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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679914/a-multi-site-proof-of-concept-investigation-of-computerized-approach-avoidance-training-in-adolescent-cannabis-users
#1
Joanna Jacobus, Charles T Taylor, Kevin M Gray, Lindsay R Meredith, Anna M Porter, Irene Li, Norma Castro, Lindsay M Squeglia
BACKGROUND: Few effective treatment options exist for cannabis-using youth. This pilot study aimed to test Approach-Avoidance Training to reduce cannabis use with non-treatment-seeking adolescents. METHODS: Eighty cannabis-using non-treatment-seeking adolescents (average age 19) were recruited from San Diego, California and Charleston, South Carolina, and randomized to complete either six sessions of Cannabis Approach-Avoidance Task Training (CAAT-training) designed to reduce automatic approach biases for cannabis cues or CAAT-sham training...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677747/microstructural-evolution-and-electrochemical-properties-of-hrdsr-az61-x-x-ca-ti-alloys
#2
Min Gyu Kim, Woo Jin Kim, Gyeung-Ho Kim, Kwon-Koo Cho, Jun Hyun Han, Hye Sung Kim
The microstructure and corrosion properties of as-cast AZ61 (Mg-6%Al-1%Zn) and AZ61 alloys doped with titanium and calcium and subjected to high ratio differential speed rolling were investigated. Addition of the alloying elements to the AZ61 alloy resulted in remarkable modification of the morphology and the amount of continuous β (Mg17Al12)-phase. Addition of Ti to the as-cast AZ61 alloy causes a decrease in the volume fraction (or discontinuity of the β-phase), leading to strong anodic dissolution. In contrast, addition of Ca to the as-cast AZ61 alloy is rather effective for preventing pitting corrosion...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677582/maternal-nicotine-exposure-effects-on-adolescent-learning-and-memory-are-abolished-in-alpha-%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-null-mutant-mice
#3
Celina Mojica, Yu Bai, Shahrdad Lotfipour
The objective of the current study is to test the hypothesis that the deletion of alpha(α)2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) ablate maternal nicotine-induced learning and memory deficits in adolescent mice. We use a pre-exposure-dependent contextual fear conditioning behavioral paradigm that is highly hippocampus-dependent. Adolescent wild type and α2-null mutant offspring are exposed to vehicle or maternal nicotine exposure (200 μg/ml, expressed as base) in the drinking water throughout pregnancy until weaning...
April 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672113/increased-cognitive-load-enables-unlearning-in-procedural-category-learning
#4
Matthew J Crossley, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
Interventions for drug abuse and other maladaptive habitual behaviors may yield temporary success but are often fragile and relapse is common. This implies that current interventions do not erase or substantially modify the representations that support the underlying addictive behavior-that is, they do not cause true unlearning. One example of an intervention that fails to induce true unlearning comes from Crossley, Ashby, and Maddox (2013, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General), who reported that a sudden shift to random feedback did not cause unlearning of category knowledge obtained through procedural systems, and they also reported results suggesting that this failure is because random feedback is noncontingent on behavior...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669705/diabetes-related-behavior-change-knowledge-transfer-to-primary-care-practitioners-and-patients-implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-digital-health-platform
#5
Samina Abidi, Michael Vallis, Helena Piccinini-Vallis, Syed Ali Imran, Syed Sibte Raza Abidi
BACKGROUND: Behavioral science is now being integrated into diabetes self-management interventions. However, the challenge that presents itself is how to translate these knowledge resources during care so that primary care practitioners can use them to offer evidence-informed behavior change support and diabetes management recommendations to patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a computerized decision support platform called "Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment" (DWISE) that assists primary care practitioners in applying standardized behavior change strategies and clinical practice guidelines-based recommendations to an individual patient and empower the patient with the skills and knowledge required to self-manage their diabetes through planned, personalized, and pervasive behavior change strategies...
April 18, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669419/dynamic-behavior-of-rna-nanoparticles-analyzed-by-afm-on-a-mica-air-interface
#6
Sameer Sajja, Morgan Chandler, Dmitry Federov, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Alexander Y Lushnikov, Mathias Viard, Ankit Shah, Dylan Dang, Jared Dahl, Beamlak Worku, Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Alexey Krasnoslobodtsev, Bruce A Shapiro, Kirill A Afonin
RNA is an attractive biopolymer for engineering self-assembling materials suitable for biomedical applications. Previously, programmable hexameric RNA rings were developed for the controlled delivery of up to six different functionalities. To increase the potential for functionalization with little impact on nanoparticle topology, we introduce gaps into the double-stranded regions of the RNA rings. Molecular dynamic simulations are used to assess the dynamic behavior and the changes in the flexibility of novel designs...
April 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668396/act-now-play-later-temporal-expectations-regarding-the-onset-of-self-initiated-sensations-can-be-modified-with-behavioral-training
#7
Ruth B Elijah, Mike E Le Pelley, Thomas J Whitford
Mechanisms of motor-sensory prediction are dependent on expectations regarding when self-generated feedback will occur. Existing behavioral and electrophysiological research suggests that we have a default expectation for immediate sensory feedback after executing an action. However, studies investigating the adaptability of this temporal expectation have been limited in their ability to differentiate modified expectations per se, from effects of stimulus repetition. Here, we use a novel, within-participant procedure that allowed us to disentangle the effect of repetition from expectation and allowed us to determine whether the default assumption for immediate feedback is fixed and resistant to modification or is amenable to change with experience...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666792/steady-state-linear-and-non-linear-optical-spectroscopy-of-organic-chromophores-and-bio-macromolecules
#8
REVIEW
Marco Marazzi, Hugo Gattuso, Antonio Monari, Xavier Assfeld
Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes-often drugs or pollutants-that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666158/qc-art-a-tool-for-real-time-quality-control-assessment-of-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics-data
#9
Bryan A Stanfill, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Lisa M Bramer, Allison M Thompson, Charles K Ansong, Therese Clauss, Marina A Gritsenko, Matthew E Monroe, Ronald J Moore, Daniel J Orton, Paul D Piehowski, Athena A Schepmoes, Richard D Smith, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Thomas O Metz, The Environmental Determinants Of Diabetes In The Young Teddy Study Group
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics studies of large sample cohorts can easily require from months to years to complete. Acquiring consistent, high-quality data in such large-scale studies is challenging because of normal variations in instrumentation performance over time, as well as artifacts introduced by the samples themselves, such as those due to collection, storage and processing. Existing quality control methods for proteomics data primarily focus on post-hoc analysis to remove low-quality data that would degrade downstream statistics; they are not designed to evaluate the data in near real-time, which would allow for interventions as soon as deviations in data quality are detected...
April 17, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666150/epigenetics-and-epitranscriptomics-in-temporal-patterning-of-cortical-neural-progenitor-competence
#10
REVIEW
Ki-Jun Yoon, Caroline Vissers, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
During embryonic brain development, neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons and glia via a highly orchestrated process. To accomplish the ordered generation of distinct progenies, NPCs go through multistep transitions of their developmental competence. The molecular mechanisms driving precise temporal coordination of these transitions remains enigmatic. Epigenetic regulation, including changes in chromatin structures, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, has been extensively investigated in the context of cortical neurogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666114/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-mantle-cell-lymphoma-crossroads-of-genetic-and-microenvironment-interactions
#11
Xose S Puente, Pedro Jares, Elias Campo
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are two well defined entities that diverge in their basic pathogenic mechanisms and clinical evolution but they share epidemiological characteristics, cells of origin, molecular alterations, and clinical features that differ from other lymphoid neoplasms. CLL and MCL are classically considered indolent and aggressive neoplasms, respectively. However, the clinical evolution of both tumors is very heterogeneous, with subsets of patients having a stable disease for long time whereas others require immediate intervention...
April 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666042/relationship-between-evidence-requirements-user-expectations-and-actual-experiences-usability-evaluation-of-the-twazon-arabic-weight-loss-app
#12
Aroub Alnasser, Janet Kyle, Abdulrahman Alkhalifah, Debbi Marais
BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabia has faced a steady growth in the prevalence of obesity. The concurrent and ubiquitous use of mobile technology, such as smartphones and apps, provides an opportunity for the implementation of mHealth technology, a method for delivering behavioral interventions. Despite their effectiveness in promoting lifestyle and diet modification, culturally adapted weight loss apps and related interventions are lacking in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to identify the relationship between adherence to evidence-informed practices, potential user expectations, and actual user experiences in order to enhance the understanding of the overall usability of the Twazon Arabic weight loss app...
April 17, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664932/obesity-and-unhealthy-lifestyle-associated-with-poor-executive-function-among-malaysian-adolescents
#13
Joyce Ying Hui Tee, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan, Yit Siew Chin
The understanding on the roles of obesity and lifestyle behaviors in predicting executive function of adolescents has been limited. Low executive function proficiency may have adverse effects on adolescents' school academic performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between BMI-for-age and multiple lifestyle behaviors (operationalized as meal consumption, physical activity, and sleep quality) with executive function (operationalized as inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) on a sample of Malaysian adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years (N = 513)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664681/effect-of-bronchodilation-and-exercise-training-with-behavior-modification-on-exercise-tolerance-and-downstream-effects-on-symptoms-and-physical-activity-in-copd
#14
Thierry Troosters, François Maltais, Nancy Leidy, Kim L Lavoie, Maria Sedeno, Wim Janssens, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Damijan Erzen, Dorothy De Sousa, Lawrence Korducki, Alan Hamilton, Jean Bourbeau
RATIONALE: Bronchodilation and exercise training (ExT) improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, behavior modification is required to impact on daily physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVES: To assess whether tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, would improve exercise endurance time (EET) and PA compared with placebo in patients participating in a self-management behavior-modification (SMBM) program. METHODS: A 12-week, randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in patients with COPD (PHYSACTO®; NCT02085161)...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664154/flexibility-in-positional-behavior-strata-use-and-substrate-utilization-among-bale-monkeys-chlorocebus-djamdjamensis-in-response-to-habitat-fragmentation-and-degradation
#15
Addisu Mekonnen, Peter J Fashing, Eric J Sargis, Vivek V Venkataraman, Afework Bekele, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K Rueness, Nils Chr Stenseth
Studies of the effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on primate positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization offer valuable insights into the behavioral and ecological flexibility of primates whose habitats have undergone extensive anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we evaluated how positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization differed between Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)-bamboo-eating cercopithecids endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands-occupying continuous versus fragmented forests...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662502/sex-dependent-effects-of-developmental-lead-exposure-on-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Garima Singh, Vikrant Singh, Marissa Sobolewski, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Jay S Schneider
The role of sex as an effect modifier of developmental lead (Pb) exposure has until recently received little attention. Lead exposure in early life can affect brain development with persisting influences on cognitive and behavioral functioning, as well as, elevated risks for developing a variety of diseases and disorders in later life. Although both sexes are affected by Pb exposure, the incidence, manifestation, and severity of outcomes appears to differ in males and females. Results from epidemiologic and animal studies indicate significant effect modification by sex, however, the results are not consistent across studies...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662433/palmitoylethanolamide-ameliorates-hippocampal-damage-and-behavioral-dysfunction-after-perinatal-asphyxia-in-the-immature-rat-brain
#17
María I Herrera, Lucas D Udovin, Nicolás Toro-Urrego, Carlos F Kusnier, Juan P Luaces, Francisco Capani
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is an obstetric complication associated with an impaired gas exchange. This health problem continues to be a determinant of neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental disorders. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has exerted neuroprotection in several models of brain injury and neurodegeneration. We aimed at evaluating the potential neuroprotective role of PEA in an experimental model, which induces PA in the immature rat brain. PA was induced by placing Sprague Dawley newborn rats in a water bath at 37°C for 19 min...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662037/towards-the-development-of-global-nano-quantitative-structure-property-relationship-models-zeta-potentials-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles
#18
Andrey A Toropov, Natalia Sizochenko, Alla P Toropova, Jerzy Leszczynski
Zeta potential indirectly reflects a charge of the surface of nanoparticles in solutions and could be used to represent the stability of the colloidal solution. As processes of synthesis, testing and evaluation of new nanomaterials are expensive and time-consuming, so it would be helpful to estimate an approximate range of properties for untested nanomaterials using computational modeling. We collected the largest dataset of zeta potential measurements of bare metal oxide nanoparticles in water (87 data points)...
April 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661088/perceived-versus-actual-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-by-race-and-ethnicity
#19
Kyeongra Yang, Lynn M Baniak, Christopher C Imes, JiYeon Choi, Eileen R Chasens
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine associations between perceived risk and actual risk of type 2 diabetes by race and/or ethnicity. Methods The study sample included 10 999 adults from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected using interviews and physical examinations. Participants were asked if they felt at risk for diabetes or prediabetes and then asked the reasons why. Data analyses were conducted with SAS to properly analyze complex survey data...
April 1, 2018: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660925/influence-of-different-surface-treatments-of-poly-n-butyl-acrylate-networks-on-fibroblasts-adhesion-morphology-and-viability
#20
A Krüger-Genge, S Braune, M Walter, M Krengel, K Kratz, J H Küpper, A Lendlein, F Jung
BACKGROUND: Physical and chemical characteristics of implant materials determine the fate of long-term cardiovascular devices. However, there is still a lack of fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms occurring in the material-tissue interphase. In a previous study, soft covalently crosslinked poly(n-butyl acrylate) networks (cPnBA) were introduced as sterilizable, non-toxic and immuno-compatible biomaterials with mechanical properties adjustable to blood vessels. Here we study the influence of different surface treatments in particular oxygen plasma modification and fibrinogen deposition as well as a combinatorial approach on the adhesion and viability of fibroblasts...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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