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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#1
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259041/trunk-sway-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-quantitative-assessment-in-clinical-practice
#2
Tomas Bäcklund, Jennifer Frankel, Hanna Israelsson, Jan Malm, Nina Sundström
BACKGROUND: In diagnosis and treatment of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), there is need for clinically applicable, quantitative assessment of balance and gait. Using a body-worn gyroscopic system, the aim of this study was to assess postural stability of iNPH patients in standing, walking and during sensory deprivation before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage and surgery. A comparison was performed between healthy elderly (HE) and patients with various types of hydrocephalus (ventriculomegaly (VM))...
February 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258954/prevalence-and-predicting-factors-for-commonly-neglected-sexual-side-effects-to-external-beam-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#3
Anders Frey, Christian Pedersen, Henriette Lindberg, Rasmus Bisbjerg, Jens Sønksen, Mikkel Fode
INTRODUCTION: Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. AIM: To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). METHODS: In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251715/homeostatic-response-to-sleep-rest-deprivation-by-constant-water-flow-in-larval-zebrafish-in-both-dark-and-light-conditions
#4
Vilma Aho, Maija Vainikka, Henri A J Puttonen, Heidi M K Ikonen, Tiia Salminen, Pertti Panula, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Henna-Kaisa Wigren
Sleep-or sleep-like states-have been reported in adult and larval zebrafish using behavioural criteria. These reversible quiescent periods, displaying circadian rhythmicity, have been used in pharmacological, genetic and neuroanatomical studies of sleep-wake regulation. However, one of the important criteria for sleep, namely sleep homeostasis, has not been demonstrated unequivocally. To study rest homeostasis in zebrafish larvae, we rest-deprived 1-week-old larvae with a novel, ecologically relevant method: flow of water...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242829/effects-of-functional-decoupling-of-a-leg-in-a-model-of-stick-insect-walking-incorporating-three-ipsilateral-legs
#5
Tibor I Tóth, Silvia Daun
Legged locomotion is a fundamental form of activity of insects during which the legs perform coordinated movements. Sensory signals conveying position, velocity and load of a leg are sent between the thoracic ganglia where the local control networks of the leg muscles are situated. They affect the actual state of the local control networks, hence the stepping of the legs. Sensory coordination in stepping has been intensively studied but important details of its neuronal mechanisms are still unclear. One possibility to tackle this problem is to study what happens to the coordination if a leg is, reversibly or irreversibly, deprived of its normal function...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220063/vibrotactile-discrimination-training-affects-brain-connectivity-in-profoundly-deaf-individuals
#6
Andrés A González-Garrido, Vanessa D Ruiz-Stovel, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Rebeca Romo-Vázquez, Ricardo A Salido-Ruiz, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Luis R Campos
Early auditory deprivation has serious neurodevelopmental and cognitive repercussions largely derived from impoverished and delayed language acquisition. These conditions may be associated with early changes in brain connectivity. Vibrotactile stimulation is a sensory substitution method that allows perception and discrimination of sound, and even speech. To clarify the efficacy of this approach, a vibrotactile oddball task with 700 and 900 Hz pure-tones as stimuli [counterbalanced as target (T: 20% of the total) and non-target (NT: 80%)] with simultaneous EEG recording was performed by 14 profoundly deaf and 14 normal-hearing (NH) subjects, before and after a short training period (five 1-h sessions; in 2...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197674/role-of-vision-in-sighted-and-blind-soccer-players-in-adapting-to-an-unstable-balance-task
#7
María Campayo-Piernas, Carla Caballero, David Barbado, Raúl Reina
This study tested whether a compensatory hypothesis exists on postural control during standing unstable balance tasks comparing blind soccer players (n = 7) to sighted soccer players (n = 15) and sighted sedentary individuals (n = 6). All subjects performed a pre-test, a training of ten practice trials on a single day, and a post-test balance test. All tests were performed on an unstable surface placed on a force platform and under closed-eyes conditions, and a final test was performed with open eyes...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187698/availability-of-mental-health-services-for-individuals-who-are-deaf-or-deaf-blind
#8
Michele C McDonnall, Adele Crudden, B J LeJeune, Anne Carter Steverson
A survey of state mental health agencies found that a majority have no specific policy or procedure regarding how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf or who are deaf-blind. Agency representatives report that staff lack knowledge of how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf-blind and the agencies lack qualified interpreters. They recommend training for social workers and counselors to address best practices in working with people who are deaf-blind concerning communication methods and strategies, physical interaction, cultural issues, everyday life, sensory deprivation, ethics, use of an interpreter, and other general issues...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184326/does-endurance-training-compensate-for-neurotrophin-deficiency-following-diabetic-neuropathy
#9
Rasoul Eslami, Reza Gharakhanlou, Abdolreza Kazemi, Amir Bahador Dakhili, Ghazaleh Sorkhkamanzadeh, Ayob Sheikhy
BACKGROUND: A lack of neurotrophic support is believed to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy. On the other hand, neurotrophins have consistently been shown to increase in the central and peripheral nervous system following exercise, but the effects of exercise intervention on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic neuropathy are not understood. OBJECTIVES: This experimental study was designed and carried out at the Tarbiat Modares university (TMU) in Tehran, Iran, to investigate the hypothesis that increased activity as endurance training can help to increase the endogenous expression of neurotrophins in diabetic rats...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178213/neurotrophic-factors-ngf-gdnf-and-ntn-selectively-modulate-hsv1-and-hsv2-lytic-infection-and-reactivation-in-primary-adult-sensory-and-autonomic-neurons
#10
Andy A Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J Sriranganathan, Angela M Ives, Andrea S Bertke
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs)...
February 7, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163935/short-term-monocular-deprivation-enhances-physiological-pupillary-oscillations
#11
Paola Binda, Claudia Lunghi
Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159490/chemohormonal-therapy-in-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer-sweeney-cj-chen-yh-carducci-m-liu-g-jarrard-df-eisenberger-m-wong-yn-hahn-n-kohli-m-cooney-mm-dreicer-r-vogelzang-nj-picus-j-shevrin-d-hussain-m-garcia-ja-dipaola-rs-department-of-medicine
#12
Eggener Scott
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the backbone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer since the 1940s. We assessed whether concomitant treatment with ADT plus docetaxel would result in longer overall survival than that with ADT alone. METHODS: We assigned men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to receive either ADT plus docetaxel (at a dose of 75mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3wk for 6 cycles) or ADT alone...
March 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154525/deletion-of-type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-perturbs-the-postnatal-maturation-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-and-olfactory-cilium-ultrastructure-in-mice
#13
Zhe Zhang, Dong Yang, Mengdi Zhang, Ning Zhu, Yanfen Zhou, Daniel R Storm, Zhenshan Wang
Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice (Adcy3(-/-)) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates (Adcy3(+/+)), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122240/experience-dependent-equilibration-of-ampar-mediated-synaptic-transmission-during-the-critical-period
#14
Kyung-Seok Han, Samuel F Cooke, Weifeng Xu
Experience-dependent synapse refinement is essential for functional optimization of neural circuits. However, how sensory experience sculpts excitatory synaptic transmission is poorly understood. Here, we show that despite substantial remodeling of synaptic connectivity, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission remains at equilibrium during the critical period in the mouse primary visual cortex. The maintenance of this equilibrium requires neurogranin (Ng), a postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein important for synaptic plasticity...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096005/effect-of-recorded-male-lullaby-on-physiologic-response-of-neonates-in-nicu
#15
Leila Taheri, Marzieh Kargar Jahromi, Mohammad Abbasi, Mohsen Hojat
PURPOSE: Most infants in the NICU are exposed to sensory overloads and deprivations as part of their care. This study conducted to assess the effect of lullaby on physiologic response of neonates admitted to NICU. METHOD: This is a randomized double-blind intervention trial which was performed on 52 neonates in Jahrom (Iran) 2013-2014. The samples were randomly assigned into lullaby group and a control group (sampling was sequential and randomization was by lottery)...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093551/multiple-shared-mechanisms-for-homeostatic-plasticity-in-rodent-somatosensory-and-visual-cortex
#16
REVIEW
Melanie A Gainey, Daniel E Feldman
We compare the circuit and cellular mechanisms for homeostatic plasticity that have been discovered in rodent somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) cortex. Both areas use similar mechanisms to restore mean firing rate after sensory deprivation. Two time scales of homeostasis are evident, with distinct mechanisms. Slow homeostasis occurs over several days, and is mediated by homeostatic synaptic scaling in excitatory networks and, in some cases, homeostatic adjustment of pyramidal cell intrinsic excitability. Fast homeostasis occurs within less than 1 day, and is mediated by rapid disinhibition, implemented by activity-dependent plasticity in parvalbumin interneuron circuits...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077392/bidirectional-crosstalk-between-the-sensory-and-sympathetic-motor-systems-innervating-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-male-siberian-hamsters
#17
Vitaly Ryu, Alan G Watts, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
The brain networks connected to the sympathetic motor and sensory innervations of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues were originally described using two transneuronally transported viruses: the retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus (PRV), and the anterogradely transported H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 H129). Further complexity was added to this network organization when combined injections of PRV and HSV-1 H129 into either BAT or WAT of the same animal generated sets of co-infected neurons in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069927/impact-of-altered-cholinergic-tones-on-the-neurovascular-coupling-response-to-whisker-stimulation
#18
Clotilde Lecrux, Claire H Sandoe, Sujaya Neupane, Pascal Kropf, Xavier Toussay, Xin-Kang Tong, María Lacalle-Aurioles, Amir Shmuel, Edith Hamel
Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity rely on the coupling between electrophysiology and hemodynamics, a phenomenon referred to as "neurovascular coupling" (NVC). It is unknown whether this relationship remains reliable under altered brain states associated with acetylcholine (ACh) levels, such as attention and arousal and in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. We therefore assessed the effects of varying ACh tone on whisker-evoked NVC responses in rat barrel cortex, measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurophysiological recordings (local field potentials, LFPs)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056109/postural-ataxia-in-cerebellar-downbeat-nystagmus-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-and-vestibular-signals-and-cerebellar-atrophy
#19
Christoph Helmchen, Jan-Birger Kirchhoff, Martin Göttlich, Andreas Sprenger
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum integrates proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals for postural control. Cerebellar patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) complain of unsteadiness of stance and gait as well as blurred vision and oscillopsia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of visual input, gaze eccentricity, vestibular and proprioceptive input on the postural stability in a large cohort of cerebellar patients with DBN, in comparison to healthy age-matched control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050214/satisfaction-of-elderly-hearing-aid-users
#20
Lorena Kozlowski, Angela Ribas, Gleide Almeida, Idalina Luz
Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
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