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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141352/-overdiagnosis-in-mammography-screening-for-breast-cancer
#1
Y B Huang, L Yang, F J Song, K X Chen
Screening has been always considered as a double-edged sword. Cancer screening could save lives in some cases, however, in other cases, it might also turn people into overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of cancer that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. Therefore, overdiagnosis might lead to unnecessary treatments and lifetime surveillance, and then increase economic burden and psychological burden. In this review, we focus on how to correctly evaluate the overdiagnosis rate, and how to avoid or reduce the harms caused by overdiagnosis in the future according to the reasons associated with overdiagnosis...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140964/whole-body-computed-tomography-in-severely-injured-patients
#2
Stefan Huber-Wagner, Karl-Georg Kanz, Marc Hanschen, Martijn van Griensven, Peter Biberthaler, Rolf Lefering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the relevant and recent studies on whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging of severely injured patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The advantages of WBCT in time saving, diagnostic accuracy and even in survival have been proven in numerous studies. WBCT can also be beneficial in haemodynamically unstable major trauma patients. The CT scanner should be located close to the emergency department or even in the trauma room. The issue of radiation is still quite important, however, iterative as well as split-bolus protocols can nowadays reduce radiation significantly...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140939/infliximab-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-changes-clinical-decisions-in-a-virtual-biologics-clinic-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Christian P Selinger, Marco V Lenti, Tanya Clark, Helen Rafferty, David Gracie, Alexander C Ford, Anthony OʼConnor, Tariq Ahmad, P John Hamlin
BACKGROUND: Virtual biologics clinics are often used to review patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving biological therapy, with decisions whether to continue, switch, or stop therapy made based on review of symptoms, disease history, and investigations. We aimed to investigate whether therapeutic drug monitoring of infliximab (IFX) trough levels and anti-drug antibodies influences decision making within a virtual biologics clinic. METHODS: For all patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving IFX maintenance therapy, 2 decisions were recorded in a preset format...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140904/reconstruction-of-microtias-with-constricted-ear-features-a-22-year-experience
#4
Chul Park, Jung Youl Park
BACKGROUND: The surgical correction of 'microtias with constricted ear features' has remained a challenge due to the variable shape and large volume of the remnant cartilage and skin involved. In order to clarify how this remnant cartilage and skin should be treated, we have reviewed and analyzed cases operated at our Center. METHODS: A total of 167 cases of Microtia with Constricted Ear Features, operated from 1992 to 2014, were included in the study. They were reviewed through medical records and photographs, analysis of surgical methods, and postoperative outcomes...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140880/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-determination-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-cervical-tissue-using-the-roche-cobas-4800-system-a-comparative-study-with-liquid-based-cytology
#5
Juan C Tardío, Olivia Cambero, Carolina Sánchez-Estévez, Ana B Sánchez-García, Fernando Angulo, Amalia Moreno
Roche cobas 4800 human papillomavirus (HPV) test is an automated real-time polymerase chain reaction-based system that allows the simultaneous detection of 14 human papillomavirus high-risk (HR-HPV) genotypes. This test is Food and Drug Administration approved since 2011 for HPV determination in liquid-based cytologic samples, but a clinically validated technique for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens is presently not commercially available. In our laboratory, we have developed an HPV detection procedure in FFPE tissue by cobas 4800 HPV test...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140858/computerized-cognitive-testing-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-study
#6
Geneva Millett, Gary Naglie, Ross Upshur, Liisa Jaakkimainen, Jocelyn Charles, Mary C Tierney
Computerized cognitive assessment tools may facilitate early identification of dementia in the primary care setting. We investigated primary care physicians' (PCPs') views on advantages and disadvantages of computerized testing based on their experience with the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI). Over a 2-month period, 259 patients, 65 years and older, from the family practice of 13 PCPs completed the CAMCI. Twelve PCPs participated in an individual interview. Generally, PCPs felt that the relationship between them and their patients helped facilitate cognitive testing; however, they thought available paper tests were time consuming and not sufficiently informative...
November 14, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140833/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient-with-a-rare-subtype-of-melanoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
James C Kuo, Leslie B Lilly, David Hogg
Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) may be considered as a treatment option for various types of tumors, but the transplant recipient population as well as patients requiring long-term systemic immunosuppression for other reasons have been systematically excluded from clinical trials involving ICIs. We report a case of successful treatment with ICI in a liver transplant recipient diagnosed with a rare subtype of melanoma. This patient had not required any modification to her antirejection immunosuppression before or during immunotherapy, had not experienced any serious immune-related adverse event, and had a durable objective response for nearly 1...
November 14, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140758/personal-accounts-of-poverty-a-thematic-analysis-of-social-media
#8
Mary A Caplan, Gregory Purser, Peter A Kindle
The field of social work seeks to enhance human well-being by addressing the needs of people living in poverty. Three billion people around the world use the internet daily, and 65% of them use social media. This article qualitatively identifies emergent themes about the lived experiences of poverty from people who reported either being poor or having have been poor, using selected social media posts (N = 1,495) on the website Reddit. We found that the experiences of poverty bring arduousness and hardship, which necessitates an arsenal of survival strategies and skills...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140662/re-framing-biotechnology-regulation
#9
Alison Peck
Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140621/australian-leadership-saving-lives-with-crush-prevention-devices
#10
Melvin L Myers
The burden of injury and death due to quad bike [all-terrain vehicle, or ATV] use cannot be allowed to continue unchecked, and ongoing delay in action may permit to further avoidable tragedies." -Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (2016, p. 13).
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140170/clinical-diagnostic-tests-versus-mri-diagnosis-of-acl-tears
#11
Megan P Brady, Windee Weiss
CLINICAL SCENARIO: A common injury among elite, recreational, and youth athletes is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear.(1) Approximately 200,000 ACL injuries occur every year.(2) The gold standard in ACL injury evaluation is diagnostic arthroscopy,(3,4) however the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnostic tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is debatable.(1,3-6) Due to the frequency of knee injury,(3) MRI is a common diagnostic tool used for imaging and diagnosis(5). ACL tears are also diagnosed using clinical diagnostic tests...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139314/cost-utility-analysis-of-life-long-prophylaxis-with-recombinant-factor-viii-fc-vs-recombinant-factor-viii-for-the-management-of-severe-haemophilia-a-in-sweden
#12
Nathaniel Henry, Jelena Jovanović, Max Schlueter, Persefoni Kritikou, Koo Wilson, Karl-Johan Myrén
AIMS: Prophylaxis with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) is the standard of care for severe haemophilia A in Sweden. The need for frequent injections with existing rFVIII products may, however, result in poor adherence to prophylaxis leading to increased bleeding and long-term joint damage. Recombinant FVIIIFc (rFVIIIFc) is an extended half-life fusion protein which can offer prolonged protection and reduced dosing frequency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of prophylaxis with rFVIIIFc in severe haemophilia A from the perspective of the Swedish health system...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138585/a-comparative-analysis-of-clinical-outcomes-and-disposable-costs-of-different-catheter-ablation-methods-for-the-treatment-of-atrioventricular-nodal-reentrant-tachycardia
#13
Adam E Berman, Harold Rivner, Robin Chalkley, Vahé Heboyan
Background: Catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a commonly performed electrophysiology (EP) procedure. Few data exist comparing conventional (CONV) versus novel ablation strategies from both clinical and direct cost perspectives. We sought to investigate the disposable costs and clinical outcomes associated with three different ablation methodologies used in the ablation of AVNRT. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of AVNRT ablations performed at Augusta University Medical Center from 2006 to 2014...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138254/estimating-realized-heritability-in-panmictic-populations
#14
Milan Lstibůrek, Václav Bittner, Gary R Hodge, Jan Picek, Trudy F C Mackay
Narrow sense heritability (h(2) ) is a key concept in quantitative genetics, as it expresses the proportion of the observed phenotypic variation that is transmissible from parents to offspring. h(2) determines the resemblance among relatives and the rate of response to artificial and natural selection. Classical methods for estimating h(2) use random samples of individuals with known relatedness, as well as response to artificial selection, when it is called realized heritability. Here, we present a method for estimating realized h(2) based on a simple assessment of a random-mating population with no artificial manipulation of the population structure, and derive standard errors of the estimates...
November 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138216/autonomic-regulation-of-the-immune-system-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
François M Abboud, Madhu V Singh
The autonomic nervous system is a powerful regulator of circulatory adjustments to acute hemodynamic stresses. Here we focus on new concepts that emphasize the chronic influence of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on cardiovascular pathology. The autonomic neurohumoral system can dramatically influence morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease through newly discovered influences on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Specifically, the end-organ damage in heart failure or hypertension may be worsened or alleviated by pro- or anti-inflammatory pathways of the immune system, respectively, that are activated through neurohumoral transmitters...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#16
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137778/the-use-of-ultrasound-to-reduce-internal-concentration-polarization-in-forward-osmosis
#17
Yongjun Choi, Tae-Mun Hwang, Sanghyun Jeong, Sangho Lee
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137750/intensification-of-ion-exchange-desorption-of-thiamine-diphosphate-by-low-powered-ultrasound
#18
Natalia A Pinchukova, Alexander Y Voloshko, Maria A Merko, Yana A Bondarenko, Valentin A Chebanov
The process of ultrasound-assisted ion-exchange desorption of cocarboxylase (thiamine diphosphate (TDP)) from a strong acidic cation resin was studied. Kinetics studies revealed that ultrasound accelerates TDP desorption by 3 times. The optimal desorption parameters, viz. US power input, sonication time, eluent/resin ratio and the eluent (ammonium acetate buffer) concentration were established which were 15mW/cm(3), 20min, 1:1 and 1M, respectively. The resin stability studies showed that the optimal ultrasonic power was less by the order than the resin degradation threshold which ensures durable and efficient resin exploitation during production...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137732/ultrasound-assisted-biosynthesis-of-cuo-nps-using-brown-alga-cystoseira-trinodis-characterization-photocatalytic-aop-dpph-scavenging-and-antibacterial-investigations
#19
Haidong Gu, Xiao Chen, Feng Chen, Xing Zhou, Zohreh Parsaee
This contribution reports the biosynthesis of CuO NPs via ultrasound method using the Cystoseira trinodis extracts as an eco friendly and time saving process. The characterization of cupric oxide NPs was performed using XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, TEM, AFM, photoluminescence, UV-Vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy investigations. SEM images show the spherical structure with the average crystallite size 6nm to 7.8nm of CuO. XRD analysis approved the formation of pure monoclinic crystallite structures of CuO NPs. These observations were confirmed by TEM analysis...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137504/avoidable-hospital-admissions-from-diabetes-complications-in-japan-singapore-hong-kong-and-communities-outside-beijing
#20
Jianchao Quan, Huyang Zhang, Deanette Pang, Brian K Chen, Janice M Johnston, Weiyan Jian, Zheng Yi Lau, Toshiaki Iizuka, Gabriel M Leung, Hai Fang, Kelvin B Tan, Karen Eggleston
Improving the quality of primary care may reduce avoidable hospital admissions. Avoidable admissions for conditions such as diabetes are used as a quality metric in the Health Care Quality Indicators of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Using the OECD indicators, we compared avoidable admission rates and spending for diabetes-related complications in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and rural and peri-urban Beijing, China, in the period 2008-14. We found that spending on diabetes-related avoidable hospital admissions was substantial and increased from 2006 to 2014...
November 2017: Health Affairs
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