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Seema Shetty, Shashikiran Umakanth, Bhawani Manandhar, Pankaj Bahadur Nepali
Leprosy and tuberculosis (TB) are endemic to India, however, their coinfection is not frequently encountered in clinical practice. Here, we report a 32-year-old female patient who presented with a history of high-grade intermittent fever, cough and painless skin lesions since a month, along with bilateral claw hand (on examination). The haematological profile was suggestive of anaemia of chronic disease, chest radiograph showed consolidation, sputum smears were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and skin slit smear confirmed leprosy...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Shanila Ahmed, Habib Kibzai, Talha Shahzad, Saulat Hasnain Fatimi, Madiha Bilal Qureshi
Teratomas can be found in different organs of the body and may involve gonads, saccrococcygeal region, mediastinum and other sites. Intrathoracic teratomas always occur in mediastinum and less often arise within the lung. As teratomas mostly involve sex organs (gonads), they rarely occur as extra-gonadal tumors accounting for only 3% of all the cases and very small percentage of such tumors occur in mediastinum.We reported an interesting case of middle aged male who presented to us with symptoms of cough, hemoptysis and trichoptysis (hair expectoration)...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
G H Renier Botha, Grant Theron, Rob Warren, Marisa Klopper, Kheertan Dheda, Paul van Helden, Thomas R Niesler
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly diseases. Although several effective diagnosis methods exist, in lower income countries clinics may not be in a position to afford expensive equipment and employ the trained experts needed to interpret results. In these situations, symptoms including cough are commonly used to identify patients for testing. However, self-reported cough has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, which may be improved by digital detection. This study investigates a simple and easily applied method for TB screening based on the automatic analysis of coughing sounds...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
A Alaga, Y X Yew, M K Razul
A 47-year-old female, with multiple comorbidities, presented with a cough of two months, loss of weight and appetite. She was treated for pneumonia. A chest X-ray showed bilateral reticulonodular opacities. She was noted to have a vague central abdominal mass and a systolic murmur over the mitral region. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen showed an omental mass and loculated ascites. Oesophagoduedenoscopy showed antral gastritis and during colonoscopy the surgical team was unable to advance the scope beyond 40 cm due to external compression...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
S Tahseen, H Shahnawaz, U Riaz, F M Khanzada, A Hussain, W Aslam, M von Euler-Chelpin
SETTING: Pakistan is a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, moving from low human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence to a concentrated epidemic driven primarily by people who inject drugs (PWID). The Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Unit (AAU) in Islamabad, Pakistan, is a residential facility that offers combined treatment for opioid dependence and HIV. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This retrospective study was conducted to assess TB prevalence among HIV-infected PWID referred to the AAU and to evaluate the diagnostic value of cough as a screening symptom...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Waseem Hajjar, Iftikhar Ahmed, Samiha Aljetaily, Tarfah Al-Obaidan, Adnan W Hajjar
Diagnosing endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) can be difficult due to the lack of specific signs and symptoms that differentiate it from other respiratory diseases, such as lung tumors. We hereby report a case of a very rare presentation of tuberculosis (TB) in a patient who presented with a dry cough and significant weight loss for 3 months. Chest X-ray and CT scan of the chest showed partial atelectasis and a segmental collapse of the right upper lobe and tumor-like arising from its bronchus along with a large right para-tracheal mediastinal lymphadenopathy, mimicking a metastatic (N2) disease...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Michael Chavarria, Larry Lutwick, Bonny L Dickinson
Mycobacterium celatum is a slow-growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) and a rare cause of infection in humans. Infection occurs primarily by inhalation or direct inoculation from environmental sources, and this pathogen has been reported to cause localized infections in the lungs and lymph nodes of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present a case of pulmonary infection with M. celatum in an immunocompetent 68-year-old male with clinical features similar to tuberculosis...
2018: IDCases
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
Lely Solari, Alonso Soto, Patrick van der Stuyft
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis (TM) is a challenge in countries with a high burden of the disease and constrained resources and Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) could be of assistance. We aimed at developing a CPR for diagnosis of TM in a Latin American setting with high tuberculosis incidence and a concentrated HIV epidemic. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients with clinical suspicion of TM attending two hospitals in Lima, Peru. We obtained information on potential anamnestic, clinical and laboratory predictive findings that are easy to collect and promptly available...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa...
February 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
L Y Xu, G X Lai, Q Hu, L Zhang, D L Liu, G B Zhu, X H Li, H H Shi, C Xu, Y H Yu, Y W Bao, W Chen
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Methods: Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Robert L Hunter, Jefrey K Actor, Shen-An Hwang, Arshad Khan, Michael E Urbanowski, Deepak Kaushal, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Primary and post-primary tuberculosis (TB) are different diseases caused by the same organism. Primary TB produces systemic immunity. Post-primary TB produces cavities to support massive proliferation of organisms for transmission of infection to new hosts from a person with sufficient immunity to prevent systemic infection. Post-primary, also known as bronchogenic, TB begins in humans as asymptomatic bronchial spread of obstructive lobular pneumonia, not as expanding granulomas. Most lesions regress spontaneously...
February 6, 2018: Pathogens
Siobhan M Mor, Luke R Ascolillo, Ritah Nakato, Grace Ndeezi, James K Tumwine, Alphonse Okwera, Jerlyn K Sponseller, Saul Tzipori, Jeffrey K Griffiths
Respiratory cryptosporidiosis is thought to be a rare, end-stage complication of HIV. Few studies have systematically examined the frequency of such infection in adults. Sputum specimens submitted for tuberculosis (TB) testing at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, were anonymously retested for Cryptosporidium using immunofluorescence staining or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Visual confirmation using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was performed for a subset of PCR-positive samples. Of 824 sputum samples tested, 24 (2...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ila Shukla, Lubna Azmi, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Dalip Kumar Upreti, Chandana Venkateswara Rao
BACKGROUND: Reindeer lichen, Lichen rangiferinus syn. or Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Cladoniaceae) has been traditionally reported as a remedy to treat fever, colds, arthritis as well as convulsions, liver infections, coughs, constipation, and tuberculosis. The current study is aimed at rectification of alcohol induced liver damage by the use of L. rangiferinus extract. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare some biochemical markers for liver injury and hematological indices in normal untreated rats and treated rats...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Ng'weina Francis Magitta, Richard William Walker, Komalkirti Keshavkiran Apte, Meshack Denson Shimwela, Julius David Mwaiselage, Anna Alphonce Sanga, Anil Kumar Namdeo, Sapna Jitendra Madas, Sundeep Santosh Salvi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes substantial burden of disease in developed countries, but there are limited data from Africa. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of COPD in Tanzania and identify the risk factors associated with it.This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey involving adults aged ≥35 years. We collected data on symptoms and risk factors using the Burden of Obstructive Lung Diseases questionnaire. Spirometry was performed and COPD diagnosed based on post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <70%...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Anandamoyee Dhar, Kunal Sikund, Ajal Lall, Bharat Aggarwal
Introduction: Anthracofibrosis is a lesser known clinical entity. Patients present with chronic symptoms of cough and breathlessness with a history of biofuel/wood fire smoke exposure. There are distinct computed tomography (CT) imaging features of anthracofibrosis that can differentiate it from more common conditions such as tuberculosis (TB) and bronchogenic carcinoma. Findings include multifocal noncontiguous stenosis of bronchial tree, calcified enlarged mediastinal or hilar nodes, and secondary lung parenchymal changes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Benjamin Patterson, Carl Morrow, Vinayak Singh, Atica Moosa, Melitta Gqada, Jeremy Woodward, Valerie Mizrahi, Wayne Bryden, Charles Call, Shwetak Patel, Digby Warner, Robin Wood
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is predominantly an airborne disease. However, quantitative and qualitative analysis of bio-aerosols containing the aetiological agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), has proven very challenging. Our objective is to sample bio-aerosols from newly diagnosed TB patients for detection and enumeration of Mtb bacilli. Methods: We monitored each of 35 newly diagnosed, GeneXpert sputum-positive, TB patients during 1 hour confinement in a custom-built Respiratory Aerosol Sampling Chamber (RASC)...
November 7, 2017: Gates Open Res
Poojan Shrestha, Mila Shakya, Maxine Caws, Surendra Shrestha, Bibek Karki, Shreejana Shrestha, Dan Bahadur Karki, Bhagwan Maharjan, Bhawana Shrestha, Amit Arjyal, Abhilasha Karkey, Krishna G Prajapati, Buddha Basnyat
BACKGROUND: There is a high risk of occupational exposure to tuberculosis among healthcare workers in endemic countries. Regular screening for tuberculosis among healthcare workers is not carried out in Nepal. Infection control measures are also not routinely implemented. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of active tuberculosis among staff/students at Patan Hospital. METHODS: Participants were given a self-administered questionnaire and invited to undergo chest radiography...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
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