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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664111/electro-physiological-changes-in-the-brain-induced-by-caffeine-or-glucose-nasal-spray
#1
K De Pauw, B Roelands, J Van Cutsem, U Marusic, T Torbeyns, R Meeusen
OBJECTIVE: A direct link between the mouth cavity and the brain for glucose (GLUC) and caffeine (CAF) has been established. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct link for both substrates also exist between the nasal cavity and the brain. METHODS: Ten healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years) performed three experimental trials, separated by at least 2 days. Each trial included a 20-s nasal spray (NAS) period in which solutions placebo (PLAC), GLUC, or CAF were provided in a double-blind, randomized order...
September 23, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26762601/sinusoidal-error-perturbation-reveals-multiple-coordinate-systems-for-sensorymotor-adaptation
#2
Todd E Hudson, Michael S Landy
A coordinate system is composed of an encoding, defining the dimensions of the space, and an origin. We examine the coordinate encoding used to update motor plans during sensory-motor adaptation to center-out reaches. Adaptation is induced using a novel paradigm in which feedback of reach endpoints is perturbed following a sinewave pattern over trials; the perturbed dimensions of the feedback were the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system in one session and a polar coordinate system in another session. For center-out reaches to randomly chosen target locations, reach errors observed at one target will require different corrections at other targets within Cartesian- and polar-coded systems...
February 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26329542/effect-of-three-different-jaw-positions-on-postural-stability-during-standing
#3
Ahmad H Alghadir, Hamayun Zafar, Zaheen A Iqbal
Studies in the literature show that jaw and neck regions are linked anatomically, biomechanically and neurologically. Voluntary clenching has been shown to improve muscle strength and performance of various motor tasks. Information from the neck sensory-motor system is reported to be important for posture. Hence it is reasonable to believe that activation of the jaw sensory-motor system has the potential to modulate posture. In a sample of 116 healthy subjects, we compared center of gravity (COG) velocity during quiet standing on a foam surface during three test positions: i) resting jaw, ii) open jaw, and iii) clenching; these were tested in two conditions: with eyes open and with eyes closed...
January 2015: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25144368/whole-body-prepulse-inhibition-protocol-to-test-sensorymotor-gating-mechanisms-in-monkeys
#4
Patricia G Saletti, Rafael S Maior, Etsuro Hori, Ricardo Miyasaka de Almeida, Hisao Nishijo, Carlos Tomaz
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the decrease of startle reflex amplitude when a slight stimulus is previously generated. This paradigm may provide valuable information about sensorimotor gating functionality. Here we aimed at determining the inhibited and uninhibited startle response of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.), and to evaluate the role of the superior colliculus in PPI. Capuchin monkeys were tested in a whole-body protocol, to determine the best startle amplitude and interstimuli interval. Additionally we tested two subjects with bilateral superior colliculus damage in this protocol...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24707082/electrocortical-analysis-of-patients-with-intercostobrachial-pain-treated-with-tens-after-breast-cancer-surgery
#5
Julio Guilherme Silva, Camila Gonçalves Santana, Kelly Rosane Inocêncio, Marco Orsini, Sergio Machado, Anke Bergmann
[Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group...
March 2014: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24068244/electroencephalography-eeg-based-neurofeedback-training-for-brain-computer-interface-bci
#6
Kyuwan Choi
Electroencephalography has become a popular tool in basic brain research, but in recent years, several practical limitations have been highlighted. Some of the drawbacks pertain to the offline analyses of the neural signal that prevent the subjects from engaging in real-time error correction during learning. Other limitations include the complex nature of the visual stimuli, often inducing fatigue and introducing considerable delays, possibly interfering with spontaneous performance. By replacing the complex external visual input with internally driven motor imagery, we can overcome some delay problems, at the expense of losing the ability to precisely parameterize features of the input stimulus...
November 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23349172/cervical-spine-arterio-venous-malformation
#7
Giridhar Parla, Victor Ameh
We present an unusual case of a young patient who presented to our emergency department with a history of sudden onset of pain on the left side of the neck and numbness to the left arm after lifting a small weight. Patient continued to work as normal for approximately 30 min after the event and then attended the emergency department as numbness in the left arm was not resolving. On examination there was no sensorymotor deficit in the lower limbs but neurological deficits were found in the upper limbs which made us suspect a diagnosis of cervical spine injury/brachial plexus...
2013: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22764551/-disulfiram-induced-polyneurophaty
#8
Slavica Vujisić, Ljiljana Radulović, Sladjana Knezević-Apostolski, Stevan Petković, Filip Vukmirović, Slobodan Apostolski
INTRODUCTION: Disulfiram is used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism, because of the unpleasant symptoms produced after ethanol intake. Although it is well tolerated in most patients, one in 15,000 patients will develop peripheral neuropathy every year, which is frequently misdiagnosed as alcoholic neuropathy. CASE REPORT: We report clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological and histopathological features in a 19-year-old patient who developed an acute distal sensorymotor neuropathy during the treatment of alcoholism...
May 2012: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22399332/the-interactions-of-nitric-oxide-and-acetylcholine-on-penicillin-induced-epilepsy-in-rats
#9
Abdullah Hilmi Marangoz, Mehmet Yildirim, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Cafer Marangoz
The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and acetylcholine (ACh) in penicillin-induced experimental epilepsy. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 220 ± 35 g were used in the experiments. The epileptiform activity was induced by microinjection of penicillin (200 IU/1 μl) into the left sensorymotor cortex. Electrocorticogram was recorded by using Ag/AgCl ball electrodes. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, given intracortically 30 min after penicillin significantly reduced the spike frequency whereas ACh increased the epileptiform activity for 5 min...
July 2012: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22273006/delayed-gastric-emptying-rates-and-impaired-antral-motility-in-children-fulfilling-rome-iii-criteria-for-functional-abdominal-pain
#10
N M Devanarayana, S Rajindrajith, N Rathnamalala, S Samaraweera, M A Benninga
BACKGROUND: Gastric sensorymotor dysfunctions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of some functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Therefore, we hypothesized that abnormal gastric emptying and impaired antral motility are possible underlying mechanisms of symptoms in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP). METHODS: Hundred and two children [37 (36.3%) males, 4-14 years, mean 7.8 years, SD 2...
May 2012: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22033334/behavioral-phenotyping-of-glutathione-deficient-mice-relevance-to-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#11
Anita Kulak, Michel Cuenod, Kim Q Do
Redox-dysregulation represents a common pathogenic mechanism in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). It may in part arise from a genetically compromised synthesis of glutathione (GSH), the major cellular antioxidant and redox-regulator. Allelic variants of the genes coding for the rate-limiting GSH synthesizing enzyme glutamate-cysteine-ligase modifier (GCLM) and/or catalytic (GCLC) subunit have been associated with SZ and BP. Using mice knockout (KO) for GCLM we have previously shown that impaired GSH synthesis is associated with morphological, functional and neurochemical anomalies similar to those in patients...
January 15, 2012: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21323867/impact-of-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia-on-blood-flow-distribution-in-brain
#12
M Pagani, D Salmaso, G Gr Sidiras, C Jonsson, H Jacobsson, S A Larsson, F Lind
AIM: Acute hypobaric hypoxia is well known to alter brain circulation and to cause neuropsychological impairment. However, very few studies have examined the regional changes occurring in the brain during acute exposure to extreme hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to hypoxia was investigated in six healthy subjects exposed to either normobaric normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia with ambient pressure/inspired oxygen pressure of 101/21 kPa and 50/11 kPa respectively...
June 2011: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21061655/-study-of-distribution-of-protein-of-the-spine-apparatus-synaptopodin-in-cortical-brain-parts-of-rats-submitted-to-hypoxia-at-different-periods-of-embryogenesis
#13
D S Vasil'ev, N L Tumanova, I A Zhuravin
A comparative study of the nervous tissue and distribution of the spine apparatus protein synaptopodin was performed in all layers of the brain sensorymotor cortex and hippocampal CA1 area in control rats and in the rats submitted to hypoxia at E14 and E18. It was found that beginning from the 20th day of postnatal development, in rats submitted to hypoxia both at E14 and E18 there was observed a statistically significant decrease of the mean number of labile synaptopodin-positive spines in the stratum radiatum molecular of the hippocampus area CA1...
September 2010: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20683811/-treatment-of-painful-neuromas-via-end-to-side-neurorraphy
#14
O C Aszmann, V Moser, M Frey
INTRODUCTION: Management of the painful neuroma has been subject to controversy since the earliest descriptions of this disabling problem. Today, treatment is limited to resection of the neuroma and implantation of the nerve in a muscle at a location where it is safe from irritation and trauma. This however is not attainable in many cases and it is our clinical experience, that nerves without a target remain a source of constant discomfort and pain. Recently we reported of the feasibility of neuroma prevention through end-to-side neurorraphy into adjacent sensory and/or motor nerves to provide a target for axons deprived of their endorgan...
August 2010: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20617305/effect-of-s-comt-deficiency-on-behavior-and-extracellular-brain-dopamine-concentrations-in-mice
#15
Anne Tammimäki, Mikko Käenmäki, Oleg Kambur, Natalia Kulesskaya, Tiina Keisala, Eeva Karvonen, J Arturo García-Horsman, Heikki Rauvala, Pekka T Männistö
INTRODUCTION: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has soluble (S-COMT) and membrane bound (MB-COMT) isoforms. Our aims were to assess the behavioral phenotype of S-COMT mutant mice and to clarify the role of MB-COMT in dopamine metabolism in different brain areas. METHODS: Behavioral phenotype of the S-COMT mutant mice was assessed using a test battery designed to describe anxiety phenotype, spontaneous locomotor activity, sensorymotor gating, social behavior, and pain sensitivity...
September 2010: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20450961/depressive-like-behavior-and-proinflamatory-interleukine-levels-in-the-brain-of-rats-submitted-to-pneumococcal-meningitis
#16
Tatiana Barichello, Ivonete Dos Santos, Geovana D Savi, Lutiana R Simões, Jaqueline S Generoso, Clarissa M Comim, Daniela Sachs, Antonio L Teixeira, João Quevedo
Bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with a significant mortality rate and persisting neurologic sequelae including sensorymotor deficits, seizures, and impairments of learning and memory. The presence of proliferating bacteria within the subarachnoid and ventricular space compartments triggers an intense inflammatory host response. Proinflammatory mediators released in the process include tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and all of which have been shown to contribute to the development of brain injury in bacterial meningitis...
July 30, 2010: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20402134/-managing-an-autistic-child
#17
Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault
General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation...
March 20, 2010: La Revue du Praticien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20144696/brain-cellular-localization-of-endothelin-receptors-a-and-b-in-a-rodent-model-of-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
S Kallakuri, C W Kreipke, P C Schafer, S M Schafer, J A Rafols
Endothelin-1 exerts potent vasoconstrictor and vasodilatory effects through its actions on its receptors A (ETrA) and B (ETrB), respectively. While ETrA and B have classically been thought to be expressed on vascular cell types, more recent evidence suggests that, particularly following brain injury, their expression may be seen in other, non-vascular cell types. To date no studies have comprehensively studied the cellular location of endothelin receptors following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, this study investigates the cellular localization of ETrA and B in normal and traumatized brains using an impact acceleration device...
July 14, 2010: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20117894/changes-in-cerebral-activity-after-decreased-upper-limb-hypertonus-an-emg-fmri-study
#19
Paolo Manganotti, Michele Acler, Emanuela Formaggio, Mirko Avesani, Franco Milanese, Andrea Baraldo, Silvia Francesca Storti, Anna Gasparini, Roberto Cerini, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli, Antonio Fiaschi
OBJECTIVE: Whereas several studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate motor recovery, whether therapy to decrease post-stroke hypertonus alters central motor patterns remains unclear. In this study, we used continuous electromyography (EMG)-fMRI to investigate possible changes in movement-related brain activation in patients receiving Botulinum toxin (BoNT-A) for hand-muscle hypertonus after chronic stroke. METHODS: We studied eight stroke patients all of whom had hemiparesis and associated upper-limb hypertonus...
June 2010: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19964232/p300-based-brain-computer-interface-experimental-setup
#20
Carolina Arboleda, Eliana Garcia, Alejandro Posada, Robinson Torres
A Brain-Computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that enables the generation of a control signal from brain signals such as sensorymotor rhythms and evoked potentials; therefore, it constitutes a novel communication option for people with severe motor disabilities (such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients). This paper presents the development of a P300-based BCI. This prototype uses a homemade six-channel electroencephalograph for the acquisition of the signals, and a visual stimulation matrix; since this matrix contains letters of the alphabet as well as images associated to them, it permits word-writing and the elaboration of messages with the images...
2009: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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