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Sensory deprivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441564/multisensory-development-calibrating-a-coherent-sensory-milieu-in-early-life
#1
Andrew J Bremner
A new study reveals the effects of visual deprivation in early life on the development of multisensory simultaneity perception. To understand the developmental processes underlying this we need to consider the multisensory milieu of the newborn infant.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425479/perturbed-oral-motor-control-due-to-anesthesia-during-intraoral-manipulation-of-food
#2
Joannis Grigoriadis, Abhishek Kumar, Peter Svensson, Krister G Svensson, Mats Trulsson
Sensory information from periodontal mechanoreceptors (PMRs) surrounding the roots of natural teeth is important for optimizing the positioning of food and adjustment of force vectors during precision biting. The present experiment was designed to test the hypothesis; that reduction of afferent inputs from the PMRs, by anesthesia, perturbs the oral fine motor control and related jaw movements during intraoral manipulation of morsels of food. Thirty healthy volunteers with a natural dentition were equally divided into experimental and control groups...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421004/neurosensory-and-cognitive-modifications-in-europe-s-toughest-randoraid-competition-the-transpyr%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-a-extreme-study
#3
Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Kristian Ujka, Francesco Sansone, Alice Ferrisi, Guido Giardini, Raffaele Conte, Lorenza Pratali
Introduction: Given the wide proliferation of ultra-long endurance races, it is important to understand the physiological response of the athletes to improve their safety. We evaluated the cognitive and neurosensory effects on ultra-endurance athletes during the Transpyrénéa (866 Km, 65,000 m positive slope), held on the French Pyrenees. Materials and Methods: 40 athletes were enrolled (age 43.8 ± 8.8 years; 36 males). Olfactory and cognitive tests were performed before the race (T0, n = 40), at 166 kms (T1, n = 28), at 418 kms (T2, n = 20), and after the race (T3, 866 kms, n = 13)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409481/views-of-the-uk-general-public-on-important-aspects-of-health-not-captured-by-eq-5d
#4
Koonal Kirit Shah, Brendan Mulhern, Louise Longworth, M F Janssen
INTRODUCTION: The EQ-5D is a standardised instrument designed for use as a generic measure of health outcome. It was (and is) intended to provide information about a 'common core' of dimensions known to be relevant across a range of conditions; however, the five dimensions may not fully capture the health-related impacts of certain conditions. This study analyses the views of the UK general public about important aspects of health considered to be missing from the instrument. METHODS: Survey respondents were asked whether there are any aspects of health they consider to be important but are not captured by the EQ-5D, and, if so, what these aspects are...
April 13, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408870/homeostatic-changes-in-gaba-and-glutamate-receptors-on-excitatory-cortical-neurons-during-sleep-deprivation-and-recovery
#5
Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Anton Plavski, Lynda Mainville, Barbara E Jones
Neuronal activity is regulated in a homeostatic manner through changes in inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate (Glu) AMPA (A) receptors (GluARs). Using immunofluorescent staining, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-labeled (+) excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex undergo such homeostatic regulation following enforced waking with associated cortical activation during the day when mice normally sleep the majority of the time. Sleep deprived mice were prevented from falling asleep by unilateral whisker stimulation and sleep recovery (SR) mice allowed to sleep freely following deprivation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408150/adaptive-and-maladaptive-neural-compensatory-consequences-of-sensory-deprivation-from-a-phantom-percept-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Anusha Mohan, Sven Vanneste
It is suggested that the brain undergoes plastic changes in order to adapt to changing environmental needs. Sensory deprivation results in decreased input to the brain leading to adaptive or maladaptive changes. Although several theories hypothesize the mechanism of these adaptive and maladaptive changes, the course of action taken by the brain heavily depends on the age of incidence of damage. The growing body of literature on the topic proposes that maladaptive changes in the brain are instrumental in creating phantom percepts, defined as the perception of a sensory experience in the absence of a physical stimulus...
April 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407141/sensory-deprivation-triggers-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#7
Hila Milshtein-Parush, Samuel Frere, Limor Regev, Coren Lahav, Amit Benbenishty, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu, Inbal Goshen, Inna Slutsky
Hippocampus, a temporal lobe structure involved in learning and memory, receives information from all sensory modalities. Despite extensive research on the role of sensory experience in cortical map plasticity, little is known about whether and how sensory experience regulates functioning of the hippocampal circuits. Here, we show that 9 ± 2 days of whisker deprivation during early mouse development depresses activity of CA3 pyramidal neurons by several principal mechanisms: decrease in release probability, increase in the fraction of silent synapses, and reduction in intrinsic excitability...
April 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396883/intracortical-circuits-in-thalamorecipient-layers-of-auditory-cortex-refine-after-visual-deprivation
#8
Xiangying Meng, Joseph P Y Kao, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory cortices do not work in isolation. The functional responses of neurons in primary sensory cortices can be affected by activity from other modalities. For example, short-term visual deprivations, or dark exposure (DE), leads to enhanced neuronal responses and frequency selectivity to sounds in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1). Circuit changes within A1 likely underlie these changes. Prior studies revealed that DE enhanced thalamocortical transmission to L4 in A1. Because the frequency selectivity of L4 neurons is determined by both thalamocortical and intracortical inputs, changes in intralaminar circuits to L4 neurons might also contribute to improved sound responses...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392082/neglect-as-a-violation-of-species-expectant-experience-neurodevelopmental-consequences
#9
REVIEW
Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan, Charles A Nelson
The human brain requires a wide variety of experiences and environmental inputs in order to develop normally. Children who are neglected by caregivers or raised in institutional environments are deprived of numerous types of species-expectant environmental experiences. In this review, we articulate a model of how the absence of cognitive stimulation and sensory, motor, linguistic, and social experiences common among children raised in deprived early environments constrains early forms of learning, producing long-term deficits in complex cognitive function and associative learning...
February 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370755/is-territorial-expansion-a-mechanism-for-crossmodal-plasticity
#10
M A Meredith, H R Clemo, S G Lomber
Crossmodal plasticity is the phenomenon whereby, following sensory damage or deprivation, the lost sensory function of a brain region is replaced by one of the remaining senses. One of several proposed mechanisms for this phenomenon involves the expansion of a more active brain region at the expense of another whose sensory inputs have been damaged or lost. This territorial expansion hypothesis was examined in the present study. The cat ectosylvian visual area (AEV) borders the auditory field of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (FAES), which becomes visually reorganized in the early deaf...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361948/degradation-of-neural-representations-in-higher-visual-cortex-by-sleep-deprivation
#11
Jia-Hou Poh, Michael W L Chee
A night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) impairs selective attention and is accompanied by attenuated activation within ventral visual cortex (VVC). However, finer details of how TSD compromises selectivity of visual processing remain unclear. Drawing from prior work in cognitive aging, we predicted that TSD would result in dedifferentiation of neural responses for faces and houses within the VVC. Instead, we found preservation of category selectivity. This was observed both in voxels highly selective for each category, and also across multiple voxels evaluated using MVPA...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358391/visual-deprivation-selectively-reshapes-the-intrinsic-functional-architecture-of-the-anterior-insula-subregions
#12
Lihua Liu, Congcong Yuan, Hao Ding, Yongjie Xu, Miaomiao Long, YanJun Li, Yong Liu, Tianzi Jiang, Wen Qin, Wen Shen, Chunshui Yu
The anterior insula (AI) is the core hub of salience network that serves to identify the most relevant stimuli among vast sensory inputs and forward them to higher cognitive regions to guide behaviour. As blind subjects were usually reported with changed perceptive abilities for salient non-visual stimuli, we hypothesized that the resting-state functional network of the AI is selectively reorganized after visual deprivation. The resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the bilateral dorsal and ventral AI was calculated for twenty congenitally blind (CB), 27 early blind (EB), 44 late blind (LB) individuals and 50 sighted controls (SCs)...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350297/a-mutant-with-bilateral-whisker-to-barrel-inputs-unveils-somatosensory-mapping-rules-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#13
Nicolas Renier, Chloé Dominici, Reha S Erzurumlu, Claudius F Kratochwil, Filippo M Rijli, Patricia Gaspar, Alain Chédotal
In mammals, tactile information is mapped topographically onto the contralateral side of the brain in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). In this study, we describe Robo3 mouse mutants in which a sizeable fraction of the trigemino-thalamic inputs project ipsilaterally rather than contralaterally. The resulting mixture of crossed and uncrossed sensory inputs creates bilateral whisker maps in the thalamus and cortex. Surprisingly, these maps are segregated resulting in duplication of whisker representations and doubling of the number of barrels without changes in the size of S1...
March 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#14
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259041/trunk-sway-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-quantitative-assessment-in-clinical-practice
#15
Tomas Bäcklund, Jennifer Frankel, Hanna Israelsson, Jan Malm, Nina Sundström
BACKGROUND: In diagnosis and treatment of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), there is need for clinically applicable, quantitative assessment of balance and gait. Using a body-worn gyroscopic system, the aim of this study was to assess postural stability of iNPH patients in standing, walking and during sensory deprivation before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage and surgery. A comparison was performed between healthy elderly (HE) and patients with various types of hydrocephalus (ventriculomegaly (VM))...
February 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258954/prevalence-and-predicting-factors-for-commonly-neglected-sexual-side-effects-to-external-beam-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#16
Anders Frey, Christian Pedersen, Henriette Lindberg, Rasmus Bisbjerg, Jens Sønksen, Mikkel Fode
INTRODUCTION: Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. AIM: To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). METHODS: In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251715/homeostatic-response-to-sleep-rest-deprivation-by-constant-water-flow-in-larval-zebrafish-in-both-dark-and-light-conditions
#17
Vilma Aho, Maija Vainikka, Henri A J Puttonen, Heidi M K Ikonen, Tiia Salminen, Pertti Panula, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Henna-Kaisa Wigren
Sleep-or sleep-like states-have been reported in adult and larval zebrafish using behavioural criteria. These reversible quiescent periods, displaying circadian rhythmicity, have been used in pharmacological, genetic and neuroanatomical studies of sleep-wake regulation. However, one of the important criteria for sleep, namely sleep homeostasis, has not been demonstrated unequivocally. To study rest homeostasis in zebrafish larvae, we rest-deprived 1-week-old larvae with a novel, ecologically relevant method: flow of water...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242829/effects-of-functional-decoupling-of-a-leg-in-a-model-of-stick-insect-walking-incorporating-three-ipsilateral-legs
#18
Tibor I Tóth, Silvia Daun
Legged locomotion is a fundamental form of activity of insects during which the legs perform coordinated movements. Sensory signals conveying position, velocity and load of a leg are sent between the thoracic ganglia where the local control networks of the leg muscles are situated. They affect the actual state of the local control networks, hence the stepping of the legs. Sensory coordination in stepping has been intensively studied but important details of its neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. One possibility to tackle this problem is to study what happens to the coordination if a leg is, reversibly or irreversibly, deprived of its normal function...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220063/vibrotactile-discrimination-training-affects-brain-connectivity-in-profoundly-deaf-individuals
#19
Andrés A González-Garrido, Vanessa D Ruiz-Stovel, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Rebeca Romo-Vázquez, Ricardo A Salido-Ruiz, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Luis R Campos
Early auditory deprivation has serious neurodevelopmental and cognitive repercussions largely derived from impoverished and delayed language acquisition. These conditions may be associated with early changes in brain connectivity. Vibrotactile stimulation is a sensory substitution method that allows perception and discrimination of sound, and even speech. To clarify the efficacy of this approach, a vibrotactile oddball task with 700 and 900 Hz pure-tones as stimuli [counterbalanced as target (T: 20% of the total) and non-target (NT: 80%)] with simultaneous EEG recording was performed by 14 profoundly deaf and 14 normal-hearing (NH) subjects, before and after a short training period (five 1-h sessions; in 2...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197674/role-of-vision-in-sighted-and-blind-soccer-players-in-adapting-to-an-unstable-balance-task
#20
María Campayo-Piernas, Carla Caballero, David Barbado, Raúl Reina
This study tested whether a compensatory hypothesis exists on postural control during standing unstable balance tasks comparing blind soccer players (n = 7) to sighted soccer players (n = 15) and sighted sedentary individuals (n = 6). All subjects performed a pre-test, a training of ten practice trials on a single day, and a post-test balance test. All tests were performed on an unstable surface placed on a force platform and under closed-eyes conditions, and a final test was performed with open eyes...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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