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Xuelin Zhong, Leah Persaud, Hilal Muharam, Ashleigh Francis, Dibash Das, Bertal Huseyin Aktas, Moira Sauane
Dysregulated activity of helicase eIF4A drives transformation to and maintenance of cancer cell phenotype by reprogramming cellular translation. Interleukin 24 (IL-24) is a tumor-suppressing protein, which has the ability to inhibit angiogenesis, sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy, and induce cancer cell-specific apoptosis. In this study, we found that eIF4A is inhibited by IL-24. Consequently, selective reduction of translation was observed for mRNAs harboring strong secondary structures in their 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs)...
May 22, 2018: Cancers
Rebecca Kusko, Jennifer Dreymann, Jermaine Ross, Yoonjeong Cha, Renan Escalante-Chong, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Liang Juin Tan, Michael E Burczynski, Ben Zeskind, Daphna Laifenfeld, Mahmoud Pouladi, Michal Geva, Iris Grossman, Michael R Hayden
BACKGROUND: Huntington Disease (HD) is an incurable autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder driven by an expansion repeat giving rise to the mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), which is known to disrupt a multitude of transcriptional pathways. Pridopidine, a small molecule in development for treatment of HD, has been shown to improve motor symptoms in HD patients. In HD animal models, pridopidine exerts neuroprotective effects and improves behavioral and motor functions. Pridopidine binds primarily to the sigma-1 receptor, (IC50 ~ 100 nM), which mediates its neuroprotective properties, such as rescue of spine density and aberrant calcium signaling in HD neuronal cultures...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Shamaila Tahir, Matthew Malone, Honghua Hu, Anand Deva, Karen Vickery
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with and without instillation (NPWTi) on in vitro mature biofilm. METHODS: Mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were grown under shear (130 rpm) on polycarbonate coupons in a CDC biofilm reactor for 3 days. Coupons containing biofilms were placed in a sterile petri dish and sealed using NPWT or NPWTi. Coupons were exposed to treatment for 24 h with NPWT alone or with instillation of: Povidone iodine solution (PVP-I) (10% w / v equivalent to 1% w / v available iodine, BETADINE® , Mundipharma, Singapore), surfactant based antimicrobial solution with polyhexamethylene biguanide (SBPHMB) (Prontosan® , B Braun Medical, Melsungen, Germany), Gentamicin 1 µg/mL (GM) (G1264 Sigma-Aldrich Pty Ltd...
May 16, 2018: Materials
Clàudia Cerveró, Alba Blasco, Olga Tarabal, Anna Casanovas, Lídia Piedrafita, Xavier Navarro, Josep E Esquerda, Jordi Calderó
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the loss of α-motoneurons (MNs) with concomitant muscle denervation. MN excitability and vulnerability to disease are particularly regulated by cholinergic synaptic afferents (C-boutons), in which Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) is concentrated. Alterations in Sig1R have been associated with MN degeneration. Here, we investigated whether a chronic treatment with the Sig1R agonist PRE-084 was able to exert beneficial effects on SMA. We used a model of intermediate SMA, the Smn2B/- mouse, in which we performed a detailed characterization of the histopathological changes that occur throughout the disease...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Fei Yao, Huazhang Miao, Bing Li, Yuntao Wu, Qingguo Zhao
We first showed the sex- and gestational age (week)-specific birthweight distributions from primiparous and multiparous mothers. Birthweight percentiles were created by using the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. We established the birthweight percentiles in Southern China and provide clinicians and researchers with up-to-date population norms of birthweight percentiles. Then we use the data from Birth Certificate System between Jan 1st, 2017 and Oct 31st, 2017, which included 1,245,364 live births to calculate SGA and LGA ratio by these three birthweight references- the new INTERGROWTH-21st standard, China's 2015 research standard and our birthweight percentiles...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinwei Xie, Zhenfang Li, Chaowei Zhou, Yuyuan Fang, Qingjun Zhang
Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) scattering characteristics of imagery are always obtained from the second order moments estimation of multi-polarization data, that is, the estimation of covariance or coherency matrices. Due to the extra-paths that signal reflected from separate scatterers within the resolution cell has to travel, speckle noise always exists in SAR images and has a severe impact on the scattering performance, especially on single look complex images. In order to achieve high accuracy in estimating covariance or coherency matrices, three aspects are taken into consideration: (1) the edges and texture of the scene are distinct after speckle filtering; (2) the statistical characteristic should be similar to the object pixel; and (3) the polarimetric scattering signature should be preserved, in addition to speckle reduction...
May 12, 2018: Sensors
Andjela Markovic, Peter Achermann, Thomas Rusterholz, Leila Tarokh
The topographic distribution of sleep EEG power is a reflection of brain structure and function. The goal of this study was to examine the degree to which genes contribute to sleep EEG topography during adolescence, a period of brain restructuring and maturation. We recorded high-density sleep EEG in monozygotic (MZ; n = 28) and dizygotic (DZ; n = 22) adolescent twins (mean age = 13.2 ± 1.1 years) at two time points 6 months apart. The topographic distribution of normalized sleep EEG power was examined for the frequency bands delta (1-4...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Men-Wen Chen, Harvey M Santos, Danielle E Que, Yan-You Gou, Lemmuel L Tayo, Yi-Chyun Hsu, Young-Bin Chen, Fu-An Chen, How-Ran Chao, Kuo-Lin Huang
Only few studies have focused on organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk and the related health risks for women in Taiwan. Our goal is to examine breast milk OCPs and their associations with female reproductive function (infertility, gynecological diseases, and menstruation characteristics) as well as their correlation with sociodemographic parameters (age, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI), annual incomes, population, birth year, and parity) and dietary habit. The breast milk samples were collected in southern Taiwan ( n = 68) from 2013 to 2016 and the OCP residues were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography with low resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/LRMS)...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jian Ma, Peicong Li, Zhaoying Chen, Kunning Lin, Nengwang Chen, Yiyong Jiang, Jinxin Chen, Bangqin Huang, Dongxing Yuan
Development of a multipurpose integrated syringe-pump-based environmental-water analyzer (iSEA) and its application for spectrophotometric determination of ammonium is presented. The iSEA consisted a mini-syringe pump equipped with a selection valve and laboratory-programmed software written by LabVIEW. The chemistry is based on a modified indophenol method using o-phenylphenol. The effect of reagent concentrations and sample temperatures were evaluated. This fully automated analyzer had a detection limit of 0...
May 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Nathaniel E Ostrom, Hasand Gandhi, Tyler B Coplen, Sakae Toyoda, J K Böhlke, Willi A Brand, Karen L Casciotti, Jens Dyckmans, Anette Giesemann, Joachim Mohn, Reinhard Well, Longfei Yu, Naohiro Yoshida
RATIONALE: Despite a long history and growing interest in isotopic analyses of N2 O, there is a lack of isotopically characterized N2 O isotopic reference materials (standards) to enable normalization and reporting of isotope-delta values. Here we report the isotopic characterization of two pure N2 O gas reference materials, USGS51 and USGS52, which are now available for laboratory calibration ( METHODS: A total of 400 sealed borosilicate glass tubes of each N2 O reference gas were prepared from a single gas filling of a high vacuum line...
May 4, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Luisa L Scott, James J Sahn, Antonio Ferragud, Rachel C Yen, Praveen N Satarasinghe, Michael D Wood, Timothy R Hodges, Ted Shi, Brooke A Prakash, Kaitlyn M Friese, Angela Shen, Valentina Sabino, Jonathan T Pierce, Stephen F Martin
Repeated cycles of intoxication and withdrawal enhance the negative reinforcing properties of alcohol and lead to neuroadaptations that underlie withdrawal symptoms driving alcohol dependence. Pharmacotherapies that target these neuroadaptations may help break the cycle of dependence. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) subtype has attracted interest as a possible modulator of the rewarding and reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, whether the sigma-2 receptor, recently cloned and identified as transmembrane protein 97 (σ2R/TMEM97), plays a role in alcohol-related behaviors is currently unknown...
April 20, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hongxia Chen, Yueqin Liu, Wenbing Wang, Opeyemi J Olatunji, Gang Pan, Zhen Ouyang
1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is the most abundant poly-hydroxylated alkaloid in the latex of mulberry leaves and it protects mulberry from insect predation. However, silkworms can survive the poisoning effect of DNJ and accumulate DNJ by consumption of the mulberry leaves. In order to determine the molecular mechanism of DNJ accumulation in silkworm, comparative proteomic analysis was employed to evaluate protein expression in two groups of silkworm bodies (the third instar silkworm bodies had the maximum content of DNJ throughout life, and the newly hatched silkworm bodies had no DNJ)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Mohd Aamir, Vinay Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Dubey, Sarvesh Pratap Kashyap, Andleeb Zehra, Ram Sanmukh Upadhyay, Surendra Singh
The WRKY transcription factors have indispensable role in plant growth, development and defense responses. The differential expression of WRKY genes following the stress conditions has been well demonstrated. We investigated the temporal and tissue-specific (root and leaf tissues) differential expression of plant defense-related WRKY genes, following the infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) in tomato. The genome-wide computational analysis revealed that during the Fol infection in tomato, 16 different members of WRKY gene superfamily were found to be involved, of which only three WRKYs (SolyWRKY4, SolyWRKY33, and SolyWRKY37) were shown to have clear-cut differential gene expression...
2018: PloS One
Kazuma Ogawa, Ryohei Masuda, Yoshiaki Mizuno, Akira Makino, Takashi Kozaka, Yoji Kitamura, Yasushi Kiyono, Kazuhiro Shiba, Akira Odani
INTRODUCTION: Sigma-1 receptor is a target for tumor imaging. In a previous study, we synthesized a vesamicol analog, (+)-2-[4-(4-bromophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-pBrV], with a high affinity for sigma-1 receptor, and synthesized radiobrominated (+)-pBrV. This radiobrominated (+)-pBrV showed high tumor uptake in tumor-bearing mice; however, radioactivity accumulation in normal tissues, such as the liver, was high. We assumed that the accumulation of (+)-pBrV in the non-target tissues was partially derived from its high lipophilicity; therefore, we synthesized and evaluated (+)-4-[1-(2-hydroxycyclohexyl)piperidine-4-yl]-2-bromophenol [(+)-BrV-OH], which is a more hydrophilic compound...
April 6, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Marius Kløvgaard, Nina Odgaard Nielsen, Thomas Lund Sørensen, Peter Bjerregaard, Britta Olsen, Pétur Benedikt Júliusson, Mathieu Roelants, Henrik Thybo Chistesen
AIM: Previous studies have found high rates of stunted linear growth in Greenlandic children. We measured growth patterns in Greenland and compared them with international growth charts. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 279 healthy children aged 6-10 years in 2012. They participated in two pregnancy and birth cohorts in Greenland and longitudinal growth data since birth was extracted from their medical records. Growth reference ranges were estimated with the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and compared with growth charts from Denmark and the World Health Organization (WHO)...
April 25, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Kristoffer Sahlholm, Marta Valle-León, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Francisco Ciruela
Pridopidine is in clinical trials for Huntington's disease treatment. Originally developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2 R) ligand, pridopidine displays about 100-fold higher affinity for the sigma-1 receptor (sigma-1R). Interestingly, pridopidine slows disease progression and improves motor function in Huntington's disease model mice and, in preliminarily reports, Huntington's disease patients. The present study examined the anti-amnesic potential of pridopidine. Thus, memory impairment was produced in mice by administration of phencyclidine (PCP, 10 mg/kg/day) for 10 days, followed by 14 days' treatment with pridopidine (6 mg/kg/day), or saline...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
B Vinodh Kumar, Thuthi Mohan
OBJECTIVE: Six Sigma is one of the most popular quality management system tools employed for process improvement. The Six Sigma methods are usually applied when the outcome of the process can be measured. This study was done to assess the performance of individual biochemical parameters on a Sigma Scale by calculating the sigma metrics for individual parameters and to follow the Westgard guidelines for appropriate Westgard rules and levels of internal quality control (IQC) that needs to be processed to improve target analyte performance based on the sigma metrics...
April 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
In-Bong Song, Hyejung Gu, Hye-Ju Han, Na-Young Lee, Ji-Yun Cha, Yeon-Kyong Son, Jungkee Kwon
Environmental stimuli can lead to the excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is one of the risk factors for premature skin aging. Here, we investigated the protective effects of 7-MEGATM 500 (50% palmitoleic acid, 7-MEGA) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and its underlying therapeutic mechanisms in the HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Our results showed that treatment with 7-MEGA prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced damage significantly increased the viability of HaCaT cells...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
William M Oliver, Calum H C Arthur, Alexander M Wood, Robert A E Clayton, Ivan J Brenkel, Philip Walmsley
BACKGROUND: We report 15-year survival, clinical, and radiographic follow-up data for the Press-Fit Condylar Sigma total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Between October 1998 and October 1999, 235 consecutive TKAs were performed in 203 patients. Patients were reviewed at a specialist nurse-led clinic before surgery and at 5, 8-10, and 15 years postoperatively. Clinical outcomes, including Knee Society Score, were recorded prospectively at each clinic visit, and radiographs were obtained...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Benjamin U Phillips, Sigma Dewan, Simon R O Nilsson, Trevor W Robbins, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey, Johan Alsiö
RATIONALE: Dysregulation of the serotonin (5-HT) system is a pathophysiological component in major depressive disorder (MDD), a condition closely associated with abnormal emotional responsivity to positive and negative feedback. However, the precise mechanism through which 5-HT tone biases feedback responsivity remains unclear. 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) are closely linked with aspects of depressive symptomatology, including abnormalities in reinforcement processes and response to stress...
April 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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