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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910817/on-the-molecular-interaction-between-femoral-heads-and-polyethylene-liners-in-artificial-hip-joints-phenomenology-and-molecular-scale-phenomena
#1
Giuseppe Pezzotti, B Sonny Bal, Elisa Casagrande, Nobuhiko Sugano, Bryan J McEntire, Wenliang Zhu, Leonardo Puppulin
The chemical interaction of femoral heads with polyethylene liners is an important new area of research in total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a consequence of an unabating quest for elongated artificial joint lifetimes. It is a topic that goes beyond simple mechanical behavior or wear. It seeks to describe the prosthetic device as a whole by adding chemical considerations to mechanics and abrasion. One of the poorly understood chemical interactions is oxygen affinity of the femoral heads. While oxygen unavoidably diffuses into the non-crystalline enclaves of the polyethylene liner as a result of its contact with the tribolayer, a ceramic femoral head can either attract or release oxygen due to its tribochemical interactions...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908069/associations-between-tongue-movement-pattern-consistency-and-formant-movement-pattern-consistency-in-response-to-speech-behavioral-modifications
#2
Antje S Mefferd
The degree of speech movement pattern consistency can provide information about speech motor control. Although tongue motor control is particularly important because of the tongue's primary contribution to the speech acoustic signal, capturing tongue movements during speech remains difficult and costly. This study sought to determine if formant movements could be used to estimate tongue movement pattern consistency indirectly. Two age groups (seven young adults and seven older adults) and six speech conditions (typical, slow, loud, clear, fast, bite block speech) were selected to elicit an age- and task-dependent performance range in tongue movement pattern consistency...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906480/integrating-sugar-and-dopamine-into-one-polymer-controlled-synthesis-and-robust-surface-modification
#3
Lun Peng, Zhiyun Li, Xiaohui Li, Hui Xue, Weidong Zhang, Gaojian Chen
Glycopolymers attached to a surface possess the ability to bind to certain carbohydrate binding proteins in a highly specific manner, and because of this, the fabrication of glycopolymer-modified surfaces has evolved as an effective route toward bioresponsive systems. Poly(N-3,4-dihydroxybenzenethyl methacrylamide-co-2-(methacrylamido) glucopyranose) copolymers, containing sugar and catechol functionalities, are for the first time successfully prepared in a well-controlled manner via room temperature single-electron transfer initiation and propagation through radical addition fragmentation chain transfer technique...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905949/burden-of-cumulative-risk-factors-associated-with-non-communicable-diseases-among-adults-in-uganda-evidence-from-a-national-baseline-survey
#4
Ronald Wesonga, David Guwatudde, Silver K Bahendeka, Gerald Mutungi, Fabian Nabugoomu, James Muwonge
BACKGROUND: Modification of known risk factors has been the most tested strategy for dealing with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The cumulative number of NCD risk factors exhibited by an individual depicts a disease burden. However, understanding the risk factors associated with increased NCD burden has been constrained by scarcity of nationally representative data, especially in the developing countries and not well explored in the developed countries as well. METHODS: Assessment of key risk factors for NCDs using population data drawn from 3987 participants in a nationally representative baseline survey in Uganda was made...
December 1, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-linoleic-alpha-linolenic-acid-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-in-adult-rats-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#5
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903376/-the-prevalence-of-ideal-cardiovascular-health-metrics-in-southeast-chinese-middle-aged-men
#6
S W Shen, Y Lu, H J Qi, C J Yang, Y P Wang, F Li, K D Shui, Z H Shen
Objective: To observe the prevalence and distribution of ideal cardiovascular health metrics in middle-aged men living in Su-Xi-Chang region and explore the relationship between health behavior and health factors. Methods: A total of 27 824 middle-aged men, who took part in health examination in the Center for Healthcare Management, Taihu Rehabilitation Hospital of Jiangsu Province from January 2014 to June 2015, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The ideal cardiovascular health metrics were defined by the American Heart Association criteria with minor modification in that the amount of vegetable intake was replaced by salt intake...
October 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#7
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900822/stimulus-responsive-nanoparticles-and-associated-reversible-polymorphism-via-polymerization-induced-self-assembly-pisa
#8
Yiwen Pei, Andrew B Lowe, Peter J Roth
Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is an extremely versatile method for the in situ preparation of soft-matter nanoparticles of defined size and morphologies at high concentrations, suitable for large-scale production. Recently, certain PISA-prepared nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit reversible polymorphism ("shape-shifting"), typically between micellar, worm-like, and vesicular phases (order-order transitions), in response to external stimuli including temperature, pH, electrolytes, and chemical modification...
November 30, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899339/engaging-moms-on-teen-indoor-tanning-through-social-media-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Sherry L Pagoto, Katie Baker, Julia Griffith, Jessica L Oleski, Ashley Palumbo, Barbara J Walkosz, Joel Hillhouse, Kimberly L Henry, David B Buller
BACKGROUND: Indoor tanning elevates the risk for melanoma, which is now the most common cancer in US women aged 25-29. Public policies restricting access to indoor tanning by minors to reduce melanoma morbidity and mortality in teens are emerging. In the United States, the most common policy restricting indoor tanning in minors involves parents providing either written or in person consent for the minor to purchase a tanning visit. The effectiveness of this policy relies on parents being properly educated about the harms of indoor tanning to their children...
November 29, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898359/motherhood-and-infant-contact-regulate-neuroplasticity-in-the-serotonergic-midbrain-dorsal-raphe
#10
M Allie Holschbach, Joseph S Lonstein
The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood...
November 19, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897445/journal-club-predictors-of-provider-response-to-clinical-decision-support-lessons-learned-from-the-medicare-imaging-demonstration
#11
Ivan K Ip, Ronilda Lacson, Keith Hentel, Sameer Malhotra, Jonathan Darer, Curtis Langlotz, Jonathan Weiss, Ali S Raja, Ramin Khorasani
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of imaging clinical decision support (CDS) varies. Our objective was to identify CDS factors contributing to imaging order cancellation or modification. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This pre-post study was performed across four institutions participating in the Medicare Imaging Demonstration. The intervention was CDS at order entry for selected outpatient imaging procedures. On the basis of the information entered, computerized alerts indicated to providers whether orders were not covered by guidelines, appropriate, of uncertain appropriateness, or inappropriate according to professional society guidelines...
November 29, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895898/nest-covering-in-plovers-how-modifying-the-visual-environment-influences-egg-camouflage
#12
Jolyon Troscianko, Jared Wilson-Aggarwal, Claire N Spottiswoode, Martin Stevens
Camouflage is one of the most widespread antipredator defences, and its mechanistic basis has attracted considerable interest in recent years. The effectiveness of camouflage depends on the interaction between an animal's appearance and its background. Concealment can therefore be improved by changes to an animal's own appearance, by behaviorally selecting an optimal background, or by modifying the background to better match the animal's own appearance. Research to date has largely focussed on the first of these mechanisms, whereas there has been little work on the second and almost none on the third...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895317/il-4-a-direct-target-of-mir-340-429-is-involved-in-radiation-induced-aggressive-tumor-behavior-in-human-carcinoma-cells
#13
Eun Sook Kim, Young Eun Choi, Su Jin Hwang, Young-Hoon Han, Myung-Jin Park, In Hwa Bae
Radiotherapy induces the production of cytokines, thereby increasing aggressive tumor behavior. This radiation effect results in the failure of radiotherapy and increases the mortality rate in patients. We found that interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4Rα (IL-4 receptor) are highly expressed in various human cancer cells subsequent to radiation treatment. In addition, IL-4 is highly overexpressed in metastatic carcinoma tissues compared with infiltrating carcinoma tissues. High expression of IL-4 in patients with cancer is strongly correlated with poor survival...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892578/a-metastable-cubic-phase-of-sodium-niobate-nanoparticles-stabilized-by-chemically-bonded-solvent-molecules
#14
Qilin Gu, Kongjun Zhu, Qiaomei Sun, Jinsong Liu, Jing Wang, Jinhao Qiu, John Wang
Structural modification, especially the stabilization of metastable phases at room temperature, has emerged as an effective strategy to understand their stabilization mechanism and improve their functional properties. In this work, a facile solvothermal approach is developed to synthesize metastable sodium niobate (NaNbO3) crystals with the cubic symmetry. XRD, Raman and TEM results all confirmed the selective synthesis of cubic and orthorhombic NaNbO3via adjustment of the reaction medium. The fact that traditional hydrothermal synthesis often yields orthorhombic NaNbO3 inspires us to elucidate the formation mechanism of cubic NaNbO3 with respect to the solvent effect...
November 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891310/assessment-of-oral-health-attitudes-and-behavior-among-students-of-kuwait-university-health-sciences-center
#15
Dena A Ali
AIM: The aims of this study were to assess attitudes and behavior of oral health maintenance among students in four faculties (Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health) and to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of all students at Kuwait University Health Sciences Center (KUHSC) based on their academic level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Students enrolled in the Faculties of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Allied Health at KUHSC were evaluated regarding their oral health attitudes and behavior by an e-mail invitation with a link to the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory survey that was sent to all 1802 students with Kuwait University Health Sciences Center e-mail addresses...
September 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890953/knowledge-attitude-and-perception-of-disease-among-persons-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immuno-deficiency-syndrome-a-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#16
Mrinal Gupta, Vikram K Mahajan, Pushpinder S Chauahn, Karainder S Mehta, Ritu Rawat, T N Shiny
BACKGROUND: Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIMS: To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890415/removing-ammonium-from-water-using-modified-corncob-biochar
#17
Thi Mai Vu, Van Tuyen Trinh, Dinh Phuong Doan, Huu Tap Van, Tien Vinh Nguyen, Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran, Huu Hao Ngo
Ammonium pollution in groundwater and surface water is of major concern in many parts of the world due to the danger it poses to the environment and people's health. This study focuses on the development of a low cost adsorbent, specifically a modified biochar prepared from corncob. Evaluated here is the efficiency of this new material for removing ammonium from synthetic water (ammonium concentration from 10 to 100mg/L). The characteristics of the modified biochar were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889491/pramipexole-enhances-disadvantageous-decision-making-lack-of-relation-to-changes-in-phasic-dopamine-release
#18
Romina Pes, Sean C Godar, Andrew T Fox, Lauren M Burgeno, Hunter J Strathman, David P Jarmolowicz, Paola Devoto, Beth Levant, Paul E M Phillips, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato
Pramipexole (PPX) is a high-affinity D2-like dopamine receptor agonist, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless leg syndrome. Recent evidence indicates that PPX increases the risk of problem gambling and impulse-control disorders in vulnerable patients. Although the molecular bases of these complications remain unclear, several authors have theorized that PPX may increase risk propensity by activating presynaptic dopamine receptors in the mesolimbic system, resulting in the reduction of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886563/nanomechanical-properties-wear-resistance-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-ta2o5-nanotubes-coating-on-biomedical-grade-ti-6al-4v
#19
Masoud Sarraf, Bushroa Abdul Razak, Bahman Nasiri-Tabrizi, Ali Dabbagh, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Eshamsul Bin Sulaiman
Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5 NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5 NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin(-)(1)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886375/modulation-of-chloride-currents-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-exogenous-oxidative-stress
#20
Rita Canella, Marta Martini, Roberta Borriello, Carlotta Cavicchio, Ximena M Muresan, Mascia Benedusi, Franco Cervellati, Giuseppe Valacchi
Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting 9 out of 10 individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Respiratory tract is the organ most exposed to gas pollution and ozone has been shown to be one of the most noxious pollutants to which living organisms are exposed. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of 0.1 ppm of ozone on chloride currents in human lung epithelial cells (A549 line) and whether this effect could be modulated by vitamin E pre-treatment. Whole-cell patch clamp technique was applied to not excitable cells in order to obtain information about chloride currents behavior, important for epithelial lung cells homeostasis...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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