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Clostridium difficile in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104319/the-mexican-consensus-on-probiotics-in-gastroenterology
#1
M A Valdovinos, E Montijo, A T Abreu, S Heller, A González-Garay, D Bacarreza, M Bielsa-Fernández, M C Bojórquez-Ramos, F Bosques-Padilla, A I Burguete-García, R Carmona-Sánchez, A Consuelo-Sánchez, E Coss-Adame, J A Chávez-Barrera, M de Ariño, J Flores-Calderón, O Gómez-Escudero, M S González-Huezo, M E Icaza-Chávez, A Larrosa-Haro, M Morales-Arámbula, C Murata, J A Ramírez-Mayans, J M Remes-Troche, T Rizo-Robles, M Peláez-Luna, E M Toro-Monjaraz, A Torre, M E Urquidi-Rivera, R Vázquez, J K Yamamoto-Furusho, F Guarner
INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. AIM: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057659/lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-in-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhoea-in-children-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Maciej Kołodziej, Hania Szajewska
INTRODUCTION: Administration of some probiotics appears to reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). The effects of probiotics are strain-specific, thus, the efficacy and safety of each probiotic strain should be established separately. We aim to assess the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 administration for the prevention of diarrhoea and AAD in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 250 children younger than 18 years treated with antibiotics will be enrolled in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which they will additionally receive L...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042242/perceptions-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-factors-that-predict-acceptance
#3
Leslie Park, Anjali Mone, Jennifer C Price, Demetrios Tzimas, Jacqueline Hirsh, Michael A Poles, Lisa Malter, Lea Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection, some patients are reluctant to accept this therapy. Our study examined attitudes towards FMT and factors that contribute to patients' acceptance of this treatment. METHODS: We distributed patient surveys at a Veterans Affairs hospital, a public hospital, and an academic faculty practice. Multivariable logistic regression was performed, adjusting for factors associated with FMT acceptance on univariate analysis and prior experience with C...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028357/can-probiotics-benefit-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Fernando Navarro, Yuying Liu, Jon Marc Rhoads
Children with autism are commonly affected by gastrointestinal problems such as abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics in this population, as it hypothetically may help to improve bowel habits and the behavioral and social functioning of these individuals. The gut microbiome plays an important role in the pathophysiology of organic as well as functional gastrointestinal disorders. Microbial modification with the use of antibiotics, probiotics, and fecal transplantation have been effective in the treatment of conditions such as recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, pouchitis, and irritable bowel syndrome...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024858/costs-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-pediatric-operations-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#5
Afif N Kulaylat, Dorothy V Rocourt, Abigail B Podany, Brett W Engbrecht, Marianne Twilley, Mary C Santos, Robert E Cilley, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Peter W Dillon
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this analysis was to assess the burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the hospitalized pediatric surgical population and to characterize its influence on the costs of care. METHODS: There were 313,664 patients age 1-18 years who underwent a general thoracic or abdominal procedure in the Kids' Inpatient Database during 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. Logistic regression was used to model factors associated with the development of C difficile infection...
December 23, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008787/a-review-of-dose-responses-of-probiotics-in-human-studies
#6
A C Ouwehand
The probiotic definition requires the administration of an 'adequate amount' in order to obtain a health benefit. What that amount should be is not indicated. Here, an overview is given of studies that investigated the dose-response relation of probiotics in human interventions. Studies were divided in; meta-analyses, meta-analyses on specific probiotic strains, and studies testing two or more doses of a probiotic (combination) in the same study. Meta-analyses on the effect of probiotics on antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD) suggest a dose-response effect; for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea on the other hand no dose-response was observed...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002256/risk-factors-for-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-pediatric-patients-with-cancer
#7
Atsuro Daida, Hiroki Yoshihara, Ikuko Inai, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yasushi Ishida, Kevin Y Urayama, Atsushi Manabe
Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) may cause life-threatening colitis for children with cancer, making identification of risk factors important. We described characteristics of pediatric cancer patients with primary and recurring CDI, and evaluated potential risk factors. Among 189 cancer patients, 51 cases (27%) of CDI and 94 matched controls of cancer patients without CDI were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between CDI and several potential risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986664/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-hospitalized-children-in-the-netherlands
#8
Sofie M van Dorp, Edela Smajlović, Cornelis W Knetsch, Daan W Notermans, Sabine C de Greeff, Ed J Kuijper
BACKGROUND: Little is known about pediatric Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology. We describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of CDI among hospitalized children in the Netherlands. METHODS: Between May 2009 and May 2015, 26 hospitals registered characteristics of pediatric (aged 2-18 years) and adult (aged 18 years) CDI in a national sentinel surveillance study. Routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) of selected strains was performed...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977555/recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children-patient-risk-factors-and-markers-of-intestinal-inflammation
#9
Maribeth R Nicholson, Jonathan D Crews, Jeffrey R Starke, Zhi-Dong Jiang, Herbert DuPont, Kathryn Edwards
BACKGROUND: The management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children is complicated by recurrence rates of 20-30%. The identification of risk factors associated with recurrent disease might allow early recognition of those children at highest risk. METHODS: Pediatric patients with CDI were identified through clinical laboratory records at two tertiary care children's hospitals from March 2013 through May 2014. Subjects were enrolled and followed for 60 days to assess for recurrent CDI (rCDI)...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696233/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-children-epidemiology-and-risk-of-recurrence-in-a-low-prevalence-country
#10
A Lo Vecchio, L Lancella, C Tagliabue, C De Giacomo, S Garazzino, M Mainetti, L Cursi, E Borali, M V De Vita, E Boccuzzi, L Castellazzi, S Esposito, A Guarino
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly found in children worldwide, but limited data are available from children living in southern Europe. A 6-year retrospective study was performed to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and risk of recurrence in Italy. Data of children with community- and hospital-acquired CDI (CA-CDI and HA-CDI, respectively) seen at seven pediatric referral centers in Italy were recorded retrospectively. Annual infection rates/10,000 hospital admissions were calculated...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695355/influence-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745on-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#11
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, as well as acute diarrhea due to common viral and bacterial infections in children and adults...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578209/epidemiology-of-diarrheal-illness-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#12
Mohammad N Mhaissen, Alicia Rodriguez, Zhengming Gu, Haiqing Zhu, Li Tang, Yilun Sun, Stacey T Schultz-Cherry, Randall T Hayden, Elisabeth E Adderson
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is common in children with cancer, but this has not been systematically studied to date. METHODS: Remnant stool samples collected between January 2010 and June 2011 from pediatric oncology patients with diarrhea were tested for bacterial, viral, and parasitic enteropathogens using a combination of standard-of-care (SOC) diagnostic tests, including broad-range, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for adenoviruses, astroviruses, and sapoviruses and 2 commercially available multiplexed PCR assays...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563524/hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-pediatric-wards-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#13
Ayse Karaaslan, Ahmet Soysal, Nurhayat Yakut, Gulsen Akkoç, Sevliya Ocal Demir, Serkan Atıcı, Nurver Ulger Toprak, Guner Söyletir, Mustafa Bakır
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and frequently results in healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and potential risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized children who developed diarrhea. A retrospective study was performed at a university hospital in İstanbul over a three-year period (2012-2014). RESULTS: During the study period 12,196 children were hospitalized, among them 986 (8 %) children with diarrhea were investigated for CDI and 100 (0...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538503/antimicrobial-stewardship-in-paediatrics
#14
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are among the drugs most commonly prescribed to children in hospitals and communities. Unfortunately, a great number of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have several negative consequences, including drug-related adverse events, the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens, the development of Clostridium difficile infection, the negative impact on microbiota, and undertreatment risks. In this paper, the principle of and strategies for paediatric antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs, the effects of AS interventions and the common barriers to development and implementation of AS programs are discussed...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504373/prevalence-of-nosocominal-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-in-children-under-5-years-in-hajar-hospital-shahrekord-iran
#15
Abolfazl Khoshdel, Karam-Ali Kasiri, Soleiman Kheiri, Roya Habibian, Narges Shojaeikhah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404363/tropheryma-whipplei-associated-with-diarrhoea-in-young-children
#16
F Fenollar, P Minodier, A Boutin, R Laporte, V Brémond, G Noël, S Miramont, H Richet, S Benkouiten, J-C Lagier, J Gaudart, J-L Jouve, D Raoult
Tropheryma whipplei was detected in preliminary studies in faeces of young children with diarrhoea and also in faeces of asymptomatic persons, not only in Europe but also in Africa. In this study, the link between this bacterium and the presence of acute diarrhoea was evaluated in a large group of children. From December 2009 to January 2013, rectal swabs collected from 3796 children in the emergency departments of university hospitals in Marseille, France, were analysed: 555 children (245 female and 310 male, from 6 days to 6 years old) with acute diarrhoea defined as at least three loose stools per day for <1 week and 3241 children (1444 female and 1797 male, from 22 days to 6 years old) without diarrhoea...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337475/clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Jae Hyun Shin, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-secreting bacillus that has long been recognized to be the most common etiologic pathogen of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C. difficile infection (CDI) is now the most common cause of health care-associated infections in the United States and accounts for 12% of these infections (Magill SS et al., N Engl J Med370:1198-1208, 2014). Among emerging pathogens of public health importance in the United States, CDI has the highest population-based incidence, estimated at 147 per 100,000 (Lessa FC et al...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329497/using-multiplex-molecular-testing-to-determine-the-etiology-of-acute%C3%A2-gastroenteritis-in-children
#18
Maribeth R Nicholson, Gerald T Van Horn, Yi-Wei Tang, Jan Vinjé, Daniel C Payne, Kathryn M Edwards, James D Chappell
OBJECTIVE: To detect the etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children using broad molecular-based techniques, and compare clinical presentations among etiologies. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective population-based surveillance study of children aged <6 years with AGE conducted between 2008 and 2011 as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Stools from patients and healthy controls were tested for 21 gastrointestinal pathogens using the analyte-specific reagent Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel and an additional reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for sapovirus and astrovirus...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270275/differences-in-the-molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients
#19
Larry K Kociolek, Dale N Gerding, James R Osmolski, Sameer J Patel, David R Snydman, Laura A McDermott, David W Hecht
The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in adults is partly related to the global spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, namely, BI/NAP1/027. Although CDIs are also increasingly diagnosed in children, BI/NAP1/027 is relatively uncommon in children. Little is known about the antibiotic susceptibility of pediatric CDI isolates. C. difficile was cultured from tcdB-positive stools collected from children diagnosed with CDI between December 2012 and December 2013 at an academic children's hospital...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263967/clostridium-difficile-infections-in-children-impact-of-the-diagnostic-method-on-infection-rates
#20
Mohammad AlGhounaim, Yves Longtin, Milagros Gonzales, Joanna Merckx, Nicholas Winters, Caroline Quach
BACKGROUND Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the detection of the toxin B gene are replacing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based toxin production detection or cell cytotoxicity assay in most laboratories. OBJECTIVE To determine the proportion of pediatric patients diagnosed with Clostridium difficile infection by PCR who would have also been diagnosed by ELISA and to compare the clinical characteristics of PCR+/ELISA+ vs PCR+/ELISA- patients. METHODS Using the microbiology laboratory information system, stool samples positive for C...
September 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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