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Infant botulism

P Caballero, M Troncoso, S I Patterson, C López Gómez, R Fernandez, M A Sosa
The type A of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the prevalent serotype in strains of Mendoza. The soil is the main reservoir for C.botulinum and is possibly one of the infection sources in infant botulism. In this study, we characterized and compared autochthonous C. botulinum strains and their neurotoxins. Bacterial samples were obtained from the soil and from fecal samples collected from children with infant botulism. We first observed differences in the appearance of the colonies between strains from each source and with the A Hall control strain...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Christelle Mazuet, Christine Legeay, Jean Sautereau, Laurence Ma, Christiane Bouchier, Philippe Bouvet, Michel R Popoff
In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
C Mazuet, E-J Yoon, S Boyer, S Pignier, T Blanc, I Doehring, D Meziane-Cherif, C Dumant-Forest, J Sautereau, C Legeay, P Bouvet, C Bouchier, S Quijano-Roy, M Pestel-Caron, P Courvalin, M R Popoff
The clinical course of a case of infant botulism was characterized by several relapses despite therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole. Botulism was confirmed by identification of botulinum toxin and Clostridium botulinum in stools. A C. botulinum A2 strain resistant to penicillins and with heterogeneous resistance to metronidazole was isolated from stool samples up to 110 days after onset. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disc agar diffusion and MICs were determined by Etest. Whole genome sequencing allowed detection of a gene cluster composed of blaCBP for a novel penicillinase, blaI for a regulator, and blaR1 for a membrane-bound penicillin receptor in the chromosome of the C...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jie Zhang, Wenrui Xu, Manman Zhao, Ye Wu, Xin Zhang, Chunyu Zhang, Ying Wang, Xueqin Liu, Shan Lu, Xuefang Xu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of three cases with infant botulism. METHOD: Clinical data of three clinically diagnosed cases with infant botulism in May 2015 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Literature search at databases of PubMed, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP with the key words"infant AND botulism". The date of literature retrieval was from the database founding to November 2015...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Sumit Verma, Jenny Lin
INTRODUCTION: Stimulated jitter analysis (stim-JA) using a concentric needle electrode is a technique used to study the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) without voluntary activation. Our objective was to study the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of stim-JA in infants and children with suspected NMJ defects. METHODS: Sixteen infants and young children ages 2 months to 17 years with suspected NMJ disorders were evaluated using stim-JA over a period of 12 months...
March 2016: Muscle & Nerve
T Brian Shirey, Janet K Dykes, Carolina Lúquez, Susan E Maslanka, Brian H Raphael
BACKGROUND: Infant botulism is the most prevalent form of botulism in the USA, representing 68.5 % of cases reported from 2001-2012. Infant botulism results when botulinum toxin-producing clostridia (BTPC) colonize the infant gut with concomitant in vivo production of the highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). The gut microbiota of infants with botulism is largely uncharacterized; therefore, it remains unclear whether the microbiota profile of these patients are distinct in composition, abundance, or diversity...
2015: Microbiome
N Cassir, S Benamar, B La Scola
Clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and animal gut commensal bacterium, and is also frequently found in the environment. Whereas non-toxigenic strains are currently used as probiotics in Asia, other strains have been implicated in pathological conditions, such as botulism in infants or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. In terms of the latter, within the same species, different strains have antagonist effects on the intestinal mucosa. In particular, short-chain fatty acids, which are products of carbohydrate fermentation, have a dose-dependent paradoxical effect...
January 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Giulia Zanetti, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Marcon Pirazzini, Thomas Binz, Clifford C Shone, Silvia Fillo, Florigio Lista, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) form a growing family of metalloproteases with a unique specificity either for VAMP, SNAP25 or syntaxin. The BoNTs are grouped in seven different serotypes indicated by letters from A to G. These neurotoxins enter the cytosol of nerve terminals via a 100 kDa chain which binds to the presynaptic membrane and assists the translocation of a 50 kDa metalloprotease chain. These two chains are linked by a single disulfide bridge which plays an essential role during the entry of the metalloprotease chain in the cytosol, but thereafter it has to be reduced to free the proteolytic activity...
December 1, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
Aleksandra Chudzicka
Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon.
September 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Roxana G Spini, Verónica Ferraris, María P Glasman, Guillermina Orofino, Alejandra Casanovas, Gustavo Debaisi
Botulism is an important public health problem in Argentina. It is a potentially fatal disease, and its diagnosis may be difficult. There are rare presentation forms of the disease, such as acute abdomen. We present a 4-month baby with a 3-day constipation condition, associated with weakness and abnormal eating attitude in the last 12 hours. The baby presented preserved muscle tone, with no changes in sucking or deglutition according to the mother's observations. Altered sensorium and acute abdomen were found; the patient was entered into the operating room with presumptive diagnosis of intussusception, which was confirmed by pneumatic desinvagination...
October 2015: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
N T Grabowski, G Klein
Honey has been considered a relatively safe foodstuff due to its compositional properties, with infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum being the most prominent health risk associated with it. Our review is focused on the honey microflora along the food chain and evaluates the pathogenic potential of those microorganisms found in honey. This product may contain a great variety of bacteria and, particularly, fungi that eventually entered the food chain at an early stage (e.g. via pollen). For many of these microorganisms, opportunistic infections in humans have been recorded (e...
July 15, 2015: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Nadine McCallum, Timothy J Gray, Qinning Wang, Jimmy Ng, Leanne Hicks, Trang Nguyen, Marion Yuen, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Vitali Sintchenko
Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Laura K Rosow, Jonathan B Strober
Botulism is a rare neuromuscular condition, and multiple clinical forms are recognized. Infant botulism was first identified in the 1970s, and it typically occurs in infants younger than 1 year of age who ingest Clostridium botulinum spores. A specific treatment for infant botulism, intravenous botulism immunoglobulin (BIG-IV or BabyBIG®), was developed in 2003, and this treatment has substantially decreased both morbidity and hospital costs associated with this illness. This article will review the pathogenesis of infant botulism as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition...
May 2015: Pediatric Neurology
Amaran Moodley, Patricia Quinlisk, Ann Garvey, Nicholas Kalas, Jason R Barash, Jessica M Khouri
In June 2013, a male newborn aged 9 days (delivered after a full-term pregnancy) was brought to a hospital emergency department with a 2-day history of constipation, fussiness, and poor feeding. The mother reported her son's symptoms as excessive crying, reluctance to suck, and difficulty in swallowing milk. Within hours of arrival, the infant became less responsive and "floppy," and was intubated for respiratory failure. Infant botulism was suspected and Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) (BIG-IV), licensed for the treatment of infant botulism types A and B, was administered on hospital day 2...
April 17, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
D Sabatini, L Papetti, D Lonati, F Anniballi, B Auricchio, E Properzi, M C Grassi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Martin Enserink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2015: Science
Eren Cagan, Erdal Peker, Murat Dogan, Huseyin Caksen
Infant botulism is a rare condition caused by intestinal colonization with Clostridium botulinum. The enteric toxin causes intestinal immobility and progressive descending paralysis due to the effect on acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction and other cholinergic nerve terminals, particularly in the gut. Herein, we report an infant with infantile botulism because of rare clinically entity, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment recover no squeal.
August 2010: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Laura I T de Jong, Rafael A Fernández, Virtudes Pareja, Gabriel Giaroli, Sergio R Guidarelli, Janet K Dykes, Carolina Lúquez
Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide.
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Hannelore Ringe, Markus Schuelke, Sven Weber, Brigitte G Dorner, Sebastian Kirchner, Martin B Dorner
Infant botulism is an acute life-threatening condition and diagnosis is frequently delayed. Therefore, the best time window to administer specific antibodies, at present the only etiology-based therapy, is often missed, entailing long periods of hospitalization in the PICU. Here we present a 3-month-old boy with infant botulism and respiratory failure, who quickly and favorably responded to thiamine supplementation. From the feces we isolated Clostridium botulinum serotype A2. In addition to producing botulinum neurotoxin A, this strain carried the thiaminase I gene and produced thiaminase I...
November 2014: Pediatrics
E B Shelley, D O'Rourke, K Grant, E McArdle, L Capra, A Clarke, E McNamara, R Cunney, P McKeown, C F L Amar, C Cosgrove, M Fitzgerald, P Harrington, P Garvey, F Grainger, J Griffin, B J Lynch, G McGrane, J Murphy, N Ni Shuibhne, J Prosser
We describe two cases of infant botulism due to Clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type E neurotoxin (BoNT/E) and a previously unreported environmental source. The infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. Faecal samples were positive for C. butyricum BoNT/E. The infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV). C. butyricum BoNT/E was isolated from water from tanks housing pet 'yellow-bellied' terrapins (Trachemys scripta scripta): in case A the terrapins were in the infant's home; in case B a relative fed the terrapin prior to holding and feeding the infant when both visited another relative...
February 2015: Epidemiology and Infection
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