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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088109/carbetocin-versus-oxytocin-for-prevention-of-post-partum-haemorrhage-at-caesarean-section-in-the-united-kingdom-an-economic-impact-analysis
#1
Helen A van der Nelson, Tim Draycott, Dimitrios Siassakos, Christopher W H Yau, Anthony J Hatswell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic impact of the introduction of carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at caesarean section, compared to oxytocin. STUDY DESIGN: The model is a decision tree conducted from a UK National Health Service perspective. 1500 caesarean sections (both elective and emergency) were modelled over a 12 month period. Efficacy data was taken from a published Cochrane meta-analysis, and costs from NHS Reference costs, the British National Formulary and the NHS electronic Medicines Information Tool...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087890/overview-of-the-benefits-and-potential-issues-of-the-nonavalent-hpv-vaccine
#3
REVIEW
Luciano Mariani, Mario Preti, Paolo Cristoforoni, Carlo M Stigliano, Antonio Perino
HPV-related diseases affect anogenital and oropharyngeal regions, heavily affecting the psychosexual dimension of both male and female individuals. HPV vaccination programs based on a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine have opened broad perspectives for primary prevention. A nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), covering nine genotypes (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58), might provide further improvement in terms of direct protection. In the present report, efficacy and safety data from 9vHPV vaccine development programs are examined...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081025/transdermal-scopolamine-withdrawal-syndrome-case-report-in-the-pediatric-cerebral-palsy-population
#4
Nasim A Chowdhury, Mary Laura Sewatsky, Heakyung Kim
Sialorrhea in children with cerebral palsy (CP) results in aspiration, decreased social integration, and poor quality of life. Management options include transdermal anticholinergics such as the scopolamine patch. A controlled clinical trial has proven botulinum toxin (BTX) injections into the salivary glands are an effective alternative to transdermal anticholinergics with a safer side effect profile. Multiple studies of the injections in diverse populations demonstrate reduction in saliva production with improvement in quality of life and decrease in hospitalization-associated costs...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080022/single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-doping-in-lead-acid-batteries-a-new-horizon
#5
Anjan Banerjee, Baruch Ziv, Yuliya Shilina, Elena Levi, Shalom Luski, Doron Aurbach
The addition of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) to lead-acid battery electrodes is the most efficient suppresser of uncontrolled sulfation processes. Due to the cost of SWCNT, we studied the optimization loading of SWCNT in lead-acid batteries electrodes. We optimized the SWCNT loading concentrations in both the positive and negative plates, separately. Loadings of 0.01% and 0.001% in the positive and negative active masses were studied, respectively. Two volts of lead-acid laboratory cells with sulfuric acid, containing silica gel-type electrolytes, were cycled in a 25% and 50% depth-of-discharge (DOD) cycling with a charging rate of C and 2C, respectively, and discharge rates of C/2 and C, respectively...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079629/duration-of-pneumonia-therapy-and-the-role-of-biomarkers
#6
Katerina Kaziani, Adamantia Sotiriou, George Dimopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide phenomenon that is threatening public health. Lower respiratory infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity that contribute to antibiotic consumption and thus the emergence of multidrug-resistant microbial strains. The goal of shortening antibiotic regimens' duration in common bacterial infections has been prioritized by antimicrobial stewardship programs as an action against this problem. RECENT FINDINGS: Data coming from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews support the shortening of antimicrobial regimens in community-acquired, hospital-acquired, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078863/nasal-irrigation-with-nasir%C3%A2-in-children-a-preliminary-experience-on-nasal-cytology
#7
M Gelardi, S Taliente, K Piccininni, G Silvestre, N Quaranta, G Ciprandi
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and upper airway respiratory infections are frequent in children, and both have a relevant impact on some social aspects, including school attendance and performance, sleep, quality of life (also of the parents), and costs. Saline nasal irrigation is widely employed to reduce nasal congestion and mucopurulent secretion, to stimulate cleansing of the nasal and paranasal cavities, and to induce restoration of mucociliary clearance. The present study evaluated the effects of nasal irrigation on nasal cytology, using the new device Nasir® in 66 children (40 males, 26 females, mean age 7...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078810/anti-hcv-activity-from-semi-purified-methanolic-root-extracts-of-valeriana-wallichii
#8
Krishna Kumar Ganta, Anirban Mandal, Sukalyani Debnath, Banasri Hazra, Binay Chaubey
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130-150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant...
January 12, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078600/net-budgetary-impact-of-ferric-citrate-as-a-first-line-phosphate-binder-for-the-treatment-of-hyperphosphatemia-a-markov-microsimulation-model
#9
Steven M Brunelli, Scott P Sibbel, David Van Wyck, Amit Sharma, Andrew Hsieh, Glenn M Chertow
Ferric citrate (FC) has demonstrated efficacy as a phosphate binder and reduces the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron in dialysis patients. We developed a net budgetary impact model to evaluate FC vs. other phosphate binders from the vantage of a large dialysis provider. We used a Markov microsimulation model to simulate mutually referential longitudinal effects between serum phosphate and phosphate binder dose; categories of these defined health states. Health states probabilistically determined treatment attendance and utilization of ESA and IV iron...
January 11, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077771/the-correlated-evolution-of-antipredator-defences-and-brain-size-in-mammals
#10
Theodore Stankowich, Ashly N Romero
Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077022/feasibility-of-a-novel-multispot-nanoarray-for-antibiotic-screening-in-honey
#11
Sara E McNamee, Giulia Rosar, Lidija Persic, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Practical solutions for multiple antibiotic determination in food is required by the food industry and regulators for cost effective screening purposes. This study describes the feasibility in development and preliminary performance of a novel multispot nanoarray for antibiotic screening in honey. Using a multiplex approach the metabolites of the four main nitrofuran antibiotics including morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidone (AMOZ), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM), 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) and chloramphenicol (CAP) were simultaneously detected...
January 12, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076703/a-systematic-review-to-assess-the-adherence-and-persistence-with-statins
#12
Sohan Deshpande, Ruben G W Quek, Carol A Forbes, Shelley de Kock, Jos Kleijnen, Shravanthi R Gandra, Ross J Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess studies published over a 10-year period up to February 2016 which measure adherence or persistence with statins, to summarise their methods, strengths and weaknesses and to summarise evidence linking statin adherence/persistence with risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: Electronic databases and abstracts from four major cardiovascular disease conferences were searched from January 2005 to February 2016. The study selection process was performed by two reviewers working independently...
January 11, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076611/sarcopenia-and-chemotherapy-mediated-toxicity
#13
Maria Cecília Monteiro Dela Vega, Alessandro Laviano, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel
This narrative review focuses on the role of sarcopenia and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients. Consistent evidence shows that sarcopenia in cancer patients leads to decreased overall survival by influencing treatment discontinuation and dose reduction. Therefore, sarcopenia should be considered a robust prognostic factor of negative outcome as well as a determinant of increased healthcare costs. RESUMO Esta revisão narrativa descreve o papel da sarcopenia e a toxicidade mediada pela quimioterapia em pacientes com câncer...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075560/multilayer-grown-ultrathin-nanostructured-gaas-solar-cells-as-a-cost-competitive-materials-platform-for-iii-v-photovoltaics
#14
Boju Gai, Yukun Sun, Haneol Lim, Huandong Chen, Joseph Faucher, Minjoo L Lee, Jongseung Yoon
Large-scale deployment of GaAs solar cells in terrestrial photovoltaics demands significant cost reduction for preparing device-quality epitaxial materials. Although multilayer epitaxial growth in conjunction with printing-based materials assemblies has been proposed as a promising route to achieve this goal, their practical implementation remains challenging owing to the degradation of materials properties and resulting nonuniform device performance between solar cells grown in different sequences. Here we report an alternative approach to circumvent these limitations and enable multilayer-grown GaAs solar cells with uniform photovoltaic performance...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075372/distributed-sensor-nodes-charged-by-mobile-charger-with-directional-antenna-and-by-energy-trading-for-balancing
#15
Celso Moraes, Sunghee Myung, Sangkeum Lee, Dongsoo Har
Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation...
January 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075354/the-state-of-the-art-of-lethal-oviposition-trap-based-mass-interventions-for-arboviral-control
#16
Brian J Johnson, Scott A Ritchie, Dina M Fonseca
The intensifying expansion of arboviruses highlights the need for effective invasive Aedes control. While mass-trapping interventions have long been discredited as inefficient compared to insecticide applications, increasing levels of insecticide resistance, and the development of simple affordable traps that target and kill gravid female mosquitoes, show great promise. We summarize the methodologies and outcomes of recent lethal oviposition trap-based mass interventions for suppression of urban Aedes and their associated diseases...
January 8, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074580/employer-wellness-programs-challenged-in-court
#17
Mark A Rothstein
Many employers faced with rising health care costs have adopted "voluntary" wellness programs that urge employees to engage in various health-promotion activities, such as smoking cessation and weight reduction. In the proper setting, measures to promote a more healthful lifestyle are difficult to question, but there is little compelling evidence that workplace wellness programs have significant, sustained health benefits or substantially reduce health care costs other than through cost-shifting to unhealthy employees...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074567/the-cost-effectiveness-of-brief-intervention-versus-brief-treatment-of-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt-in-the-united-states
#18
Carolina Barbosa, Alexander Cowell, William Dowd, Justin Landwehr, Arnie Aldridge, Jeremy Bray
AIMS: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) comparing the delivery of brief intervention (BI) with brief treatment (BT) within Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) programs. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental differences in observed baseline characteristics between BI and BT patients were adjusted using propensity score techniques. Incremental comparison of costs and health outcomes associated with BI and BT. SETTING: Health-care settings in four US states participating in Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SBIRT grant programs...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074337/economic-burden-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-italy-possible-consequences-on-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-patients
#19
Francesco Saverio Mennini, Andrea Marcellusi, Lara Gitto, Florenzo Iannone
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with a substantial medical and economic burden. In Italy, it affects approximately 280,000 people, therefore representing the musculoskeletal disease with the highest economic impact in terms of costs for the National Health Service and the social security system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the annual economic burden of RA in Italy and determine the potential cost reduction considering the most effective biologic treatment for early rapidly progressing RA (ERPRA) patients...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073749/cost-effectiveness-of-a-government-supported-policy-strategy-to-decrease-sodium-intake-global-analysis-across-183-nations
#20
Michael Webb, Saman Fahimi, Gitanjali M Singh, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Renata Micha, John Powles, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVE:  To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. DESIGN:  Global modeling study. SETTING:  183 countries. POPULATION:  Full adult population in each country. INTERVENTION:  A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program...
January 10, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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