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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778762/object-spatial-and-social-recognition-testing-in-a-single-test-paradigm
#1
Bin Lian, Jun Gao, Nan Sui, Tingyong Feng, Ming Li
Animals have the ability to process information about an object or a conspecific's physical features and location, and alter its behavior when such information is updated. In the laboratory, the object, spatial and social recognition are often studied in separate tasks, making them unsuitable to study the potential dissociations and interactions among various types of recognition memories. The present study introduced a single paradigm to detect the object and spatial recognition, and social recognition of a familiar and novel conspecific...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771431/study-of-molecular-mechanisms-of-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-neonatal-rats-post-intrauterine-distress-via-the-pathway-of-tau-protein-hyperphosphorylation
#2
X-S Wang, H Huang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the reversion of the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists against the impairment of learning-memory and the hyperphosphorylation of protein Tau induced by fetal intrauterine distress in neonatal rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis of variance of factorial design set up two intervention factors, fetal intrauterine distress (two levels: no fetal intrauterine distress and a course of fetal intrauterine distress) and the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists (three levels: Saline; NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801; astragalosides)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768996/a-systematic-review-on-donepezil-based-derivatives-as-potential-cholinesterase-inhibitors-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jan Korabecny, Katarina Spilovska, Eva Mezeiova, Ondrej Benek, Radomir Juza, Daniel Kaping, Ondrej Soukup
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and gradual deterioration of intellectual capacity. Its etiology has not been elucidated yet. To date, only one therapeutic approach has been approved for the treatment of AD. The pharmacotherapy of AD has relied on non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist - memantine, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (AChEIs) - tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine...
May 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767953/pharmacological-and-electrophysiological-characterization-of-novel-nmda-receptor-antagonists
#4
Rosana Leiva, Matthew B Phillips, Andreea Larisa Turcu, Esther Gratacòs-Batlle, Lara León-García, Francesc X Sureda, David Soto, Jon W Johnson, Santiago Vazquez
This work reports the synthesis, and pharmacological and electrophysiological evaluation of new N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channel blocking antagonists featuring polycyclic scaffolds. Changes in the chemical structure modulate the potency and voltage dependence of inhibition. Two of the new antagonists display properties comparable to those of memantine, a clinically approved NMDAR antagonist.
May 16, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763637/neurosteroid-pregnenolone-sulfate-alone-and-as-augmentation-of-lurasidone-or-tandospirone-rescues-phencyclidine-induced-deficits-in-cognitive-function-and-social-interaction
#5
L Rajagopal, D Soni, H Y Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), an endogenous neurosteroid, which negatively and positively modulates gamma amino butyric acid subunit A (GABAA ) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (R) respectively, among other potential neuroplastic changes on synaptic processes, has shown some beneficial effects on treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and negative symptoms. Lurasidone (Lur), an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD), and tandospirone (Tan), a 5-HT1A  R partial agonist, have also been reported to improve cognitive or negative symptoms, or both, in some schizophrenia patients...
May 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763633/estradiol-induced-enhancement-of-fear-extinction-in-female-rats-the-role-of-nmda-receptor-activation
#6
Bronwyn M Graham, Elliot Scott
Converging cross-species evidence indicates that fear extinction (the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders) in females is modulated by endogenous and exogenous estradiol. The mechanisms underlying estradiol's influences on fear extinction are largely undefined. However, one likely candidate is the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr), activation of which is necessary for estradiol-mediated enhancements in structural and functional neural plasticity, as well as extinction consolidation in males. Here, we demonstrate that systemic co-administration of the non-competitive NMDAr antagonist, MK801, blocked the enhancement of fear extinction by systemic estradiol in ovariectomized rats...
May 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761580/cross-modal-restoration-of-ocular-dominance-plasticity-in-adult-mice
#7
Manuel Teichert, Marcel Isstas, Yitong Zhang, Jürgen Bolz
The temporal closure of one eye in juvenile and young adult mice induces a shift of the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in the binocular visual cortex. However, OD-plasticity typically declines with age and is completely absent in matured mice beyond postnatal day (PD) 110. As it has been shown that the deprivation of one sensory input can induce neuronal alterations in non-deprived sensory cortices, we here investigated whether cross-modal interactions have the potential to reinstall OD-plasticity in matured mice...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750883/involvement-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-the-descending-antinociceptive-effect-induced-by-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#8
N Bourbia, A Pertovaara
Here we studied whether descending control of mechanical nociception by glutamate in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of healthy control animals is induced by amygdaloid NMDA receptors and relayed through the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Mechanical nociception in the hind paws was assessed in rats with chronic guide cannulae for glutamate administration in the right CeA and for inducing local anesthesia in the PAG. In a separate electrophysiological study, ON-like PAG neurons giving an excitatory response to noxious pinch of the tail were recorded in anesthetized rats following glutamate administration into the CeA...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749988/amelioration-of-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-by-modulators-of-sigma-n-methyl-d-aspartate-and-ryanodine-receptors-in-mice
#9
Mojtaba Keshavarz, Behdad Yekzaman
Background: Sigma receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, and modulators of intracellular calcium may be useful for seizure control. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the antiepileptic effects of opipramol, a sigma receptor agonist, against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice and assess ketamine and caffeine interaction with the antiepileptic effects of opipramol. Methods: PTZ (100 mg/kg) was used for the induction of seizure in 72 male albino Swiss strain of mice (n=8)...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748926/adjunctive-use-of-ketamine-for-benzodiazepine-resistant-severe-alcohol-withdrawal-a-retrospective-evaluation
#10
Poorvi Shah, Marc McDowell, Reika Ebisu, Tabassum Hanif, Theodore Toerne
INTRODUCTION: Benzodiazepine (BZD)-resistant alcohol withdrawal remains a challenge for most institutions due to limited evidence with available agents. One published study currently exists utilizing the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, ketamine, for alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of adjunctive ketamine continuous infusion on symptom control and lorazepam infusion requirements for BZD-resistant alcohol withdrawal patients in the intensive care unit...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741614/loss-of-cerebellar-glutamate-transporters-eaat4-and-glast-differentially-affects-the-spontaneous-firing-pattern-and-survival-of-purkinje-cells
#11
Emma M Perkins, Yvonne L Clarkson, Daumante Suminaite, Alastair R Lyndon, Kohichi Tanaka, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Paul Skehel, David J A Wyllie, Mandy Jackson
Loss of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) has been implicated in a number of human diseases including spinocerebellar ataxias, Alzhiemer's disease and motor neuron disease. EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 are the two predominant EAATs responsible for maintaining low extracellular glutamate levels and preventing neurotoxicity in the cerebellum, the brain region essential for motor control. Here using genetically modified mice we identify new critical roles for EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 as modulators of Purkinje cell (PC) spontaneous firing patterns...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737230/the-nitric-oxide-donor-sin-1-produced-panic-like-behaviour-and-fear-induced-antinociception-are-modulated-by-nmda-receptors-in-the-anterior-hypothalamus
#12
Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
BACKGROUND: An excitatory imbalance in the hypothalamus of rodents caused by local chemical stimulation elicits fear-related defensive reactions such as escape and freezing. In addition, these panic attack-like defensive reactions induced by hypothalamic neurons may cause antinociception. However, there is a shortage of studies showing the participation of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus in these adaptive defensive mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been shown to evoke fear-related defensive responses when microinjected into paralimbic and limbic structures, and this excitatory neuromodulation can recruit the glutamatergic system...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732929/drug-development-for-alzheimer-s-disease-review
#13
Kejing Lao, Naichun Ji, Xiaohua Zhang, Wenwei Qiao, Zhishu Tang, Xingchun Gou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, which is considered one of the most intractable medical problems with heavy social and economic costs. The current drugs for AD, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist, only temporarily ameliorate cognitive decline, but are unable to stop or reverse the progression of dementia. This paper reviewed the recent advance in AD drug development. The drug discovery programs under clinical trials targeting cholinergic system, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), β-secretase, γ-secretase modulators, tau, inflammatory mediators and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were discussed...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725295/differential-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-s199-t231-and-s396-in-organotypic-brain-slices-of-alzheimer-mice-a-model-to-study-early-tau-hyperphosphorylation-using-okadaic-acid
#14
Bettina M Foidl, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, characterized by extracellular aggregation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylation of tau causing intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There is urgent need to study the interactions between Aβ and tau, especially to solve the question of the pathological cascade. In the present study, we aim to develop a model of organotypic brain slices in which both plaque and tau pathology can be examined. Organotypic brain slices (150 μm thick, coronal, at the hippocampal level) from adult (9 month) wildtype (WT, C57BL/6N) and transgenic AD mice (TG, APP_SweDI) were cultured for 2 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723576/beta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-nmda-hypofunction-an-in-vitro-model-of-schizophrenia-features
#15
Beatriz Rebollo, Maria Perez-Zabalza, Marcel Ruiz-Mejias, Lorena Perez-Mendez, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
NMDA receptor (NMDAr) hypofunction has been widely used as a schizophrenia model. Decreased activation of NMDAr is associated with a disrupted excitation/inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex and with alterations in gamma synchronization. Our aim was to investigate whether this phenomenon could be reproduced in the spontaneous oscillatory activity generated by the local prefrontal network in vitro and, if so, to explore the effects of antipsychotics on the resulting activity. Extracellular recordings were obtained from prefrontal cortex slices bathed in in vivo-like ACSF solution...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713995/full-protection-against-soman-induced-seizures-and-brain-damage-by-ly293558-and-caramiphen-combination-treatment-in-adult-rats
#16
James P Apland, Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Taiza H Figueiredo, Marcio De Araujo Furtado, Maria F M Braga
Acute exposure to nerve agents induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. LY293558, an antagonist of AMPA and GluK1 kainate receptors is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant against soman; however, some neuronal damage is still present after treatment of soman-exposed rats with LY293558. Here, we have tested whether combining LY293558 with an NMDA receptor antagonist can eliminate the residual damage. For this purpose, we chose caramiphen (CRM), an antimuscarinic compound with NMDA receptor antagonistic properties...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713269/effects-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-administration-on-visual-and-auditory-event-related-potentials-erp-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#17
André Schwertner, Maxciel Zortea, Felipe V Torres, Wolnei Caumo
Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist whose effect in subanesthetic doses has been studied for chronic pain and mood disorders treatment. It has been proposed that ketamine could change the perception of nociceptive stimuli by modulating the cortical connectivity and altering the top-down mechanisms that control conscious pain perception. As this is a strictly central effect, it would be relevant to provide fresh insight into ketamine's effect on cortical response to external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706890/simvastatin-enhances-activity-and-trafficking-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-hippocampal-neurons-through-pkc-and-camkii-signaling-pathways
#18
Tingting Chen, Ya Wang, Tingting Zhang, Baofeng Zhang, Lei Chen, Liandong Zhao, Ling Chen
Simvastatin (SV) enhances glutamate release and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 region upon activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). In this study, we examined the effects of SV on the functional activity of α7nAChR on CA1 pyramidal cells using patch-clamp recording and explored the underlying mechanisms. We found that the treatment of hippocampal slices with SV for 2 h induced a dose-dependent increase in the amplitude of ACh-evoked inward currents ( I ACh ) and the level of α7nAChR protein on the cell membrane without change in the level of α7nAChR phosphorylation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705538/peripheral-ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-contribute-to-fos-expression-increase-in-the-spinal-cord-through-antidromic-electrical-stimulation-of-sensory-nerves
#19
Jia-Heng Li, Pei-Yao He, Dan-Ni Fan, Dilinapa Alemujiang, Fu-Quan Huo, Yan Zhao, Dong-Yuan Cao
Previous studies have shown that peripheral ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the increase in sensitivity of a cutaneous branch of spinal dorsal ramus (CBDR) through antidromic electrical stimulation (ADES) of another CBDR in the adjacent segment. CBDR in the thoracic segments run parallel to each other and no synaptic contact at the periphery is reported. The present study investigated whether the increased sensitivity of peripheral sensory nerves via ADES of a CBDR induced Fos expression changes in the adjacent segments of the spinal cord...
April 26, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703263/zika-virus-induced-hyper-excitation-precedes-death-of-mouse-primary-neuron
#20
Julie Gaburro, Asim Bhatti, Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Megan Dearnley, Diane Green, Saeid Nahavandi, Prasad N Paradkar, Jean-Bernard Duchemin
BACKGROUND: Zika virus infection in new born is linked to congenital syndromes, especially microcephaly. Studies have shown that these neuropathies are the result of significant death of neuronal progenitor cells in the central nervous system of the embryo, targeted by the virus. Although cell death via apoptosis is well acknowledged, little is known about possible pathogenic cellular mechanisms triggering cell death in neurons. METHODS: We used in vitro embryonic mouse primary neuron cultures to study possible upstream cellular mechanisms of cell death...
April 27, 2018: Virology Journal
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