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behavior modification

Jinyeong Lim, Joo Hyun Park, Annika Baude, Yeongran Yoo, Yeon Kyu Lee, Christopher R Schmidt, Jong Bae Park, Jörg Fellenberg, Josef Zustin, Florian Haller, Irene Krücken, Hyun Guy Kang, Yoon Jung Park, Christoph Plass, Anders M Lindroth
While transcription as regulated by histones and their post-translational modifications has been well described, the function of histone variants in this process remains poorly characterized. Potentially important insight into this process pertain to the frequently occurring mutations of H3.3, leading to G34 substitutions in childhood glioblastoma and giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB). In this study, we have established primary cell lines from GCTB patients and used them to uncover the influence of H3.3 G34W substitutions on cellular growth behavior, gene expression, and chromatin compaction...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Akihito Konishi, Takashi Kubo
Reactivity and physical properties of π-conjugated hydrocarbon systems depend predominantly on the topology of π-electrons array. Quinoidal conjugations serve as giving diradical character to molecules, leading to unique chemical behaviors. The simplest member of quinodimethanes are o-, m-, and p-quinodimethanes, which are very reactive due to diradical character and cannot be isolated under normal experimental conditions. However, chemical modifications, such as π-extension or introduction of substituent groups, of quinodimethanes imparts stabilities to quinodimethanes that can be handled under ambient conditions...
October 17, 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Sean Wharton, Jasmine Lee, Rebecca Ag Christensen
Current methods for the treatment of excess weight can involve healthy behavior changes, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions. Many individuals are able to lose some degree of weight through behavioral changes; however, they are often unable to maintain their weight loss long-term. This is in part due to physiological processes that cannot be addressed through behavioral changes alone. Bariatric surgery, which is the most successful treatment for excess weight to date, does result in physiological changes that can help with weight loss and weight maintenance...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Genee S Smith, Kyle P Messier, James L Crooks, Timothy J Wade, Cynthia J Lin, Elizabeth D Hilborn
BACKGROUND: Influenza peaks during the wintertime in temperate regions and during the annual rainy season in tropical regions - however reasons for the observed differences in disease ecology are poorly understood. We hypothesize that episodes of extreme precipitation also result in increased influenza in the Northeastern United States, but this association is not readily apparent, as no defined 'rainy season' occurs. Our objective was to evaluate the association between extreme precipitation (≥ 99th percentile) events and risk of emergency room (ER) visit for influenza in Massachusetts during 2002-2008...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Yulong Zhong, Yi Yang, Yi Shen, Wenwu Xu, Qiuhua Wang, Alan L Connor, Xibin Zhou, Lan He, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Zhifeng Shao, Zhong-Lin Lu, Bing Gong
Hexakis(m-phenylene ethynylene) (m-PE) macrocycles 1-4, sharing the same hydrogen-bonding side chains but having backbones of different electronic properties, are designed to probe the effectiveness of multiple H-bonding interactions in enforcing columnar assemblies. 1H NMR, absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy indicate that, compared with analogous macrocycles that self-associate based on aromatic stacking which is highly sensitive to the electronic nature of the macrocyclic backbones, macrocycles 1-4 all exhibit strong aggregation down to the micromolar (M) concentrations in nonpolar solvents...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Maria Angela Diroma, Loredana Ciaccia, Graziano Pesole, Ernesto Picardi
RNA editing is a widespread co/posttranscriptional mechanism affecting primary RNAs by specific nucleotide modifications, which plays relevant roles in molecular processes including regulation of gene expression and/or the processing of noncoding RNAs. In recent years, the detection of editing sites has been improved through the availability of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies. Accurate bioinformatics pipelines are essential for the analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to ensure the correct identification of edited sites...
October 11, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Deobrat Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Yogeshkumar Ashokbhai Sonvane, Satyaprakash Sahoo
Recently, arsenene a monolayer structure of the arsenic with two phases has semiconducting behavior. We have symmetrically investigated the electronic and optical properties of single-layer of arsenene with two types of functionalized organic molecules an electrophilic molecule [tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ)] and a nucleophilic molecule [tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)], as an electron acceptor and electron donor, respectively. The interfacial charge transfer between arsenene monolayer and TCNQ/TTF molecules extensively reduces the band gap of arsenene and accordingly results in a p- or n-type semiconducting behavior, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
Tribhuwan Pandey, David S Parker, Lucas Lindsay
We compare vibrational properties and phonon thermal conductivities (κ) of monolayer InSe, GaSe, and GaS systems using density functional theory and Peierls-Boltzmann transport methods. In going from InSe to GaSe to GaS, system mass decreases giving both increasing acoustic phonon velocities and decreasing scattering of these heat-carrying modes with optic phonons, ultimately giving [Formula: see text]. This behavior is demonstrated by correlating the scattering phase space limited by fundamental conservation conditions with mode scattering rates and phonon dispersions for each material...
October 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
Alpana A Dongargaonkar, Jeffrey D Clogston
Nanoparticles are critical components in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutic applications. Some nanoparticles, such as metallic nanoparticles, consist of a surface coating or surface modification to aid in its dispersion and stability. This surface coating may affect the behavior of nanoparticles in a biological environment, thus it is important to measure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used to determine the amount of coating on the surface of the nanoparticle. TGA experiments run under inert atmosphere can also be used to determine residual metal content present in the sample...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sophia Colombari Figueroa, Randall S Stafford, Catherine A Heaney, Lisa G Rosas
Evidence of whether behavioral weight-loss interventions reduce depressive symptoms among Latino immigrants is limited. The effect of a behavioral weight-loss intervention on depressive symptoms was assessed using data from a clinical trial among Latino immigrants. Participants were randomized to a usual care (UC) control (n = 41), case management (CM) alone (n = 84), or CM with community health worker support (CM+CHW) (n = 82). Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare the impact of each intervention with UC...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Aseel Menwer Alanazi, Nagah Mohamed Abo El-Fetoh, Hanan Khalid Alotaibi, Khalid Ayed Alanazi, Banan Khalid Alotaibi, Sultan Majed Alshammari, Saud Rteamy Alanazi, Meshari Dalaf Alhazmi, Yousef Talal Alshammari, Zaid Qati Alshammari
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases in Saudi Arabia. Health education is considered an essential component to improve knowledge and change behavior. People affected by diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors and associated complication. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of the Arar population with various aspects of diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Arar city, the capital of the Northern Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
Shahnaz Karimi, Fariba Haghani, Nikoo Yamani, Majid Najafi Kalyani
BACKGROUND: Reflection on practical experiences is a key element that enables students to recognize their own strengths and weaknesses and develop nursing skills. Whilst reflection may enhance students' learning in practice, there is little evidence about nursing students' perception of the consequences of reflection in clinical settings. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore Iranian nursing students' perception regarding the consequences of reflection during clinical practices...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
Eleonora Napoli, Gyu Song, Siming Liu, Alexsandra Espejo, Carlos J Perez, Fernando Benavides, Cecilia Giulivi
Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification mediated by palmitoyl acyltransferase enzymes, a group of Zn(2+)-finger DHHC-domain-containing proteins (ZDHHC). Here, for the first time, we show that Zdhhc13 plays a key role in anxiety-related behaviors and motor function, as well as brain bioenergetics, in a mouse model (luc) carrying a spontaneous Zdhhc13 recessive mutation. At 3 m of age, mutant mice displayed increased sensorimotor gating, anxiety, hypoactivity, and decreased motor coordination, compared to littermate controls...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Todd C Atwood, Colleen Duncan, Kelly A Patyk, Pauline Nol, Jack Rhyan, Matthew McCollum, Melissa A McKinney, Andrew M Ramey, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C H Kwok, Jitender P Dubey, Steven Hennager
Recent decline of sea ice habitat has coincided with increased use of land by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea (SB), which may alter the risks of exposure to pathogens and contaminants. We assayed blood samples from SB polar bears to assess prior exposure to the pathogens Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Neospora caninum, estimate concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and evaluate risk factors associated with exposure to pathogens and POPs...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lindsey Friend, Jared Weed, Philip Sandoval, Teresa Nufer, Isaac Ostlund, Jeffrey G Edwardsa
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for reward behavior with dopamine cells critically involved in reward signaling. Dopamine cells in turn are innervated and regulated by neighboring inhibitory GABA cells. Using whole cell electrophysiology in juvenile-adolescent GAD67-GFP male mice we examined excitatory plasticity in fluorescent VTA GABA cells. A novel CB1-dependent long-term depression (LTD) was induced in GABA cells that was dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Conor D Cox, Linda C Palmer, Danielle T Pham, Brian H Trieu, Christine M Gall, Gary Lynch
Humans routinely use past experience with complexity to deal with novel, challenging circumstances. This fundamental aspect of real-world behavior has received surprisingly little attention in animal studies, and the underlying brain mechanisms are unknown. The present experiments tested for transfer from past experience in rats and then used quantitative imaging to localize synaptic modifications in hippocampus. Six daily exposures to an enriched environment (EE) caused a marked enhancement of short- and long-term memory encoded during a 30-min session in a different and complex environment relative to rats given extensive handling or access to running wheels...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
Juliet A Usher-Smith, Laura R Winther, Guy S Shefer, Barbora Silarova, Rupert A Payne, Simon J Griffin
BACKGROUND: Web-based interventions provide the opportunity to combine the tailored approach of face-to-face interventions with the scalability and cost-effectiveness of public health interventions. This potential is often limited by low engagement. A number of studies have described the characteristics of individuals who engage more in Web-based interventions but few have explored the reasons for these variations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore individual-level factors associated with different degrees of engagement with a Web-based behavior change intervention following provision of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk information, and the barriers and facilitators to engagement...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Xiao Huang, Xi Zheng, Zuojuan Xu, Caixia Yi
Due to the excellent biocompatibility as well as the low cost, nanoscale ZnO shows a great potential in drug delivery application. The richness of the structures, easy modification and pleasant properties of nanoscale ZnO make these materials reasonable choices for drug delivery. In the recent decade, various ZnO nanostructures as well as nanohybrids have been carried out for optimizational drug loading and carrying. To control the drug release behavior, many nanoscale ZnO-based smart drug delivery systems which are responsive to particular stimuli via characteristics of ZnO (e...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Dhanya Nambiar, Tim Spelman, Mark Stoové, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Although people who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of emergency services, the majority of research is cross-sectional and involves records from a single emergency department (ED). OBJECTIVES: We describe characteristics of state-wide ED presentations in a cohort of PWID, and compare presentation rates to the general population. We also examine characteristics associated with frequent ED use. METHODS: We used data from a retrospective linkage of public ED presentations from a cohort of 678 PWID between January 2008 and June 2013...
October 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Marco J Konings, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: In real-life competitive situations, athletes are required to continuously make decisions about how and when to invest their available energy resources. This study attempted to identify how different competitive environments invite elite short-track speed skaters to modify their pacing behaviour during head-to-head competition. METHODS: Lap times of elite 500, 1000 and 1500 m short-track speed skating competitions between 2011-2016 (n=34095 races) were collected...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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