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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228097/alkaloid-extracts-from-combretum-zeyheri-inhibit-the-growth-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#1
Tafadzwa Nyambuya, Ruvimbo Mautsa, Stanley Mukanganyama
BACKGROUND: Current tuberculosis regimens have failed to combat the issue of drug resistance and ethno medicines may represent a possible source of antimycobacterial agents. Combretum species are well known in African traditional medicines and used for various ailments including pneumonia, venereal diseases like syphilis, mental problems, relief of sore throats and colds, fever, and chest coughs associated with tuberculosis. Alkaloids function as either hydrogen-acceptor or hydrogen-donor in hydrogen bonding critical for the interaction between targets thus, potentiating effects of curative agents on diseases...
February 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226016/-geographical-and-organizational-aspects-of-primary-health-care-services-in-detecting-tuberculosis-cases-in-pelotas-rio-grande-do-sul-brazil-2012
#2
Simone Pieren Dos Reis, Jenifer Harter, Lílian Moura de Lima, Dagoberta Alves Vieira, Pedro Fredemir Palha, Roxana Isabel Cardozo Gonzales
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the geographical and organizational aspects of primary health care services in detecting tuberculosis cases in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. METHODS: this was a descriptive evaluation study involving 276 health professionals in 2012; data were collected using a structured questionnaire covering geographical and organizational aspects which received a score using a Likert scale of 1 to 5. RESULTS: average use of motorized transport by symptomatic respiratory patients having a cough for more than three weeks to get to a healthcare service was considered regular by respondents; although there was satisfactory availability of health professionals, human resource turnover and time-keeping were considered unsatisfactory; average time of more than 60 minutes waiting to see the doctor and average time spent with the doctor were considered regular...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225335/integrating-tuberculosis-screening-in-kenyan-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programs
#3
L M Cranmer, A Langat, K Ronen, C J McGrath, S LaCourse, J Pintye, B Odeny, B Singa, A Katana, L Nganga, J Kinuthia, G John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) screening in Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs is important to improve TB detection, prevention and treatment. METHODS: As part of a national PMTCT program evaluation, mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunization visits were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health clinics throughout Kenya. Clinics were selected using population-proportion-to-size sampling with oversampling in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence region...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221317/a-man-with-a-productive-cough
#4
Daniel Pavlik, Mary Laxton, Lori Felker
The clinical presentation of active tuberculosis is nonspecific. This article describes a patient whose chronic cough was eventually diagnosed as reactivation tuberculosis.
March 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217822/how-to-diagnose-early-5-azacytidine-induced-pneumonitis-a-case-report
#5
Srimanta Chandra Misra, Laurence Gabriel, Eric Nacoulma, Gérard Dine, Valentina Guarino
Interstitial pneumonitis is a classical complication of many drugs. Pulmonary toxicity due to 5-azacytidine, a deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase inhibitor and cytotoxic drug, has rarely been reported. We report a 67-year-old female myelodysplastic syndrome patient treated with 5-azacytidine at the conventional dosage of 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days. One week after starting she developed moderate fever along with dry cough and subsequently her temperature rose to 39.5 °C. She was placed under broad-spectrum antibiotics based on the protocol for febrile neutropenia, including ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily, ceftazidime 1 g three times daily (tid), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 400 mg/80 mg tid...
December 2017: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217253/miliary-tuberculosis-infection-during-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-sofosbuvir-and-ledipasvir-plus-ribavirin
#6
Maria Pilar Ballester-Ferré, Fernando Martínez, Natalia Garcia-Gimeno, Francisco Mora, Miguel A Serra
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. In the last 5 years, treatment for HCV infection has experienced a marked development. In 2014, the use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without concomitant weight-based ribavirin was approved with a very significant increase in the sustained virological response. However, new side effects have been associated. We report the first case of an HCV infected patient treated for 12 wk with the combination of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir plus ribavirin who developed a miliary tuberculosis (TB) infection while on therapy...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210295/global-impact-of-bronchiectasis-and-cystic-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Margarida Redondo, Holly Keyt, Raja Dhar, James D Chalmers
EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To recognise the clinical and radiological presentation of the spectrum of diseases associated with bronchiectasis.To understand variation in the aetiology, microbiology and burden of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis across different global healthcare systems. : Bronchiectasis is the term used to refer to dilatation of the bronchi that is usually permanent and is associated with a clinical syndrome of cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections...
September 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203422/colobronchial-fistula-the-pathogenesis-clinical-presentations-diagnosis-and-treatment
#8
Jinbo Zhao, Nan Ma, Zhengwei Zhao, Jie Lei, Qiang Lu, Feng Tian, Yongan Zhou, Yong Han, Xiaofei Li
BACKGROUND: Colobronchial fistula (CBF) is rare and easy to be delayed in clinic. There is no systemic study about this disease. The pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment of CBF were analyzed in this study. METHODS: The clinical data from 37 cases of CBF, which included one case in our institute and the other 36 cases in literature from January 1960 to August 2016, were reviewed and analyzed. The etiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and outcomes were summarized...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203178/a-patient-with-supraclavicular-lymphadenopathy-and-anterior-mediastinal-mass-presenting-as-a-rare-case-of-composite-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Alex Raufi, James Jerkins, Yung Lyou, Deepa Jeyakumar
Composite lymphoma (CL) is a rare disease with 2 distinct lymphomas concurrently arising in a single patient with an estimated incidence of 1-4.7% of newly diagnosed lymphomas per year. CL most commonly involves 2 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) or a B-cell NHL with a Hodgkin lymphoma. Our case is unique in that it was a bilineage CL with both a T-cell and B-cell NHL, which has only been reported in a few case reports. A 49-year-old woman presented with several months of progressive cough, weight loss, dyspnea, and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179148/status-of-tuberculosis-services-in-indian-prisons
#10
REVIEW
Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Bhadri Thapa, Sarabjit Singh Chadha, Anand Das, Entoor Ramachandra Babu, Subrat Mohanty, Sripriya Pandurangan, Jamhoih Tonsing
INTRODUCTION: Prisons are known to be a high risk environment for tuberculosis (TB) due to overcrowding, low levels of nutrition, poor infection control and lack of accessible healthcare services. India has nearly 1400 prisons housing 0.37 million inmates. However, information on, availability of diagnostic and treatment services for TB in the prison settings is limited. This study examined the availability of TB services in prisons of India. Simultaneously, prison inmates were screened for tuberculosis...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173770/screening-for-genital-tuberculosis-in-a-limited-resource-country-case-report
#11
Sadie Namani, Emine Qehaja-Buçaj, Diellëza Namani
BACKGROUND: Screening for benign or malignant process of pelvis in young females is a challenge for a physician in a limited resource country. Tuberculosis should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Negative results of analysis of peritoneal fluid for acid-fast staining, late cultures, and unavailability of new diagnostics methods such as polymerase chain reaction and adenosine deaminase of the aspirated fluid from peritoneal cavity can often result in invasive diagnostic procedures such as laparotomy...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166918/the-concomitant-occurrence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-bronchial-anthracofibrosis
#12
Shekhar Kunal, Ashok Shah
BACKGROUND: Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), diagnosed bronchoscopically, is a clinical entity which is now beginning to emerge from obscurity. This is commonly encountered in elderly females with history of long-standing exposure to biomass fuel smoke in poorly ventilated kitchens. As awareness of BAF has increased in recent times, distinct clinicoradiological and bronchoscopic features of the disease have emerged. Diagnosis is achieved by visualisation of bluish-black mucosal hyperpigmentation along with narrowing/distortion of the affected bronchus on fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166077/a-rare-case-of-bilateral-aspergillomas-in-a-patient-of-ankylosing-spondylitis
#13
A Das, S Pandit, S K Das, S Basuthakur, S Das
Pulmonary involvement by Aspergillus sp. mainly includes allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and invasive aspergillosis. Aspergilloma (Fungal ball) is the most common form of aspergillous pulmonary involvement, which occurs in preexisting pulmonary cavities, especially secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. Ankylosing spondylitis is a rare cause of upper lobe fibro-cavitary lesions in pulmonary parenchyma. It may also lead to development of fungal balls in pulmonary cavities. Most common presentation is mild to massive hemoptysis; dyspnoea, chronic cough, expectoration may be other presentation; even the patient may remain asymptomatic...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162798/-endobronchial-tuberculosis
#14
E Manal, Z Nahid, B Hanane, Y Najiba
BACKGROUND/AIM: The endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is an uncommon type of tuberculosis. The respiratory symptoms in EBTB are usually nonspecific and misleading. The aim of the study is to determine the clinical features and diagnostic aspects of EBTB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight cases of endobronchial tuberculosis collected from January 2009 to October 2015. RESULTS: EBTB was found in 16 females and 12 males. The mean age was 48 years...
February 2, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159630/improved-method-for-collection-of-sputum-for-tuberculosis-testing-to-ensure-adequate-sample-volumes-for-molecular-diagnostic-testing
#15
Mark Fisher, Tania Dolby, Shireen Surtie, Gaironesa Omar, Nchimunya Hapeela, Debby Basu, Abby DeWalt, David Kelso, Mark Nicol, Sally McFall
The quality and quantity of sputum collected has an important impact on the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We conducted a pilot study to assess a new collection cups for the collection of sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The pilot study utilized the standard collection cup in South Africa demonstrating a mean collection volume of 2.86±2.36SDml for 198 samples; 19% of the specimens contained <1ml and 12% contained >5ml. We designed and tested two novel sputum cups with a narrow bottom section and clear minimum and maximum markings to allow patients and clinicians to know whether sufficient sputum volume has been produced...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152082/bringing-state-of-the-art-diagnostics-to-vulnerable-populations-the-use-of-a-mobile-screening-unit-in-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-in-palawan-the-philippines
#16
Fukushi Morishita, Anna Marie Celina Gonzales Garfin, Woojin Lew, Kyung Hyun Oh, Rajendra-Prasad Yadav, Janeth Cuencaho Reston, Lenie Lucio Infante, Maria Rebethia Crueldad Acala, Dean Lim Palanca, Hee Jin Kim, Nobuyuki Nishikiori
BACKGROUND: Globally, case detection of tuberculosis (TB) has stabilized in recent years. Active case finding (ACF) has regained an increased attention as a complementary strategy to fill the case detection gap. In the Philippines, the DetecTB project implemented an innovative ACF strategy that offered a one-stop diagnostic service with a mobile unit equipped with enhanced diagnostic tools including chest X-ray (CXR) and Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert). The project targeted the rural poor, the urban poor, prison inmates, indigenous population and high school students...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127232/computed-tomography-findings-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-simiae-infection
#17
Ayeh Baghizadeh, Payam Mehrian, Poopak Farnia
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infections can be quite similar to tuberculosis, both clinically and radiologically. However, the treatment protocol is not similar. Mycobacterium simiae is a rare cause of NTM pulmonary infection. Herein, we aimed to evaluate and compare the computed tomography (CT) scan findings of M. simiae infection in lungs. For this reason, thirty-four patients (n = 34) with M. simiae lung infection were retrospectively evaluated. Diagnosis was confirmed by American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines and CT scans were reviewed in both lung and mediastinal windows...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123749/evaluation-of-prediagnosis-emergency-department-presentations-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-the-role-of-chest-radiography-risk-factors-and-symptoms
#18
S C Appleton, D W Connell, A Singanayagam, P Bradley, D Pan, F Sanderson, B Cleaver, A Rahman, O M Kon
INTRODUCTION: London has a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) with 2572 cases reported in 2014. Cases are more common in non-UK born, alcohol-dependent or homeless patients. The emergency department (ED) presents an opportunity for the diagnosis of TB in these patient groups. This is the first study describing the clinico-radiological characteristics of such attendances in two urban UK hospitals for pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the London TB Register (LTBR) and hospital records to identify patients who presented to two London ED's in the 6 months prior to their ultimate TB diagnosis 2011-2012...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116260/tuberculous-dactylitis-case-presentation-and-functional-outcome
#19
Rayan Fairag, Amre Hamdi
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal tuberculosis involving the small bones is less common than pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculous dactylitis involves the short tubular bones of the hands and feet more commonly in children. The bones of the hands are the one's more frequently affected than bones of the feet, with the proximal phalanx of the index and middle fingers as the commonest sites for infection. Spread to the skeletal system occurs during the initial infection via the lympho-haematogenous route...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109869/outcomes-infectiousness-and-transmission-dynamics-of-patients-with-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-home-discharged-patients-with-programmatically-incurable-tuberculosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Keertan Dheda, Jason D Limberis, Elize Pietersen, Jody Phelan, Aliasgar Esmail, Maia Lesosky, Kevin P Fennelly, Julian Te Riele, Barbara Mastrapa, Elizabeth M Streicher, Tania Dolby, Abdallah M Abdallah, Fathia Ben-Rached, John Simpson, Liezel Smith, Tawanda Gumbo, Paul van Helden, Frederick A Sirgel, Ruth McNerney, Grant Theron, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, Robin M Warren
BACKGROUND: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179)...
January 18, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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