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Sensory deprivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773983/somatosensory-cross-modal-reorganization-in-adults-with-age-related-early-stage-hearing-loss
#1
Garrett Cardon, Anu Sharma
Under conditions of profound sensory deprivation, the brain has the propensity to reorganize. For example, intact sensory modalities often recruit deficient modalities' cortices for neural processing. This process is known as cross-modal reorganization and has been shown in congenitally and profoundly deaf patients. However, much less is known about cross-modal cortical reorganization in persons with less severe cases of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), even though such cases are far more common. Thus, we investigated cross-modal reorganization between the auditory and somatosensory modalities in older adults with normal hearing (NH) and mild-moderate ARHL in response to vibrotactile stimulation using high density electroencephalography (EEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772954/electric-acoustic-stimulation-suppresses-tinnitus-in-a-subject-with-high-frequency-single-sided-deafness
#2
Griet Mertens, Vincent Van Rompaey, Paul Van de Heyning
BACKGROUND: A suggested solution to suppress tinnitus is to restore the normal sensory input. This is based on the auditory deprivation hypothesis. It is known that hearing aids can provide sufficient activation of the auditory nervous system and reduce tinnitus in subjects with mild to moderate hearing loss and that cochlear implantation can reduce tinnitus in subjects with severe to profound hearing loss. This applies to subjects with single-sided deafness (SSD) or bilateral hearing loss...
May 17, 2018: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761580/cross-modal-restoration-of-ocular-dominance-plasticity-in-adult-mice
#3
Manuel Teichert, Marcel Isstas, Yitong Zhang, Jürgen Bolz
The temporal closure of one eye in juvenile and young adult mice induces a shift of the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in the binocular visual cortex. However, OD-plasticity typically declines with age and is completely absent in matured mice beyond postnatal day (PD) 110. As it has been shown that the deprivation of one sensory input can induce neuronal alterations in non-deprived sensory cortices, we here investigated whether cross-modal interactions have the potential to reinstall OD-plasticity in matured mice...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760525/two-distinct-mechanisms-for-experience-dependent-homeostasis
#4
Michelle C D Bridi, Roberto de Pasquale, Crystal L Lantz, Yu Gu, Andrew Borrell, Se-Young Choi, Kaiwen He, Trinh Tran, Su Z Hong, Andrew Dykman, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Elizabeth M Quinlan, Alfredo Kirkwood
Models of firing rate homeostasis such as synaptic scaling and the sliding synaptic plasticity modification threshold predict that decreasing neuronal activity (for example, by sensory deprivation) will enhance synaptic function. Manipulations of cortical activity during two forms of visual deprivation, dark exposure (DE) and binocular lid suture, revealed that, contrary to expectations, spontaneous firing in conjunction with loss of visual input is necessary to lower the threshold for Hebbian plasticity and increase miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746876/the-spatial-representation-of-number-time-and-serial-order-following-sensory-deprivation-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Luca Rinaldi, Lotfi B Merabet, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
The spatial representation of numerical and temporal information is thought to be rooted in our multisensory experiences. Accordingly, we may expect visual or auditory deprivation to affect the way we represent numerical magnitude and time spatially. Here, we systematically review recent findings on how blind and deaf individuals represent abstract concepts such as magnitude and time (e.g., past/future, serial order of events) in a spatial format. Interestingly, available evidence suggests that sensory deprivation does not prevent the spatial "re-mapping" of abstract information, but differences compared to normally sighted and hearing individuals may emerge depending on the specific dimension considered (i...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746604/a-description-of-externally-recorded-womb-sounds-in-human-subjects-during-gestation
#6
Joanna J Parga, Robert Daland, Kalpashri Kesavan, Paul M Macey, Lonnie Zeltzer, Ronald M Harper
OBJECTIVE: Reducing environmental noise benefits premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU), but excessive reduction may lead to sensory deprivation, compromising development. Instead of minimal noise levels, environments that mimic intrauterine soundscapes may facilitate infant development by providing a sound environment reflecting fetal life. This soundscape may support autonomic and emotional development in preterm infants. We aimed to assess the efficacy and feasibility of external non-invasive recordings in pregnant women, endeavoring to capture intra-abdominal or womb sounds during pregnancy with electronic stethoscopes and build a womb sound library to assess sound trends with gestational development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740738/role-of-plant-volatiles-in-host-plant-recognition-by-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#7
Olga S Kostromytska, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Hans T Alborn, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is an economically important pest of short cut turfgrass. Annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., is the most preferred and suitable host for ABW oviposition, larval survival and development. We investigated the involvement of grass volatiles in ABW host plant preference under laboratory and field conditions. First, ovipositional and feeding preferences of ABW adults were studied in a sensory deprivation experiment. Clear evidence of involvement of olfaction in host recognition by ABW was demonstrated...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727778/differences-in-sensory-reweighting-due-to-loss-of-visual-and-proprioceptive-cues-in-postural-stability-support-among-sleep-deprived-cadet-pilots
#8
Shan Cheng, Jin Ma, Jicheng Sun, Jian Wang, Xiao Xiao, Yihan Wang, Wendong Hu
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation is known to diminish postural control. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated whether sleep deprivation affects sensory reweighting for postural control due to loss of visual and proprioceptive cues. METHODS: Two cohorts of cadet pilots were deprived of sleep for 40 h. Variabilty in force-platform center of pressure was analyzed based on the whole path length (WPL); circumference area (CA); mean of displacement along x and y axes and corresponding standard deviations (SDx, SDy); and frequency of body-sway intensity, all of which were recorded while the cadets stood with eyes open (NEO), eyes closed (NEC), and eyes closed on a foam platform base (FEC) A sleepiness index (SUBI) based on principal component analysis of selected Cohort 1 data (n = 37) was used to compare Cohort 2 data (n = 29) with scores for the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
April 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715481/mapping-of-neuron-soma-size-as-an-effective-approach-to-delineate-differences-between-neural-populations
#9
Alexander J Lingley, Joshua C Bowdridge, Reza Farivar, Kevin R Duffy
BACKGROUND: A single histological marker applied to a slice of tissue often reveals myriad cytoarchitectonic characteristics that can obscure differences between neuron populations targeted for study. Isolation and measurement of a single feature from the tissue is possible through a variety of approaches, however, visualizing the data numerically or through graphs alone can preclude being able to identify important features and effects that are not obvious from direct observation of the tissue...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709597/developmental-evolution-and-developmental-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-skills-in-mexican-cavefish
#10
Maryline Blin, Eugène Tine, Lydvina Meister, Yannick Elipot, Jonathan Bibliowicz, Luis Espinasa, Sylvie Rétaux
The fish Astyanax mexicanus comes in two forms: the normal surface-dwelling (SF) and the blind depigmented cave-adapted (CF) morphs. Among many phenotypic differences, cavefish show enhanced olfactory sensitivity to detect amino-acid odors and they possess large olfactory sensory organs. Here, we questioned the relationship between the size of the olfactory organ and olfactory capacities. Comparing olfactory detection abilities of CF, SF and F1 hybrids with various olfactory epithelium (OE) sizes in behavioral tests, we concluded that OE size is not the only factor involved...
April 27, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694903/p2y12r-dependent-translocation-mechanisms-gate-the-changing-microglial-landscape
#11
Ukpong B Eyo, Mingshu Mo, Min-Hee Yi, Madhuvika Murugan, Junting Liu, Rohan Yarlagadda, David J Margolis, Pingyi Xu, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia are an exquisitely tiled and self-contained population in the CNS that do not receive contributions from circulating monocytes in the periphery. While microglia are long-lived cells, the extent to which their cell bodies are fixed and the molecular mechanisms by which the microglial landscape is regulated have not been determined. Using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging to follow the microglial population in young adult mice, we document a daily rearrangement of the microglial landscape. Furthermore, we show that the microglial landscape can be modulated by severe seizures, acute injury, and sensory deprivation...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684552/neonatal-whisker-trimming-in-wag-rij-rat-pups-causes-developmental-delay-encourages-maternal-care-and-affects-exploratory-activity-in-adulthood
#12
Kirill Smirnov, Daria Tsvetaeva, Evgenia Sitnikova
WAG/Rij rats are genetically predisposed to absence epilepsy. Maternal behavior in WAG/Rij female rats is known to differ from that in non-epileptic females. We hypothesize that (1) mother's behavior may be changed as response to changes in pup's conditions; (2) sensory deprivation at the neonatal age affect learning and behavior in adulthood. All whiskers in WAG/Rij rat pups were trimmed daily during PN1-PN8. Maternal behavior was examined during the same period. It was found that in the control group, WAG/Rij females often demonstrated abnormally long (>1 min) repetitive purposeless stereotypical actions that were roughly classified as compulsive-like behavior...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684405/moderate-perinatal-thyroid-hormone-insufficiency-alters-visual-system-function-in-adult-rats
#13
William K Boyes, Laura Degn, Barbara Jane George, Mary E Gilbert
Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680249/24-hour-sleep-deprivation-impairs-early-attentional-modulation-of-neural-processing-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#14
Eve Wiggins, Malayka Mottarella, Kendra Good, Seth Eggleston, Courtney Stevens
Prior research indicates sleep deprivation negatively impacts selective attention, although less is known about the neural bases of these effects. The present study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine whether the effects of total sleep deprivation could be traced to the earliest stages of sensory processing influenced by selective attention. Participants were randomly assigned either to a regular sleep or 24-hour total sleep deprivation condition. Following either sleep deprivation or regular sleep, participants completed a dichotic listening selective attention task while ERPs were acquired...
April 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678876/rapid-disinhibition-by-adjustment-of-pv-intrinsic-excitability-during-whisker-map-plasticity-in-mouse-s1
#15
Melanie A Gainey, Joseph W Aman, Daniel E Feldman
Rapid plasticity of layer (L) 2/3 inhibitory circuits is an early step in sensory cortical map plasticity, but its cellular basis is unclear. We show that, in mice of either sex, 1 day whisker deprivation drives rapid loss of L4-evoked feedforward inhibition and more modest loss of feedforward excitation in L2/3 pyramidal (PYR) cells, increasing E-I conductance ratio. Rapid disinhibition was due to reduced L4-evoked spiking by L2/3 parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, caused by reduced PV intrinsic excitability. This included elevated PV spike threshold, associated with an increase in low-threshold, voltage activated delayed rectifier (presumed Kv1) and A-type potassium currents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677689/neural-and-behavioral-changes-after-the-use-of-hearing-aids
#16
Hanin Karawani, Kimberly A Jenkins, Samira Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) can restore some loss of the auditory function with the use of hearing aids (HAs). However, what remains unknown are the physiological mechanisms that underlie how the brain changes with exposure to amplified sounds though the use of HAs. We aimed to examine behavioral and physiological changes induced by HAs. METHODS: Thirty-five older-adults with moderate ARHL with no history of hearing aid use were fit with HAs tested in aided and unaided conditions, and divided into experimental and control groups...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675714/normal-temporal-binding-window-but-no-sound-induced-flash-illusion-in-people-with-one-eye
#17
Stefania S Moro, Jennifer K E Steeves
Integrating vision and hearing is an important way in which we process our rich sensory environment. Partial deprivation of the visual system from the loss of one eye early in life results in adaptive changes in the remaining senses (e.g., Hoover et al. in Exp Brain Res 216:565-74, 2012). The current study investigates whether losing one eye early in life impacts the temporal window in which audiovisual events are integrated and whether there is vulnerability to the sound-induced flash illusion. In Experiment 1, we measured the temporal binding window with a simultaneity judgement task where low-level auditory and visual stimuli were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies...
April 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653377/audio-visual-sensory-deprivation-degrades-visuo-tactile-peri-personal-space
#18
Jean-Paul Noel, Hyeong-Dong Park, Isabella Pasqualini, Herve Lissek, Mark Wallace, Olaf Blanke, Andrea Serino
Self-perception is scaffolded upon the integration of multisensory cues on the body, the space surrounding the body (i.e., the peri-personal space; PPS), and from within the body. We asked whether reducing information available from external space would change: PPS, interoceptive accuracy, and self-experience. Twenty participants were exposed to 15 min of audio-visual deprivation and performed: (i) a visuo-tactile interaction task measuring their PPS; (ii) a heartbeat perception task measuring interoceptive accuracy; and (iii) a series of questionnaires related to self-perception and mental illness...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614560/-reorganization-of-central-cross-model-pattern-after-auditory-deprivation-and-cortical-reconstruction-following-cochlear-implantation
#19
C G Wei, Y H Liu, X Jin
The auditory nervous system has a rapid development period after birth, if there lack enough sensory(auditory) stimulation during this period, there should be a serious and negative impact on the growth and development of auditory center. In the auditory deprivation persist in the critical period, the auditory and visual cortex should be in cross-model reorganization and reorientation of cortical function. Cochlear implantation, especially intervention in the younger age, could excite the auditory cortex, and continuous stimulation to the cerebral cortex can promote the adaptation and reconstruction of auditory function...
March 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610441/modified-origins-of-cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-deaf-dispersion-of-auditory-efferents
#20
Blake E Butler, Julia K Sunstrum, Stephen G Lomber
Following the loss of a sensory modality, such as deafness or blindness, crossmodal plasticity is commonly identified in regions of the cerebrum that normally process the deprived modality. It has been hypothesized that significant changes in the patterns of cortical afferent and efferent projections may underlie these functional crossmodal changes. However, studies of thalamocortical and corticocortical connections have refuted this hypothesis, instead revealing a profound resilience of cortical afferent projections following deafness and blindness...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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