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Sensory deprivation

Robert Beaulieu, Kaden Andre, Ronald Mancini
PURPOSE: To determine if frontalis muscle contraction can be induced by manipulating visual and eyelid proprioceptive inputs through simulating visual deprivation and ptosis. METHODS: Volunteers without prior eyelid or forehead pathologic study were recruited for this nonrandomized, prospective study. Baseline and study phase brow positions were documented. The first phase was to simulate visual deprivation and the second to simulate ptosis. The dominant eye was used for each phase...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Alfonso Reimúndez, Carlos Fernández-Peña, Guillermo García, Rubén Fernández, Purificación Ordás, Rosalía Gallego, José L Pardo-Vazquez, Victor Arce, Félix Viana, Rosa Señarís
The coupling of energy homeostasis to thermoregulation is essential to maintain homeothermy in changing external environments. We studied the role of the cold thermoreceptor TRPM8 in this interplay in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that TRPM8 is required for a precise thermoregulation in response to cold, in fed and fasting. Trpm8-/- mice exhibited a fall of 0.7 °C in core body temperature (Tc) when housed at cold temperatures, and a deep hypothermia (below 30 °C) during food deprivation. In both situations TRPM8-deficiency induced an increase in tail heat loss...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Heather L Bennett, Yulia Khoruzhik, Dustin Hayden, Huiyan Huang, Jarred Sanders, Melissa B Walsh, David Biron, Anne C Hart
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation impairs learning, causes stress, and can lead to death. Notch and JNK-1 pathways impact C. elegans sleep in complex ways; these have been hypothesized to involve compensatory sleep. C. elegans DAF-16, a FoxO transcription factor, is required for homeostatic response to decreased sleep and DAF-16 loss decreases survival after sleep bout deprivation. Here, we investigate connections between these pathways and the requirement for sleep after mechanical stress...
March 9, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
John C Tuthill, Eiman Azim
Although familiar to each of us, the sensation of inhabiting a body is ineffable. Traditional senses like vision and hearing monitor the external environment, allowing humans to have shared sensory experiences. But proprioception, the sensation of body position and movement, is fundamentally personal and typically absent from conscious perception. Nonetheless, this 'sixth sense' remains critical to human experience, a fact that is most apparent when one considers those who have lost it. Take, for example, the case of Ian Waterman who, at the age of 19, suffered a rare autoimmune response to a flu infection that attacked the sensory neurons from his neck down...
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Carlos Del Rio-Bermudez, Mark S Blumberg
A ubiquitous feature of active (REM) sleep in mammals and birds is its relative abundance in early development. In rat pups across the first two postnatal weeks, active sleep promotes the expression of synchronized oscillatory activity within and between cortical and subcortical sensorimotor structures. Sensory feedback from self-generated myoclonic twitches - which are produced exclusively during active sleep - also triggers neural oscillations in those structures. We have proposed that one of the functions of active sleep in early infancy is to provide a context for synchronizing developing structures...
March 6, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Liu Yang, Yu Lei, Lubin Wang, Pinhong Chen, Shan Cheng, Shanshan Chen, Jicheng Sun, Yanyan Li, Yihan Wang, Wendong Hu, Zheng Yang
Sleep deprivation (SD) can alter the intrinsic brain functional organization. However, its effects on intrinsic low-frequency connectivity in the whole brain have not been well characterized. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis to investigate the effects of SD on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Thirty-seven healthy participants underwent this within-subject crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD)...
February 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Maite Villanueva, Begoña García, Jaione Valle, Beatriz Rapún, Igor Ruiz de Los Mozos, Cristina Solano, Miguel Martí, José R Penadés, Alejandro Toledo-Arana, Iñigo Lasa
Bacteria use two-component systems (TCSs) to sense and respond to environmental changes. The core genome of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus encodes 16 TCSs, one of which (WalRK) is essential. Here we show that S. aureus can be deprived of its complete sensorial TCS network and still survive under growth arrest conditions similarly to wild-type bacteria. Under replicating conditions, however, the WalRK system is necessary and sufficient to maintain bacterial growth, indicating that sensing through TCSs is mostly dispensable for living under constant environmental conditions...
February 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Takahiro Tamura, Kana Kitamura, Shuichi Yokota, Shigeki Ito, Yasuyuki Shibata, Kimitoshi Nishiwaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several types of quadratus lumborum block (QLB) are used for postoperative analgesia and are believed to be effective against both somatic and visceral pain via a local anesthetic (LA) effect in the paravertebral space (PVS). However, it remains unclear whether all QLB techniques result in LA spread into the PVS. We hypothesized that LA administered via intramuscular QLB would spread into the paravertebral space and investigated the spread and sensory block area of LA in intramuscular QLB...
January 31, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Andrew W Kraft, Adam Q Bauer, Joseph P Culver, Jin-Moo Lee
Recovery after stroke, a major cause of adult disability, is often unpredictable and incomplete. Behavioral recovery is associated with functional reorganization (remapping) in perilesional regions, suggesting that promoting this process might be an effective strategy to enhance recovery. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying remapping after brain injury and the consequences of its modulation are poorly understood. Focal sensory loss or deprivation has been shown to induce remapping in the corresponding brain areas through activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc)-mediated synaptic plasticity...
January 31, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Isabelle Scheyltjens, Samme Vreysen, Chris Van den Haute, Victor Sabanov, Detlef Balschun, Veerle Baekelandt, Lutgarde Arckens
Unilateral vision loss through monocular enucleation (ME) results in partial reallocation of visual cortical territory to another sense in adult mice. The functional recovery of the visual cortex occurs through a combination of spared-eye potentiation and cross-modal reactivation driven by whisker-related, somatosensory inputs. Brain region-specific intracortical inhibition was recently recognized as a crucial regulator of the cross-modal component, yet the contribution of specific inhibitory neuron subpopulations remains poorly understood...
January 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Carlo Jurth, Teresa M Dörig, Gregor Lichtner, Anna Golebiewski, Axel Jakuscheit, Falk von Dincklage
OBJECTIVE: A variety of algorithms is used for nociceptive flexion reflex threshold (NFRT) estimation, but their estimation accuracy is unknown. We developed a computer based simulation model of the NFRT to quantify and compare the accuracy of available estimation algorithms. METHODS: This simulation model is based on basic characteristics of the NFRT and specified by data collected from 60 healthy volunteers. We validated the model by comparing simulated data with data obtained independently in another volunteer population...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Rosanna P Sammons, Claudia Clopath, Samuel J Barnes
Persistent synapses are thought to underpin the storage of sensory experience, yet little is known about their structural plasticity in vivo. We investigated how persistent presynaptic structures respond to the loss of primary sensory input. Using in vivo two-photon (2P) imaging, we measured fluctuations in the size of excitatory axonal boutons in L2/3 of adult mouse visual cortex after monocular enucleation. The average size of boutons did not change after deprivation, but the range of bouton sizes was reduced...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
John P Kelly, James O Phillips, Avery H Weiss
PURPOSE: To use eye movement recordings of young children to determine whether eye velocity from infantile nystagmus (IN) deprives the developing visual system of normal visual acuity. METHOS: The video-oculography recordings and visual acuity measurements (including Teller cards) of 15 children ≤6.0 years of age with IN without visual sensory disease (idiopathic IN) were reviewed retrospectively. Eye velocity that would limit visual acuity development was predicted from both empirical adult data adjusted for age and a temporal limitation model using published photoreceptor density data with age...
December 27, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Bong Jik Kim, Jungyoon Kim, Il-Yong Park, Jae Yun Jung, Myung-Whan Suh, Seung-Ha Oh
OBJECTIVES: The central auditory pathway matures through sensory experiences and it is known that sensory experiences during periods called critical periods exert an important influence on brain development. The present study aimed to investigate whether temporary auditory deprivation during critical periods (CPs) could have a detrimental effect on the development of auditory temporal processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve neonatal rats were randomly assigned to control and study groups; Study group experienced temporary (18-20 days) auditory deprivation during CPs (Early deprivation study group)...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Manuel Teichert, Marcel Isstas, Steven Wenig, Christoph Setz, Konrad Lehmann, Jürgen Bolz
It is well established that the congenital lack of one sensory modality enhances functionality in the spared senses. However, whether a late onset deprivation of one sense leads to such alterations is largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether a somatosensory deprivation induced by bilateral whisker removal affects visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in fully adult mice. Using the visual cortex dependent visual water task, we found that a brief somatosensory deprivation markedly improved behavioral visual acuity and contrast sensitivity by about 40%...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Manuel Teichert, Lutz Liebmann, Christian A Hübner, Jürgen Bolz
It has been demonstrated that sensory deprivation results in homeostatic adjustments recovering neuronal activity of the deprived cortex. For example, deprived vision multiplicatively scales up mEPSC amplitudes in the primary visual cortex, commonly referred to as synaptic scaling. However, whether synaptic scaling also occurs in auditory cortex after auditory deprivation remains elusive. Using periodic intrinsic optical imaging in adult mice, we show that conductive hearing loss (CHL), initially led to a reduction of primary auditory cortex (A1) responsiveness to sounds...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mark H Myers, Alessandro Iannaccone, Gavin M Bidelman
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined audiovisual (AV) processing in normal and visually impaired individuals who exhibit partial loss of vision due to inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs). METHODS: Two groups were analyzed for this pilot study: Group 1 was composed of IRD participants: two with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), two with autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CORD), and two with the related complex disorder, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS); Group 2 was composed of 15 non-IRD participants (controls)...
December 7, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
D Basta, M Gröschel, A Ernst
Noise is an important socioeconomic problem in industrialized countries. Development of efficient treatment options for the audiological phenomena resulting from noise-induced hearing loss requires in-depth understanding of the underlying damage mechanisms causing peripheral and central nervous changes. Mechanical damage, ischemia and excitotoxicity are mainly responsible for noise-induced cell death and biophysical changes in the cochlea. Auditory synaptopathy is an additional consequence. Besides these cochlear pathologies, noise exposure leads to extensive changes within the central auditory pathway...
December 4, 2017: HNO
Rene Zempoalteca, Mercedes G Porras, Suelem Moreno-Pérez, Gabriela Ramirez-Funez, Elsa L Aguirre-Benítez, Margarita González Del Pliego, Silvia Mariscal-Tovar, Maria E Mendoza-Garrido, Kurt Leroy Hoffman, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada, Angel I Melo
Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group)...
December 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
Felipe Martínez, Ana María Donoso, Carla Marquez, Eduardo Labarca
BACKGROUND: Delirium is common among the critically ill. Nonpharmacologic interventions are reportedly effective in reducing incident delirium, but limited data specific to this population exist. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and describe the implementation strategy of a multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in an intensive care unit. METHODS: A before-and-after study was conducted in an intensive care unit between May 2014 through August 2015...
December 2017: Critical Care Nurse
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