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Infant botulism

Amelia K Watson, Sascha Ellington, Christina Nelson, Tracee Treadwell, Denise J Jamieson, Dana M Meaney-Delman
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus)...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
Carla Ormundo Gonçalves Ximenes Lima, Vinicius Magno da Rocha, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira, Joaquim Santos Filho, Lucia Rodrigues Serradas, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium baratii is rarely associated with human diseases. Infection is usuallcaused by ingestion of contaminated food, and infant botulism is the most common clinical presentation. CASE REPORT: Here we report a case of pneumonia by a non-toxigenic strain of C. baratii in an Alzheimer 70-year-old male with sepsis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The micro-organism was identified by phenotypical tests, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), DNA amplification (PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
Anita J Campbell, Geoff Knight, Peter Walsh, Asha C Bowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT/B most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonization such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
Jimme Sierakowski, Jason Arthur, Todd Wylie
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is increasing in incidence in the United States and presenting to emergency departments (EDs) across the country. This clinical entity presents as acute paralysis, with magnetic resonance imaging changes in the gray matter only in children younger than 21 years of age. The etiology is unknown, although preceding viral illnesses are common. There are no consensus guidelines regarding treatment. CASE REPORT: A 4-month-old girl presented with decreased bilateral arm movement...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Charlotte Jane Joseph, Teik Beng Khoo, Keng Yee Lee
An infant, who was born preterm at 36 weeks, presented with fever and ulcer at umbilical region which progressed to necrotising fasciitis of anterior abdominal wall. He was treated with intravenous penicillin, intravenous cloxacillin and local application of medicated honey. Subsequently, he required wound debridement. Postoperatively, he required prolonged invasive ventilation due to poor respiratory effort which was associated with hypotonia and areflexia. Nerve conduction study revealed absent responses...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Tamara Opila, Asha George, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Nizar Souayah
BACKGROUND: New therapeutic strategies, including immune globulin intravenous, have emerged in the past two decades for the management of botulism. However, impact on outcomes and hospitalization charges among infants (aged ≤1 year) with botulism in the United States is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for in-hospital outcomes and charges for infant botulism cases from 1997 to 2009. Demographics, discharge status, mortality, length of stay, and hospitalization charges were reported from the two databases and compared...
February 2017: Pediatric Neurology
P Caballero, M Troncoso, S I Patterson, C López Gómez, R Fernandez, M A Sosa
The type A of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the prevalent serotype in strains of Mendoza. The soil is the main reservoir for C.botulinum and is possibly one of the infection sources in infant botulism. In this study, we characterized and compared autochthonous C. botulinum strains and their neurotoxins. Bacterial samples were obtained from the soil and from fecal samples collected from children with infant botulism. We first observed differences in the appearance of the colonies between strains from each source and with the A Hall control strain...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Christelle Mazuet, Christine Legeay, Jean Sautereau, Laurence Ma, Christiane Bouchier, Philippe Bouvet, Michel R Popoff
In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis...
June 13, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
C Mazuet, E-J Yoon, S Boyer, S Pignier, T Blanc, I Doehring, D Meziane-Cherif, C Dumant-Forest, J Sautereau, C Legeay, P Bouvet, C Bouchier, S Quijano-Roy, M Pestel-Caron, P Courvalin, M R Popoff
The clinical course of a case of infant botulism was characterized by several relapses despite therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole. Botulism was confirmed by identification of botulinum toxin and Clostridium botulinum in stools. A C. botulinum A2 strain resistant to penicillins and with heterogeneous resistance to metronidazole was isolated from stool samples up to 110 days after onset. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disc agar diffusion and MICs were determined by Etest. Whole genome sequencing allowed detection of a gene cluster composed of blaCBP for a novel penicillinase, blaI for a regulator, and blaR1 for a membrane-bound penicillin receptor in the chromosome of the C...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jie Zhang, Wenrui Xu, Manman Zhao, Ye Wu, Xin Zhang, Chunyu Zhang, Ying Wang, Xueqin Liu, Shan Lu, Xuefang Xu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of three cases with infant botulism. METHOD: Clinical data of three clinically diagnosed cases with infant botulism in May 2015 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Literature search at databases of PubMed, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP with the key words"infant AND botulism". The date of literature retrieval was from the database founding to November 2015...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Sumit Verma, Jenny Lin
INTRODUCTION: Stimulated jitter analysis (stim-JA) using a concentric needle electrode is a technique used to study the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) without voluntary activation. Our objective was to study the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of stim-JA in infants and children with suspected NMJ defects. METHODS: Sixteen infants and young children ages 2 months to 17 years with suspected NMJ disorders were evaluated using stim-JA over a period of 12 months...
March 2016: Muscle & Nerve
T Brian Shirey, Janet K Dykes, Carolina Lúquez, Susan E Maslanka, Brian H Raphael
BACKGROUND: Infant botulism is the most prevalent form of botulism in the USA, representing 68.5 % of cases reported from 2001-2012. Infant botulism results when botulinum toxin-producing clostridia (BTPC) colonize the infant gut with concomitant in vivo production of the highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). The gut microbiota of infants with botulism is largely uncharacterized; therefore, it remains unclear whether the microbiota profile of these patients are distinct in composition, abundance, or diversity...
2015: Microbiome
N Cassir, S Benamar, B La Scola
Clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and animal gut commensal bacterium, and is also frequently found in the environment. Whereas non-toxigenic strains are currently used as probiotics in Asia, other strains have been implicated in pathological conditions, such as botulism in infants or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. In terms of the latter, within the same species, different strains have antagonist effects on the intestinal mucosa. In particular, short-chain fatty acids, which are products of carbohydrate fermentation, have a dose-dependent paradoxical effect...
January 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Giulia Zanetti, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Marcon Pirazzini, Thomas Binz, Clifford C Shone, Silvia Fillo, Florigio Lista, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) form a growing family of metalloproteases with a unique specificity either for VAMP, SNAP25 or syntaxin. The BoNTs are grouped in seven different serotypes indicated by letters from A to G. These neurotoxins enter the cytosol of nerve terminals via a 100 kDa chain which binds to the presynaptic membrane and assists the translocation of a 50 kDa metalloprotease chain. These two chains are linked by a single disulfide bridge which plays an essential role during the entry of the metalloprotease chain in the cytosol, but thereafter it has to be reduced to free the proteolytic activity...
December 1, 2015: Biochemical Pharmacology
Aleksandra Chudzicka
Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon.
September 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Roxana G Spini, Verónica Ferraris, María P Glasman, Guillermina Orofino, Alejandra Casanovas, Gustavo Debaisi
Botulism is an important public health problem in Argentina. It is a potentially fatal disease, and its diagnosis may be difficult. There are rare presentation forms of the disease, such as acute abdomen. We present a 4-month baby with a 3-day constipation condition, associated with weakness and abnormal eating attitude in the last 12 hours. The baby presented preserved muscle tone, with no changes in sucking or deglutition according to the mother's observations. Altered sensorium and acute abdomen were found; the patient was entered into the operating room with presumptive diagnosis of intussusception, which was confirmed by pneumatic desinvagination...
October 2015: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
N T Grabowski, G Klein
Honey has been considered a relatively safe foodstuff due to its compositional properties, with infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum being the most prominent health risk associated with it. Our review is focused on the honey microflora along the food chain and evaluates the pathogenic potential of those microorganisms found in honey. This product may contain a great variety of bacteria and, particularly, fungi that eventually entered the food chain at an early stage (e.g., via pollen). For many of these microorganisms, opportunistic infections in humans have been recorded (e...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Nadine McCallum, Timothy J Gray, Qinning Wang, Jimmy Ng, Leanne Hicks, Trang Nguyen, Marion Yuen, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Vitali Sintchenko
Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Laura K Rosow, Jonathan B Strober
Botulism is a rare neuromuscular condition, and multiple clinical forms are recognized. Infant botulism was first identified in the 1970s, and it typically occurs in infants younger than 1 year of age who ingest Clostridium botulinum spores. A specific treatment for infant botulism, intravenous botulism immunoglobulin (BIG-IV or BabyBIG®), was developed in 2003, and this treatment has substantially decreased both morbidity and hospital costs associated with this illness. This article will review the pathogenesis of infant botulism as well as the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition...
May 2015: Pediatric Neurology
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