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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456899/facial-weakness-diplopia-and-fever-in-a-31-year-old-an-atypical-case-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#1
Ahmed H Qavi, Tasnim F Imran, Zachariah Hasan, Fariha Ilyas
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) meninges that carries high morbidity and mortality. It is important to recognize, as patients may present with atypical symptoms. We describe the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of diabetes who presented with a sub-acute onset of right-sided facial weakness and right gaze difficulty with diplopia. History revealed low-grade fever, right-sided headache, fatigue and moderate weight loss for the past several weeks. The patient did not report neck stiffness, rigidity, fever, chills or cough...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446860/development-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-adults-in-lima-peru
#2
Lely Solari, Alonso Soto, Patrick van der Stuyft
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis (TM) is a challenge in countries with a high burden of the disease and constrained resources and Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) could be of assistance. We aimed at developing a CPR for diagnosis of TM in a Latin American setting with high tuberculosis incidence and a concentrated HIV epidemic. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients with clinical suspicion of TM attending two hospitals in Lima, Peru. We obtained information on potential anamnestic, clinical and laboratory predictive findings that are easy to collect and promptly available...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433509/prognostic-indicators-in-the-world-health-organization-s-algorithm-for-seriously-ill-hiv-infected-inpatients-with-suspected-tuberculosis
#3
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa...
February 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429215/-a-clinican-linical-analysis-of-29-cases-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#4
L Y Xu, G X Lai, Q Hu, L Zhang, D L Liu, G B Zhu, X H Li, H H Shi, C Xu, Y H Yu, Y W Bao, W Chen
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Methods: Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415434/pathogenesis-and-animal-models-of-post-primary-bronchogenic-tuberculosis-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Robert L Hunter, Jefrey K Actor, Shen-An Hwang, Arshad Khan, Michael E Urbanowski, Deepak Kaushal, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Primary and post-primary tuberculosis (TB) are different diseases caused by the same organism. Primary TB produces systemic immunity. Post-primary TB produces cavities to support massive proliferation of organisms for transmission of infection to new hosts from a person with sufficient immunity to prevent systemic infection. Post-primary, also known as bronchogenic, TB begins in humans as asymptomatic bronchial spread of obstructive lobular pneumonia, not as expanding granulomas. Most lesions regress spontaneously...
February 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405104/expectoration-of-cryptosporidium-parasites-in-sputum-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-and-negative-adults
#6
Siobhan M Mor, Luke R Ascolillo, Ritah Nakato, Grace Ndeezi, James K Tumwine, Alphonse Okwera, Jerlyn K Sponseller, Saul Tzipori, Jeffrey K Griffiths
Respiratory cryptosporidiosis is thought to be a rare, end-stage complication of HIV. Few studies have systematically examined the frequency of such infection in adults. Sputum specimens submitted for tuberculosis (TB) testing at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, were anonymously retested for Cryptosporidium using immunofluorescence staining or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Visual confirmation using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was performed for a subset of PCR-positive samples. Of 824 sputum samples tested, 24 (2...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395895/melioration-of-anti-hepatotoxic-effect-by-lichen-rangiferinus-against-alcohol-induced-liver-damage-in-rats
#7
Ila Shukla, Lubna Azmi, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Dalip Kumar Upreti, Chandana Venkateswara Rao
BACKGROUND: Reindeer lichen, Lichen rangiferinus syn. or Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Cladoniaceae) has been traditionally reported as a remedy to treat fever, colds, arthritis as well as convulsions, liver infections, coughs, constipation, and tuberculosis. The current study is aimed at rectification of alcohol induced liver damage by the use of L. rangiferinus extract. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare some biochemical markers for liver injury and hematological indices in normal untreated rats and treated rats...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386343/prevalence-risk-factors-and-clinical-correlates-of-copd-in-a-rural-setting-in-tanzania
#8
Ng'weina Francis Magitta, Richard William Walker, Komalkirti Keshavkiran Apte, Meshack Denson Shimwela, Julius David Mwaiselage, Anna Alphonce Sanga, Anil Kumar Namdeo, Sapna Jitendra Madas, Sundeep Santosh Salvi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes substantial burden of disease in developed countries, but there are limited data from Africa. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of COPD in Tanzania and identify the risk factors associated with it.This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey involving adults aged ≥35 years. We collected data on symptoms and risk factors using the Burden of Obstructive Lung Diseases questionnaire. Spirometry was performed and COPD diagnosed based on post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <70%...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379233/radiological-spectrum-of-anthracofibrosis-a-series-of-40-patients-with-computed-tomography-bronchoscopy-and-biopsy
#9
Anandamoyee Dhar, Kunal Sikund, Ajal Lall, Bharat Aggarwal
Introduction: Anthracofibrosis is a lesser known clinical entity. Patients present with chronic symptoms of cough and breathlessness with a history of biofuel/wood fire smoke exposure. There are distinct computed tomography (CT) imaging features of anthracofibrosis that can differentiate it from more common conditions such as tuberculosis (TB) and bronchogenic carcinoma. Findings include multifocal noncontiguous stenosis of bronchial tree, calcified enlarged mediastinal or hilar nodes, and secondary lung parenchymal changes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357899/pediatric-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-case-report
#10
Christelle Géneviève Jouego, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Juergen Noeske, Ndo Akono Manuel, Leo Njock Ayuk
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in children remain a major limitation in this setting, largely due to difficulties in isolating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from pediatric specimens, management with toxic second line drugs, and practically the inexistence of contact tracing. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended a standardized 9-month regimen for adults and children in zones which are highly endemic for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355225/detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-bacilli-in-bio-aerosols-from-untreated-tb-patients
#11
Benjamin Patterson, Carl Morrow, Vinayak Singh, Atica Moosa, Melitta Gqada, Jeremy Woodward, Valerie Mizrahi, Wayne Bryden, Charles Call, Shwetak Patel, Digby Warner, Robin Wood
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is predominantly an airborne disease. However, quantitative and qualitative analysis of bio-aerosols containing the aetiological agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), has proven very challenging. Our objective is to sample bio-aerosols from newly diagnosed TB patients for detection and enumeration of Mtb bacilli. Methods: We monitored each of 35 newly diagnosed, GeneXpert sputum-positive, TB patients during 1 hour confinement in a custom-built Respiratory Aerosol Sampling Chamber (RASC)...
November 7, 2017: Gates Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353901/tuberculosis-in-staff-and-students-of-patan-hospital
#12
Poojan Shrestha, Mila Shakya, Maxine Caws, Surendra Shrestha, Bibek Karki, Shreejana Shrestha, Dan Bahadur Karki, Bhagwan Maharjan, Bhawana Shrestha, Amit Arjyal, Abhilasha Karkey, Krishna G Prajapati, Buddha Basnyat
BACKGROUND: There is a high risk of occupational exposure to tuberculosis among healthcare workers in endemic countries. Regular screening for tuberculosis among healthcare workers is not carried out in Nepal. Infection control measures are also not routinely implemented. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of active tuberculosis among staff/students at Patan Hospital. METHODS: Participants were given a self-administered questionnaire and invited to undergo chest radiography...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332658/an-extremely-rare-association-of-sweet-s-syndrome-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Sandhya Chauhan
Sweet's syndrome is a skin manifestation of various systemic infections, drugs, malignancies and autoimmune disorders. There are very few case reports describing the relationship between Sweet's syndrome and non-tubercular mycobacterium infection. Further development of Sweet's syndrome secondary to mycobacterium tuberculosis (active pulmonary tuberculosis) is extremely uncommon and this is the second well established case reported from India. Here we report a forty eight year old man who presented with multiple erythematous and tender plaques over neck, palms and sides of soles...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332652/initial-airflow-obstruction-in-new-cases-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-complication-comorbidity-or-missed
#14
Andrii Dudnyk, Svitlana Blyzniuk, Oleksandr Pavel'chuk, Olena Zakharchenko, Dmytro Butov, Sergiі Zaіkov
Tuberculosis (TB) may have a similar spirometry findings as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but the prevalence of TB-induced airflow obstruction (AO) is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: To measure frequency of AO in new TB cases at the beginning of treatment and to evaluate factors associated with obstructive abnormalities following TB diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 317 patients that have no history of prior AO were recruited into the study with a median age of 39...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332619/clinical-characteristics-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-infections-in-bamako-mali
#15
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326867/cavitary-lung-lesion-suspicious-for-malignancy-reveals-mycobacterium-xenopi
#16
Sumit Fogla, Vaishali M Pansare, Luis G Camero, Uzma Syeda, Naveen Patil, Arun Chaudhury
We report the case of a 68-year-old gentleman who presented with musculoskeletal chest pain which appeared suddenly when he bent over with his dog. The chest pain was localized to the left lower chest and increased with movement and deep breathing. The patient did not complain weight loss, night sweat, fever or chill. He complained of mild cough, with expectoration of whitish mucus. Imaging revealed cavitary chest lesion in the right upper lobe, which was initially suspected to be lung cancer. The patient had a 50-year-old history of smoking 2 packs per day...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316546/tuberculosis-associated-chylothorax-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Srinivas Rajagopala, Roopa Kancherla, Ramanathan Palaniappan Ramanathan
Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare cause of chylothorax. We describe a case and the results of a systematic review of all reported cases of TB-chylothorax. We identified 37 cases of TB-chylothorax. The symptoms at presentation were constitutional (85.7%; 30/35), dyspnea (60.6%; 20/33), and cough (54.5%; 18/33). Chylothorax developed subsequent to the diagnosis of TB in 27.8% (10/36) of the patients, after a median of 6.75 weeks (IQR 4-9). Chylothorax developed during an immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) in 16.7% (10/36) of the patients, including immunocompetent ones...
January 9, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316047/parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccines-against-human-and-animal-infectious-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310671/antituberculosis-activity-phytochemical-identification-of-costus-speciosus-j-koenig-sm-cymbopogon-citratus-dc-ex-nees-stapf-and-tabernaemontana-coronaria-l-willd-and-their-effects-on-the-growth-kinetics-and-cellular-integrity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv
#19
Suriyati Mohamad, Nur Najihah Ismail, Thaigarajan Parumasivam, Pazilah Ibrahim, Hasnah Osman, Habibah A Wahab
BACKGROUND: Costus speciosus, Cymbopogon citratus, and Tabernaemontana coronaria are herbal plants traditionally used as remedies for symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) including cough. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of these plants, to identify the phytochemical compounds, and to assess the effects of the most active partitions on the growth kinetics and cellular integrity of the tubercle organism. METHODS: The in vitro anti-TB activity of different solvent partitions of the plant materials was determined against M...
January 8, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297448/score-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-clinical-presumption-of-tuberculosis-in-a-low-prevalence-area
#20
T Delory, H Ferrand, N Grall, E Casalino, M Lafarge, B Melot, D Hajage, C Charpentier, M Aubier, F Tubach, E Bouvet, N Gault, Y Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVES: To develop a diagnostic predictive model for the identification of patients with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at high risk for active disease and those requiring nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) testing and/or preventive respiratory isolation in low-incidence, high-income countries. DESIGN: A 1:1 case-control study was conducted in consecutive immunocompetent patients with presumed PTB hospitalised between 2009 and 2012 in Paris, France...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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