomotor adaptation task. Three PES interventions (motor stimulation, sensory stimulation or sham) were delivered to the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) in 30 healthy participants matched for age, gender and handedness...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087827/neuropsychological-outcome-following-frontal-lobectomy-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-adults
#5
Robyn M Busch, Darlene P Floden, Lisa Ferguson, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Audrina Mullane, Stephen Jones, Lara Jehi, William Bingaman, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087767/trial-by-trial-motor-cortical-correlates-of-a-rapidly-adapting-visuomotor-internal-model
#6
Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
: Accurate motor control is mediated by internal models of how neural activity generates movement. We examined neural correlates of an adapting internal model of visuomotor gain in motor cortex while two macaques performed a reaching task in which the gain scaling between the hand and a presented cursor was varied. Previous studies of cortical changes during visuomotor adaptation focused on preparatory and peri-movement epochs and analyzed trial-averaged neural data. Here, we recorded simultaneous neural population activity using multielectrode arrays and focused our analysis on neural differences in the period before the target appeared...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072633/visual-motion-processing-subserves-faster-visuomotor-reaction-in-badminton-players
#7
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
INTRODUCTION: Athletes participating in ball or racquet sports have to respond to visual stimuli under critical time pressure. Previous studies used visual contrast stimuli to determine visual perception and visuomotor reaction in athletes and non-athletes however, especially ball and racquet sports are characterized by motion rather than contrast visual cues. Since visual contrast and motion signals are processed in different cortical regions, this study aimed to determine differences in perception and processing of visual motion between athletes and non-athletes...
January 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069097/cognitive-outcome-in-childhood-onset-epilepsy-a-five-decade-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Mira Karrasch, Petri Tiitta, Bruce Hermann, Juho Joutsa, Shlomo Shinnar, Juha Rinne, Anu Anttinen, Matti Sillanpää
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the very long-term cognitive outcome in patients with childhood-onset epilepsy. The aim of this unique prospective population-based cohort study was to examine cognitive outcomes in aging participants with childhood-onset epilepsy (mean onset age=5.3 years) five decades later (mean age at follow-up=56.5 years). METHODS: The sample consisted of 48 participants with childhood-onset epilepsy and 48 age-matched healthy controls aged 48-63 years...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068368/a-virtual-out-of-body-experience-reduces-fear-of-death
#9
Pierre Bourdin, Itxaso Barberia, Ramon Oliva, Mel Slater
Immersive virtual reality can be used to visually substitute a person's real body by a life-sized virtual body (VB) that is seen from first person perspective. Using real-time motion capture the VB can be programmed to move synchronously with the real body (visuomotor synchrony), and also virtual objects seen to strike the VB can be felt through corresponding vibrotactile stimulation on the actual body (visuotactile synchrony). This setup typically gives rise to a strong perceptual illusion of ownership over the VB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049445/expertise-related-functional-brain-network-efficiency-in-healthy-older-adults
#10
Julia C Binder, Ladina Bezzola, Aurea I S Haueter, Carina Klein, Jürg Kühnis, Hansruedi Baetschmann, Lutz Jäncke
BACKGROUND: In view of age-related brain changes, identifying factors that are associated with healthy aging are of great interest. In the present study, we compared the functional brain network characteristics of three groups of healthy older participants aged 61-75 years who had a different cognitive and motor training history (multi-domain group: participants who had participated in a multi-domain training; visuomotor group: participants who had participated in a visuomotor training; control group: participants with no specific training history)...
January 3, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043955/structural-cerebellar-correlates-of-cognitive-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-cerebellar-degeneration
#11
Kalyani Kansal, Zhen Yang, Ann M Fishman, Haris I Sair, Sarah H Ying, Bruno M Jedynak, Jerry L Prince, Chiadi U Onyike
Detailed mapping of clinical dysfunctions to the cerebellar lobules in disease populations is necessary to establish the functional significance of lobules implicated in cognitive and motor functions in normal subjects. This study constitutes the first quantitative examination of the lobular correlates of a broad range of cognitive and motor phenomena in cerebellar disease. We analysed cross-sectional data from 72 cases with cerebellar disease and 36 controls without cerebellar disease. Cerebellar lobule volumes were derived from a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm...
January 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043056/speed-resistance-and-unexpected-accelerations-modulate-feed-forward-and-feedback-control-during-a-novel-weight-bearing-task
#12
Shih-Chiao Tseng, Keith R Cole, Michael A Shaffer, Michael A Petrie, Chu-Ling Yen, Richard K Shields
We developed a method to investigate feed-forward and feedback movement control during a weight bearing visuomotor knee tracking task. We hypothesized that a systematic increase in speed and resistance would show a linear decrease in movement accuracy, while unexpected perturbations would induce a velocity-dependent decrease in movement accuracy. We determined the effects of manipulating the speed, resistance, and unexpected events on error during a functional weight bearing task. Our long term objective is to benchmark neuromuscular control performance across various groups based on age, injury, disease, rehabilitation status, and/or training...
December 15, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039795/visuomotor-adaptability-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-decline
#13
Jeffrey Schaffert, Chi-Mei Lee, Rebecca Neill, Jin Bo
The current study examined the augmentation of error feedback on visuomotor adaptability in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive decline (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA). Twenty-three participants performed a center-out computerized visuomotor adaptation task when the visual feedback of their hand movement error was presented in a regular (ratio=1:1) or enhanced (ratio=1:2) error feedback schedule. Results showed that older adults with lower scores on the MoCA had less adaptability than those with higher MoCA scores during the regular feedback schedule...
December 28, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039678/studying-the-neural-bases-of-prism-adaptation-using-fmri-a-technical-and-design-challenge
#14
Janet H Bultitude, Alessandro Farnè, Romeo Salemme, Danielle Ibarrola, Christian Urquizar, Jacinta O'Shea, Jacques Luauté
Prism adaptation induces rapid recalibration of visuomotor coordination. The neural mechanisms of prism adaptation have come under scrutiny since the observations that the technique can alleviate hemispatial neglect following stroke, and can alter spatial cognition in healthy controls. Relative to non-imaging behavioral studies, fMRI investigations of prism adaptation face several challenges arising from the confined physical environment of the scanner and the supine position of the participants. Any researcher who wishes to administer prism adaptation in an fMRI environment must adjust their procedures enough to enable the experiment to be performed, but not so much that the behavioral task departs too much from true prism adaptation...
December 30, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033484/interaction-of-perception-and-action-in-discrete-and-continuous-rapid-aiming-tasks
#15
Sushma Alphonsa, Boyi Dai, Tami Benham-Deal, Qin Zhu
Previously, we have shown that discrete and continuous rapid aiming tasks are governed by distinct visuomotor control mechanisms by assessing the combined visual illusion effects on the perceived and effective index of difficulty (ID). All participants were perceptually biased by the combined visual illusion before they performed the rapid aiming tasks. In the current study, the authors manipulated the order of performing perceptual and motor tasks to examine whether perceptual or motor experience with the illusory visual target would influence the subsequent perceived and effective ID in discrete and continuous tapping tasks...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024879/dynamic-representations-of-visual-space-for-perception-and-action
#16
REVIEW
W Pieter Medendorp, Anouk J de Brouwer, Jeroen B J Smeets
The division of labor in visual processing between two anatomically relatively separate cortical pathways, a ventral and a dorsal stream, has been hotly debated in the last decades. One influential model is the What & How pathway model, suggesting that the separation is along ventral perception versus dorsal action, although the degree of functional separation between the two streams is controversial. An implication of this model is that perception and memory-guided movements are highly sensitive to visual contextual illusions, whereas visually-guided movements are largely immune to them...
November 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005989/action-video-game-playing-is-reflected-in-enhanced-visuomotor-performance-and-increased-corticospinal-excitability
#17
Olivier Morin-Moncet, Jean-Marc Therrien-Blanchet, Marie C Ferland, Hugo Théoret, Greg L West
Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs). Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988346/experiencing-a-reaching-task-passively-with-one-arm-while-adapting-to-a-visuomotor-rotation-with-the-other-can-lead-to-substantial-transfer-of-motor-learning-across-the-arms
#18
Shancheng Bao, Yuming Lei, Jinsung Wang
The extent of transfer following visuomotor adaptation across the arms is typically limited as compared to that within the same arm. However, we have demonstrated that interlimb transfer can occur nearly completely if one arm performs reaching movements associated with a desired trajectory repeatedly and actively during an initial training session in which the other arm adapts to a novel visuomotor adaptation. Based on that finding, we argued that the absence of instances associated with specific motor effectors is the major reason for limited interlimb transfer...
December 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980110/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-visuomotor-related-functional-connectivity-networks
#19
Andrea Brovelli, Jean-Michel Badier, Francesca Bonini, Fabrice Bartolomei, Olivier Coulon, Guillaume Auzias
: Cognitive functions arise from the coordination of large-scale brain networks. Yet, the principles governing interareal functional connectivity dynamics (FCD) remain elusive. Here, we test the hypothesis that human executive functions arise from the dynamic interplay of multiple networks. To do so, we investigated FCD mediating a key executing function, known as arbitrary visuomotor mapping, using brain connectivity analyses of high-gamma activity recorded using magnetoencephalography and intracranial electroencephalography...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965143/anticholinergic-activity-in-the-nervous-system-consequences-for-visuomotor-function
#20
REVIEW
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Justin J Kavanagh
Acetylcholine is present in the peripheral and central nervous system, where it is involved in a number of fundamental physiological and biochemical processes. In particular, interaction with muscarinic receptors can cause adverse effects such as dry mouth, drowsiness, mydriasis and cognitive dysfunction. Despite the knowledge that exists regarding these common side-effects, little is known about how anticholinergic medications influence central motor processes and fine motor control in healthy individuals...
December 10, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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