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Infant botulism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765793/infant-botulism-in-the-very-young-neonate-a-case-series
#1
Laura Jackson, Suneeta Madan-Khetarpal, Monica Naik, Marian G Michaels, Melissa Riley
Background  Though botulism is a rare disease overall, all infants younger than 1 year of age are at risk of contracting infant botulism, the most prevalent form reported in the United States. Nonetheless, infant botulism is frequently omitted from the differential diagnosis of the very young neonate exclusively due to age, and the diagnosis is often only considered secondarily after a costly and prolonged work up is undertaken. Delayed diagnosis can lead not only to unnecessary testing but also to prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity...
July 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742188/sp%C3%A3-dbarnsbotulism-%C3%A2-sk%C3%A3-l-att-inte-ge-honung-till-barn-under-ett-%C3%A3-r
#2
Sverre Wikström, Elisabet Holst
Infant botulism - why honey should be avoided for children up to one year Infant botulism means that Clostridium botulinum colonize and produce toxin in the infant gut, usually during the first year of life. Illness severity varies widely and the incidence may be under-estimated. Infant botulism should be considered in cases of acute muscle weakness or floppiness in infants, especially when accompanied by constipation or feeding difficulties. Respiratory failure and need for mechanical ventilation is common, but full recovery is gradually obtained...
July 24, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729852/towards-better-understanding-of-the-pathogenesis-of-neuronal-respiratory-network-in-sudden-perinatal-death
#3
REVIEW
Riffat Mehboob, Mahvish Kabir, Naseer Ahmed, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad
Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705271/molecular-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-infant-botulism-in-beijing-china
#4
Yin Ping Dong, Wei Wang, Tao Jiang, Jin Xu, Chun Hui Han, Shao Fei Yan, Séamus Fanning, Ying Li, Xiao Chen Ma, Di Zhang, Yao Zhao, Biao Zeng, Feng Qin Li
Laboratory-based pathogen isolation, identification, and toxicity determination were performed on samples from a suspected case of infant botulism. Mice injected with cultures generated from the enema sample and ingested Powered infant formula (PIF) presented typical signs of botulism. Antitoxins to polyvalent botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and monovalent BoNT type B antitoxin had protective effects. Clostridium botulinum isolated from the enema and residual PIF samples were positive for type B toxin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that the two strains of C...
June 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692343/pulsotype-diversity-of-clostridium-botulinum-strains-containing-serotypes-a-and-or-b-genes
#5
Jessica L Halpin, Lavin Joseph, Janet K Dykes, Loretta McCroskey, Elise Smith, Denise Toney, Steven Stroika, Kelley Hise, Susan Maslanka, Carolina Lúquez
Clostridium botulinum strains are prevalent in the environment and produce a potent neurotoxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious paralytic disease. In 2010, a national PulseNet database was established to curate C. botulinum pulsotypes and facilitate epidemiological investigations, particularly for serotypes A and B strains frequently associated with botulism cases in the United States. Between 2010 and 2014 we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using a PulseNet protocol, uploaded the resulting PFGE patterns into a national database, and analyzed data according to PulseNet criteria (UPGMA clustering, Dice coefficient, 1...
July 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661393/botulism-in-italy-1986-to-2015
#6
Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Alfonsina Fiore, Davide Lonati, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli, Florigio Lista, Silvia Fillo, Giuseppina Mandarino, Dario De Medici
Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease caused by botulinum toxins. Because of its high potential impact on public health, botulism is a closely monitored communicable disease in Europe. In Italy, which has one of the highest incidence rates in Europe (0.03 cases per 100,000 population), botulism is monitored through a case-based passive surveillance system: the front-line physician who diagnoses a suspected case must notify the Local Health Units immediately, and the Ministry of Health's office within 12 hours...
June 15, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398677/preparing-for-biological-threats-addressing-the-needs-of-pregnant-women
#7
REVIEW
Amelia K Watson, Sascha Ellington, Christina Nelson, Tracee Treadwell, Denise J Jamieson, Dana M Meaney-Delman
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus)...
March 15, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348769/clostridium-baratii-a-rare-case-of-pneumonia-associated-with-an-alzheimer-patient-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#8
Carla Ormundo Gonçalves Ximenes Lima, Vinicius Magno da Rocha, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira, Joaquim Santos Filho, Lucia Rodrigues Serradas, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium baratii is rarely associated with human diseases. Infection is usuallcaused by ingestion of contaminated food, and infant botulism is the most common clinical presentation. CASE REPORT: Here we report a case of pneumonia by a non-toxigenic strain of C. baratii in an Alzheimer 70-year-old male with sepsis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The micro-organism was identified by phenotypical tests, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), DNA amplification (PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306178/effective-treatment-of-infant-botulism-on-day-13-after-symptom-onset-with-human-botulism-antitoxin
#9
Anita J Campbell, Geoff Knight, Peter Walsh, Asha C Bowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#10
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT type B (BoNT/B) most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonisation such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174033/acute-hypotonia-in-an-infant
#11
Jimme Sierakowski, Jason Arthur, Todd Wylie
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is increasing in incidence in the United States and presenting to emergency departments (EDs) across the country. This clinical entity presents as acute paralysis, with magnetic resonance imaging changes in the gray matter only in children younger than 21 years of age. The etiology is unknown, although preceding viral illnesses are common. There are no consensus guidelines regarding treatment. CASE REPORT: A 4-month-old girl presented with decreased bilateral arm movement...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062435/flaccid-paralysis-in-an-infant-associated-with-a-dirty-wound-and-application-of-honey
#12
Charlotte Jane Joseph, Teik Beng Khoo, Keng Yee Lee
An infant, who was born preterm at 36 weeks, presented with fever and ulcer at umbilical region which progressed to necrotising fasciitis of anterior abdominal wall. He was treated with intravenous penicillin, intravenous cloxacillin and local application of medicated honey. Subsequently, he required wound debridement. Postoperatively, he required prolonged invasive ventilation due to poor respiratory effort which was associated with hypotonia and areflexia. Nerve conduction study revealed absent responses...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041655/trends-in-outcomes-and-hospitalization-charges-of-infant-botulism-in-the-united-states-a-comparative-analysis-between-kids-inpatient-database-and-national-inpatient-sample
#13
Tamara Opila, Asha George, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Nizar Souayah
BACKGROUND: New therapeutic strategies, including immune globulin intravenous, have emerged in the past two decades for the management of botulism. However, impact on outcomes and hospitalization charges among infants (aged ≤1 year) with botulism in the United States is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for in-hospital outcomes and charges for infant botulism cases from 1997 to 2009. Demographics, discharge status, mortality, length of stay, and hospitalization charges were reported from the two databases and compared...
February 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527271/neurotoxins-from-clostridium-botulinum-serotype-a-isolated-from-the-soil-of-mendoza-argentina-differ-from-the-a-hall-archetype-and-from-that-causing-infant-botulism
#14
P Caballero, M Troncoso, S I Patterson, C López Gómez, R Fernandez, M A Sosa
The type A of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the prevalent serotype in strains of Mendoza. The soil is the main reservoir for C.botulinum and is possibly one of the infection sources in infant botulism. In this study, we characterized and compared autochthonous C. botulinum strains and their neurotoxins. Bacterial samples were obtained from the soil and from fecal samples collected from children with infant botulism. We first observed differences in the appearance of the colonies between strains from each source and with the A Hall control strain...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189984/diversity-of-group-i-and-ii-clostridium-botulinum-strains-from-france-including-recently-identified-subtypes
#15
Christelle Mazuet, Christine Legeay, Jean Sautereau, Laurence Ma, Christiane Bouchier, Philippe Bouvet, Michel R Popoff
In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis...
June 13, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108966/a-penicillin-and-metronidazole-resistant-clostridium-botulinum-strain-responsible%C3%A2-for-an-infant-botulism-case
#16
C Mazuet, E-J Yoon, S Boyer, S Pignier, T Blanc, I Doehring, D Meziane-Cherif, C Dumant-Forest, J Sautereau, C Legeay, P Bouvet, C Bouchier, S Quijano-Roy, M Pestel-Caron, P Courvalin, M R Popoff
The clinical course of a case of infant botulism was characterized by several relapses despite therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole. Botulism was confirmed by identification of botulinum toxin and Clostridium botulinum in stools. A C. botulinum A2 strain resistant to penicillins and with heterogeneous resistance to metronidazole was isolated from stool samples up to 110 days after onset. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disc agar diffusion and MICs were determined by Etest. Whole genome sequencing allowed detection of a gene cluster composed of blaCBP for a novel penicillinase, blaI for a regulator, and blaR1 for a membrane-bound penicillin receptor in the chromosome of the C...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957069/-clinical-analysis-of-three-cases-with-infant-botulism-and-review-of-literature
#17
REVIEW
Jie Zhang, Wenrui Xu, Manman Zhao, Ye Wu, Xin Zhang, Chunyu Zhang, Ying Wang, Xueqin Liu, Shan Lu, Xuefang Xu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of three cases with infant botulism. METHOD: Clinical data of three clinically diagnosed cases with infant botulism in May 2015 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Literature search at databases of PubMed, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP with the key words"infant AND botulism". The date of literature retrieval was from the database founding to November 2015...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26663422/stimulated-jitter-analysis-for-the-evaluation-of-neuromuscular-junction-disorders-in-children
#18
Sumit Verma, Jenny Lin
INTRODUCTION: Stimulated jitter analysis (stim-JA) using a concentric needle electrode is a technique used to study the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) without voluntary activation. Our objective was to study the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of stim-JA in infants and children with suspected NMJ defects. METHODS: Sixteen infants and young children ages 2 months to 17 years with suspected NMJ disorders were evaluated using stim-JA over a period of 12 months...
March 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26593441/characterizing-the-fecal-microbiota-of-infants-with-botulism
#19
T Brian Shirey, Janet K Dykes, Carolina Lúquez, Susan E Maslanka, Brian H Raphael
BACKGROUND: Infant botulism is the most prevalent form of botulism in the USA, representing 68.5 % of cases reported from 2001-2012. Infant botulism results when botulinum toxin-producing clostridia (BTPC) colonize the infant gut with concomitant in vivo production of the highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). The gut microbiota of infants with botulism is largely uncharacterized; therefore, it remains unclear whether the microbiota profile of these patients are distinct in composition, abundance, or diversity...
2015: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26493849/clostridium-butyricum-from-beneficial-to-a-new-emerging-pathogen
#20
REVIEW
N Cassir, S Benamar, B La Scola
Clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and animal gut commensal bacterium, and is also frequently found in the environment. Whereas non-toxigenic strains are currently used as probiotics in Asia, other strains have been implicated in pathological conditions, such as botulism in infants or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. In terms of the latter, within the same species, different strains have antagonist effects on the intestinal mucosa. In particular, short-chain fatty acids, which are products of carbohydrate fermentation, have a dose-dependent paradoxical effect...
January 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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