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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216193/community-prevalence-of-chronic-respiratory-symptoms-in-rural-malawi-implications-for-policy
#1
Hastings T Banda, Rachael Thomson, Kevin Mortimer, George A F Bello, Grace B Mbera, Rasmus Malmborg, Brian Faragher, S Bertel Squire
BACKGROUND: No community prevalence studies have been done on chronic respiratory symptoms of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath in adult rural populations in Malawi. Case detection rates of tuberculosis (TB) and chronic airways disease are low in resource-poor primary health care facilities. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and recorded diagnoses of TB in rural Malawian adults in order to improve case detection and management of these diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214026/evaluating-treatment-outcomes-and-durations-among-cases-of-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-yemen-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#2
Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
Background: Evaluating outcomes after tuberculosis (TB) treatment can help identify the primary reasons for treatment success or failure. However, Yemen has a treatment success rate that remains below the World Health Organization's target. This study aimed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). Method: Newly diagnosed cases of smear-positive pulmonary TB were prospectively followed at two centers (Taiz and Alhodidah, Yemen) between April 2014 and March 2015...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211793/assessing-infection-control-practices-to-protect-health-care-workers-and-patients-in-malawi-from-nosocomial-transmission-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Robert J Flick, Adamson Munthali, Katherine Simon, Mina Hosseinipour, Maria H Kim, Lameck Mlauzi, Peter N Kazembe, Saeed Ahmed
Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in health settings threatens health care workers and people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Nosocomial transmission is reduced with implementation of infection control (IC) guidelines. The objective of this study is to describe implementation of TB IC measures in Malawi. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing anonymous health worker questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with facility managers, and direct observations at 17 facilities in central Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196066/cough-due-to-tuberculosis-and-other-chronic-infections-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#4
Stephen K Field, Patricio Escalante, Dina A Fisher, Belinda Ireland, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression, and preventing transmission to others. METHODS: A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer 8 Key questions (KQ) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1/1/1984 to April 2014...
November 28, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191155/provider-initiated-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-outpatient-departments-of-health-care-facilities-in-ghana-yield-by-screening-strategy-and-target-group
#5
Sally-Ann Ohene, Frank Bonsu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Ardon Toonstra, Adelaide Sackey, Knut Lonnroth, Mukund Uplekar, Samuel Danso, George Mensah, Felix Afutu, Paul Klatser, Mirjam Bakker
BACKGROUND: Meticulous identification and investigation of patients presenting with tuberculosis (TB) suggestive symptoms rarely happen in crowded outpatient departments (OPDs). Making health providers in OPDs diligently follow screening procedures may help increase TB case detection. From July 2010 to December 2013, two symptom based TB screening approaches of varying cough duration were used to screen and test for TB among general outpatients, PLHIV, diabetics and contacts in Accra, Ghana...
December 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158866/-tb-hiv-co-infection-associated-with-kaposi-s-sarcoma-under-opioid-substitution-treatment-using-methadone-about-a-case
#6
Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse Diallo, Louise Fortes Deguenonvo, Khardiata Diallo Mbaye, Daye Ka, Ndeye Aissatou Lakhe, Ibrahima Ndiaye, Daouda Thioub, Sylvie Audrey Diop Nyafouna, Aminata Massaly, Alassane Dièye, Moustapha Diop, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Moussa Seydi
Late diagnosis of HIV infection can be fatal because it favors the appearance of opportunistic infections whose management requires the use of several molecules which can cause drug interactions. We report the case of a 45-year old female patient under heroin substitution treatment, using methadone and with HIV1 under antiretroviral treatment. This patient had nonspecific pulmonary appearance associated with dry nagging cough and progressive dyspnea evolving in a feverish context. Moreover, clinical examination showed left lower limb lymphedema with painless angiomatous nodules evolving over three years associated with plaques, angiomatous nodules occurred more recently at the level of the anterior face of the thorax...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142744/-who-has-to-do-it-at-the-end-of-the-day-programme-officials-or-hospital-authorities-airborne-infection-control-at-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-dr-tb-centres-of-karnataka-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138655/endobronchial-localization-of-hodgkin-s-disease
#8
Lamyae Amro, Siham Jridi, Hafsa Sajiai, Hind Serhane, Salma Aït Batahar
The endobronchial localization of Hodgkin's disease is a rare entity which is often confused with endobronchial tuberculosis in our setting. We report the case of a 16 years old female who presented with 6 months history of dry cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, dysphagia and dysphonia. The chest radiography showed a mediastinal and pulmonary opacity. The chest CT scan found enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. The bronchial biopsy and peripheral lymph node biopsy confirmed Hodgkin's disease with endobronchial localization...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137661/applying-tuberculosis-management-time-to-measure-the-tuberculosis-infectious-pool-at-a-local-level-in-ethiopia
#9
Senedu Bekele Gebreegziabher, Gunnar Aksel Bjune, Solomon Abebe Yimer
BACKGROUND: Measuring the size of the infectious pool of tuberculosis (TB) is essential to understand the burden and monitor trends of TB control program performance. This study applied the concept of TB management time to estimate and compare the size of the TB infectious pool between 2009 and 2014 in West Gojjam Zone of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODS: New sputum smear-positive and smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB) and retreatment cases who attended 30 randomly selected public health facilities in West Gojjam Zone from October 2013 to October 2014 were consecutively enrolled in the study...
November 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137108/tuberculosis-presenting-as-isolated-bronchonodal-fistula-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-case-report
#10
Kyungsoo Bae, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Ho Cheol Kim, Young Sun Suh, Gi Dong Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Dae Hyun Song
RATIONALE: Lymph node is a preferred site for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In the thorax, mediastinal tuberculous lymph nodes can erode adjacent structures such as heart, aorta, and esophagus, forming fistula, and causing fatal consequences. However, tuberculous bronchonodal fistula as a complication of lymph node TB in adults is rarely known in terms of imaging or clinical findings. Here, a case of isolated tuberculous bronchonodal fistula appearing as the first presentation of TB in a 74-year-old male with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126226/optimizing-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-hiv-infected-inpatients-meeting-the-criteria-of-seriously-ill-in-the-who-algorithm
#11
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Mark P Nicol, Andre P Kengne, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: The WHO algorithm for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in seriously ill HIV-infected patients lacks a firm evidence base. We aimed to develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to determine the diagnostic utility of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in seriously ill HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among HIV-infected inpatients with any cough duration and WHO-defined danger signs. Culture-positive tuberculosis from any site was the reference standard...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124005/massive-hemoptysis-from-rasmussen-s-aneurysm-in-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-case-report-of-successful-treatment-with-bronchial-artery-embolization
#12
K V Rajamannar, Hemanth Kilaru, Srujana Aravelly, Ananta Ram Gudipati, Satish Chandra Kilaru
Rasmussen's aneurysm, a very rare complication of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), is a pulmonary artery aneurysm adjacent to or within a tuberculous cavity. It may lead to rupture and life threatening massive hemoptysis, an uncommon but challenging medico-surgical emergency. This complication warrants attention in view of the resurgence of tuberculosis and increasing occurrence of multi-drug resistant TB, especially in resource-poor, high-TB burden countries like India. We present a case of an elderly man who presented to the emergency room with low-grade fever, cough and hemoptysis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116639/dna-replication-fidelity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#13
Digby F Warner, Jeremy M Rock, Sarah M Fortune, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is genetically isolated, with no evidence for horizontal gene transfer or the acquisition of episomal genetic information in the modern evolution of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. When considered in the context of the specific features of the disease M. tuberculosis causes (e.g., transmission via cough aerosol, replication within professional phagocytes, subclinical persistence, and stimulation of a destructive immune pathology), this implies that to understand the mechanisms ensuring preservation of genomic integrity in infecting mycobacterial populations is to understand the source of genetic variation, including the emergence of microdiverse sub-populations that may be linked to the acquisition of drug resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112746/tuberculosis-infectiousness-and-host-susceptibility
#14
REVIEW
Richard D Turner, Christopher Chiu, Gavin J Churchyard, Hanif Esmail, David M Lewinsohn, Neel R Gandhi, Kevin P Fennelly
The transmission of tuberculosis is complex. Necessary factors include a source case with respiratory disease that has developed sufficiently for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to be present in the airways. Viable bacilli must then be released as an aerosol via the respiratory tract of the source case. This is presumed to occur predominantly by coughing but may also happen by other means. Airborne bacilli must be capable of surviving in the external environment before inhalation into a new potential host-steps influenced by ambient conditions and crowding and by M...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075583/invasive-aspergillosis-involving-the-mediastinum-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#15
Manesh Kumar Gangwani, Muhammad Aziz, Siraj Munir, Syed Ahsan Ali
We report a rare case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis invading the mediastinum and the left atrium. A 38-year-old female was hospitalized for cough, shortness of breath and fever. She had a past medical history of tuberculosis. Computed tomography (CT) scans identified an ill-defined enhancing mediastinal soft tissue density mass encasing the heart and major vessels. The cardiac echocardiography showed global hypokinesia, low ejection fraction and a large echogenic density in the left atrium. The pathology from the bronchoscopic biopsy observed abundant fungal hyphae which were stained with periodic Acid-Schiff and Gomori's methenamine silver...
August 24, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066586/mechanical-insufflation-exsufflation-versus-conventional-chest-physiotherapy-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#16
Rasintra Siriwat, Jitladda Deerojanawong, Suchada Sritippayawan, Sumalee Hantragool, Prapasri Cheanprapai
BACKGROUND: The cough mechanism is often impaired in children with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy, accounting for the high prevalence of pneumonia and atelectasis requiring prolonged hospitalization. Conventional chest physiotherapy (CPT) is a current technique recommended at the onset of lower-respiratory infections in cerebral palsy. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) in children with neuromuscular disease. To date, there has been no study of MI-E in children with quadriplegic spastic cerebral palsy...
October 24, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060142/classification-of-voluntary-coughs-applied-to-the-screening-of-respiratory-disease
#17
Christian Infante, Daniel B Chamberlain, Rahul Kodgule, Richard Ribon Fletcher
Pulmonary and respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, COPD, allergies, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.) represent a large proportion of the global disease burden, mortality, and disability. In this context of creating automated diagnostic tools, we explore how the analysis of voluntary cough sounds may be used to screen for pulmonary disease. As a clinical study, voluntary coughs were recorded using a custom mobile phone stethoscope from 54 patients, of which 7 had COPD, 15 had asthma, 11 had allergic rhinitis, 17 had both asthma and allergic rhinitis, and four had both COPD and allergic rhinitis...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037294/diagnostic-yield-of-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-at-the-household-level-in-slums-in-haiti
#18
V R Rivera, M-A Jean-Juste, S C Gluck, H T Reeder, J Sainristil, P Julma, M Peck, P Joseph, O Ocheretina, C Perodin, R Secours, M Duran-Mendicuti, L Hashiguchi, P Y Cremieux, S P Koenig, J W Pape
SETTING: Haiti has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the Americas, with an estimated prevalence of 254 per 100 000 population. The Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes, GHESKIO) conducted active case finding (ACF) for TB at the household level in nine slums in Port-au-Prince. OBJECTIVE: We report on the prevalence of undiagnosed TB detected through GHESKIO's ACF campaign...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025486/using-15-dhs-surveys-to-study-epidemiological-correlates-of-tb-courtesy-stigma-and-health-seeking-behaviour
#19
E J J Rood, C Mergenthaler, M I Bakker, L Redwood, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) stigma is thought to delay or prevent the decision to seek health care, but the strength of this association and the prevalence of anticipated TB stigma in the general population in most countries is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine epidemiological, cultural and sociodemographic factors associated with TB courtesy stigma in 15 surveys across 13 countries, and its link to health seeking for cough in children under five. DESIGN: A multilevel survey weighted logistic regression model was used to analyse how individual characteristics and social contexts affect the occurrence of TB courtesy stigma...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025482/tb-and-hiv-stigma-compounded-by-threatened-masculinity-implications-for-tb-health-care-seeking-in-malawi
#20
J Chikovore, G Hart, M Kumwenda, G Chipungu, N Desmond, E L Corbett
SETTING: Urban Blantyre, Malawi. OBJECTIVE: To understand why men with tuberculosis (TB) in the community remain undiagnosed. DESIGN: A multi-method qualitative study applying a modified grounded theory approach. Data were gathered from March 2011 to March 2012 from 134 men and women taking part in 1) focus group discussions with community members (n = 6) and health care workers (n = 2), and 2) in-depth interviews with TB patients (n = 20, females n = 14) and chronic coughers (n = 20, women n = 8)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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