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Clostridium difficile in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703246/clostridium-difficile-cure-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-child-with-pompe-disease-a-case-report
#1
D E Dow, P C Seed
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is a growing problem among children due to both the increasing survival of medically fragile children with complicated chronic medical conditions resulting in prolonged antibiotic exposure and hospitalization and the emergence of strains of Clostridium difficile that are hypervirulent and associated with high rates of relapse. CASE PRESENTATION: This case describes a medically complex 21-month-old Hispanic girl with Pompe disease and B cell immunodeficiency with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection refractory to antimicrobial management...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695312/microbial-preparations-probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-an-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-of-6-851-participants
#2
Bradley C Johnston, Lyubov Lytvyn, Calvin Ka-Fung Lo, Stephen J Allen, Duolao Wang, Hania Szajewska, Mark Miller, Stephan Ehrhardt, John Sampalis, Deniz G Duman, Pietro Pozzoni, Agostino Colli, Elisabet Lönnermark, Christian P Selinger, Samford Wong, Susan Plummer, Mary Hickson, Ruzha Pancheva, Sandra Hirsch, Bengt Klarin, Joshua Z Goldenberg, Li Wang, Lawrence Mbuagbauw, Gary Foster, Anna Maw, Behnam Sadeghirad, Lehana Thabane, Dominik Mertz
OBJECTIVETo determine whether probiotic prophylaxes reduce the odds of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children.DESIGNIndividual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), adjusting for risk factors.METHODSWe searched 6 databases and 11 grey literature sources from inception to April 2016. We identified 32 RCTs (n=8,713); among them, 18 RCTs provided IPD (n=6,851 participants) comparing probiotic prophylaxis to placebo or no treatment (standard care). One reviewer prepared the IPD, and 2 reviewers extracted data, rated study quality, and graded evidence quality...
April 26, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689301/distinct-consequences-of-amoxicillin-and-ertapenem-exposure-in-the-porcine-gut-microbiome
#3
Sheila Connelly, Poorani Subramanian, Nur A Hasan, Rita R Colwell, Michael Kaleko
The gut microbiome influences many, if not all, aspects of human health. Antibiotics, while lifesaving, have the unintended consequence of killing commensal microbiota inhabiting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which can lead to overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Here, porcine models were developed to evaluate changes to the gut microbiome caused by two distinct types of beta-lactam antibiotics delivered via common administration routes, oral amoxicillin and intravenous ertapenem...
April 21, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678466/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-oral-probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
Na Li, Bin Zheng, Hong-Fu Cai, Yan-Hui Chen, Ming-Qi Qiu, Mao-Bai Liu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in hospitalized children and adolescents has been increasing year-on-year. Paediatric CDAD represents a significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Probiotics are live organisms thought to improve the microbial balance of the host, counteract disturbances in intestinal flora, and reduce the risk of colonization by pathogenic bacteria. AIM: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the economy of probiotics for the prevention of CDAD in children and adolescents receiving antibiotics...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601446/analysis-of-treatment-outcomes-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#5
Aileen M Aldrich, Taylor Argo, Tracy J Koehler, Rosemary Olivero
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections in the United States, with an increasing incidence in children. Approximately 20% of pediatric patients develop recurrent infections. It's imperative to further analyze the incidence of recurrent CDI in the pediatric population and determine the most effective treatments. The primary goal of this study is to characterize children with recurrent CDI at our institution, including both hospital-acquired (HA-CDI) and community-acquired (CA-CDI) cases, summarize the various treatments utilized, including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), and compare their success rates...
March 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593875/long-term-low-dose-of-clarithromycin-as-a-cause-of-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-5-year-old-boy
#6
Hirofumi Namiki, Tadashi Kobayashi
Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Despite C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased in all ages worldwide, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Macrolides are also associated with CDI. Additionally, exposure to macrolides in the 12 weeks preceding infection is reported to be a significant risk factor of CDI in a child. We report here a 5-year-old Japanese boy who presented with acute onset of watery diarrhoea...
March 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578445/epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalised-pediatric-patients-in-georgia
#7
I Migriauli, V Meunargia, I Chkhaidze, G Sabakhtarishvili, K Gujabidze, G Khokrishvili, J Janashia, G Kamkamidze
Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus, is the most common identifiable etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized children has been increasing across the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate occurrence of Clostridium difficile and some other gastrointestinal pathogens among hospitalized pediatric patients in Georgia, as far as currently statistical data on the topic is very limited in the country. One of the objectives of the study was to test and pilot the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction diagnostic systems for rapid and simultaneous identification of number of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics as these are one of the primary public health priorities in Georgia and worldwide...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567127/poor-yield-of-clostridium-difficile-testing-algorithms-using-glutamate-dehydrogenase-antigen-and-c-difficile-toxin-enzyme-immunoassays-in-a-pediatric-population-with-declining-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-strain-bi-nap1-027
#8
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562266/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#9
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507300/a-retrospective-study-of-community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-southwest-china
#10
Feng Liao, Wenge Li, Wenpeng Gu, Wenzhu Zhang, Xiaoshu Liu, Xiaoqing Fu, Wen Xu, Yuan Wu, Jinxing Lu
To identify the prevalence and characteristics of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in southwest China, we conducted a cross-sectional study. 978 diarrhea patients were enrolled and stool specimens' DNA was screened for virulence genes. Bacterial culture was performed and isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing. Toxin genes tcdA and/or tcdB were found in 138/978 (14.11%) cases for fecal samples. A total of 55 C. difficile strains were isolated (5...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501378/is-surgical-antibiotic-prophylaxis-necessary-for-pediatric-orchiopexy
#11
A J Rensing, B M Whittam, K H Chan, M P Cain, A E Carroll, W E Bennett
INTRODUCTION: Surgeons frequently use surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP), despite limited evidence to support its efficacy. Potential adverse events associated with antibiotic use include allergic reaction (including anaphylaxis), Clostridium difficile infection, and selecting for resistant bacteria. Surgical site infections (SSI) are very rare in patients undergoing clean pediatric urologic procedures. Current guidelines are unclear about the efficacy of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of SSI in the pediatric population...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497879/community-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-serbian-pediatric-population
#12
Stojanović Predrag, Kocić Branislava, Stojanović Nikola, Radulovic Niko, Stojanović-Radić Zorica, Dobrila Stanković-Đorđević
Carriage of Clostridium (C.) difficile in the intestinum of children, as well as its role in the disease (diarrhea) onset, is still controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in Serbian pediatric population and to describe the basic clinical characteristics and risk factors for CA-CDI occurrence in Serbian pediatric population. The data obtained from 63 Serbian pediatric patients with CA-CDI and from control group of 126 children with community-acquired diarrhea, whose stool specimens were negative for C...
June 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479244/physician-perspectives-on-vaccination-and-diagnostic-testing-in-children-with-gastroenteritis-a-primary-care-physician-survey
#13
Arissa J Sperou, James A Dickinson, Bonita Lee, Marie Louie, Xiao-Li Pang, Linda Chui, Otto G Vanderkooi, Stephen B Freedman
Objectives: Gastroenteritis remains a common paediatric illness. Little is known about physician knowledge of enteric pathogen diagnostic tests. At the time of study conduct, Alberta lacked a publicly funded rotavirus vaccination program and knowledge of primary care physician perspectives was lacking. We sought to ascertain diagnostic testing methods and to understand knowledge and perceptions regarding enteric pathogen vaccination. Methods: A 30-item electronic survey was distributed across Alberta's five health care zones...
September 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462280/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-adults-and-children-2017-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-and-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-shea
#14
L Clifford McDonald, Dale N Gerding, Stuart Johnson, Johan S Bakken, Karen C Carroll, Susan E Coffin, Erik R Dubberke, Kevin W Garey, Carolyn V Gould, Ciaran Kelly, Vivian Loo, Julia Shaklee Sammons, Thomas J Sandora, Mark H Wilcox
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) to update the 2010 clinical practice guideline on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults. The update, which has incorporated recommendations for children (following the adult recommendations for epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment), includes significant changes in the management of this infection and reflects the evolving controversy over best methods for diagnosis...
March 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391259/comparative-genomics-analysis-of-clostridium-difficile-epidemic-strain-dh-nap11-106
#15
Larry K Kociolek, Dale N Gerding, David W Hecht, Egon A Ozer
Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 106 (also identified as restriction endonuclease analysis [REA] group DH) recently emerged as the most common strain causing C. difficile infection (CDI) among US adults. We previously identified this strain predominating our pediatric cohort. Pediatric clinical CDI isolates previously characterized by REA underwent antibiotic resistance testing and whole genome sequencing. Of 134 isolates collected from children, 31 (23%) were REA group DH. We performed a comparative genomics analysis to identify DH-associated accessory genes...
April 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383304/-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-diagnosis-and-during-the-disease-course-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Do Hyun Kim, Jin Min Cho, Hye Ran Yang
Purpose: Clostridium difficile colonization and infection are commonly associated with poor outcomes in patients with pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. difficile colonization and infection at the time of diagnosis and to evaluate risk factors associated with the development of C. difficile infection during the course of PIBD treatment. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 59 children who were newly diagnosed with PIBD at the tertiary medical center...
January 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370348/clostridium-difficile-whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-limited-transmission-among-symptomatic-children-a-single-center-analysis
#17
Larry K Kociolek, Dale N Gerding, Robyn O Espinosa, Sameer J Patel, Stanford T Shulman, Egon A Ozer
Background: Although pediatric Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are increasing, C. difficile transmission patterns among children are poorly understood. Methods: We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on C. difficile isolates collected from children diagnosed with CDI between Dec. 2012 and Dec. 2013 at a single academic medical center. Genome sequences of isolates from CDIs diagnosed ≥ 8 weeks after study initiation were compared to all study isolate genome sequences...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331160/reduction-in-rate-of-nosocomial-respiratory-virus-infections-in-a-children-s-hospital-associated-with-enhanced-isolation-precautions
#18
Lorry G Rubin, Nina Kohn, Susan Nullet, Margaret Hill
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital...
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259371/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-disorders-proposed-recommendations-for-children-of-the-asia-pacific-region
#19
REVIEW
Donald Cameron, Quak Seng Hock, Musal Kadim, Neelam Mohan, Eell Ryoo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Chen Jie, Hans Hoekstra, Alfredo Guarino
Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237206/-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-central-restriction-and-alternative-recommendations-as-effective-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-at-a-maximal-care-hospital
#20
Johanna Kessel, Barbara Dolff, Thomas Wichelhaus, Nils Keiner, Michael Hogardt, Claudia Reinheimer, Imke Wieters, Sebastian Harder, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christoph Stephan
Background  Drug supply bottleneck is a worldwide challenge, e. g. the antibiotics Piperacillin/Tazobactam shortage in 2016/2017. The efficacy of an appropriate replacement management was evaluated at the University Hospital Frankfurt (UHF). Methods  The Antibiotic-Stewardship (ABS)-Team at UHF decreed a restriction of PIP/TAZ and provided alternative antibiotic therapy recommendations during the shortage period. Consequences of this intervention on antibiotic consumption and overall costs were investigated...
December 13, 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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