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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732328/spectroscopic-descriptors-for-dynamic-changes-of-soluble-microbial-products-from-activated-sludge-at-different-biomass-growth-phases-under-prolonged-starvation
#1
Tahir Maqbool, Jinwoo Cho, Jin Hur
In this study, the spectroscopic indices of soluble microbial products (SMP) were explored using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to identify different distinctive biomass growth phases (i.e., exponential phase, pseudo-endogenous phase, and endogenous phase) and to describe the microbial activity of activated sludge in a batch type bioreactor under prolonged starvation. The optical descriptors, including UV absorption at 254 nm (UVA254), spectral slope, absorbance slope index (ASI), biological index (BIX), humification index (HIX), and the ratio of tryptophan-like to humic-like components (C1/C2), were examined to describe the dynamic changes in SMP...
July 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730540/gigaspora-margarita-with-and-without-its-endobacterium-shows-adaptive-responses-to-oxidative-stress
#2
Francesco Venice, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Mara Novero, Stefano Ghignone, Alessandra Salvioli, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi experience oxidative stress during the plant-fungal interaction, due to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by fungal metabolism and exogenous ROS produced by plant cells. Here, we examine the responses to H2O2 in Gigaspora margarita, an AM fungus containing the endobacterial symbiont Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (CaGg). Previous studies revealed that G. margarita with its endobacterium produces more ATP and has higher respiratory activity than a cured line that lacks the endobacterium...
July 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729839/the-effect-of-low-ambient-relative-humidity-on-physical-performance-and-perceptual-responses-during-load-carriage
#3
Igor B Mekjavic, Ursa Ciuha, Mikael Grönkvist, Ola Eiken
Introduction: The study evaluated the effect of low ambient relative humidity on physical performance and perceptual responses during load carriage in a hot environment. Methods: Ten heat-unacclimatized male subjects participated in three 130-min trials, during which they walked on a treadmill, carrying a load of ~35 kg, at a speed of 3.2 km.h(-1), with an incident wind at the same velocity and ambient temperature at 45°C. Each trial commenced with a 10-min baseline at 20°C and 50% relative humidity (RH), the subjects transferred to a climatic chamber and commenced their simulated hike, comprising two 50-min walks separated by a 20-min rest period...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729656/endolysosomal-targeting-of-a-clinical-chlorin-photosensitiser-for-light-triggered-delivery-of-nano-sized-medicines
#4
Elnaz Yaghini, Ruggero Dondi, Kunal M Tewari, Marilena Loizidou, Ian M Eggleston, Alexander J MacRobert
A major problem with many promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including macromolecules is that owing to their size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. Photochemical internalisation (PCI) is a technique for inducing cytosolic release of the entrapped agents that harnesses sub-lethal photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a photosensitiser that localises in endolysosomal membranes...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729390/walking-economy-is-predictably-determined-by-speed-grade-and-gravitational-load
#5
Lindsay W Ludlow, Peter G Weyand
The metabolic energy human walking requires can vary by more than 10-fold depending on the speed, surface gradient and load carried. Although the mechanical factors determining economy are generally considered to be numerous and complex, we tested a minimum-mechanics hypothesis that only three variables are needed for broad, accurate prediction: speed, surface grade, and total gravitational load. We first measured steady-state rates of oxygen uptake in 20 healthy adult subjects during unloaded treadmill trials from 0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727673/exercise-training-improves-ventilatory-efficiency-in-patients-with-a-small-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-randomized-controlled-study
#6
Ricardo M Lima, Baruch Vainshelboim, Rucha Ganatra, Ronald Dalman, Khin Chan, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency and physiological responses to submaximal exercise in subjects with small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: Sixty-five male patients (72.3 ± 7.0 years) were randomized to exercise training (n = 33) or usual care group (n = 32). Exercise subjects participated in a training groups for 3 mo. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after the study period and peak VO2, the ventilatory threshold (VT), the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the VE2/VCO2 slope were identified...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727672/cardiac-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-assist-device-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Toufik Mahfood Haddad, Alok Saurav, Aiman Smer, Muhammad S Azzouz, Abhilash Akinapelli, Mark A Williams, Venkata M Alla
PURPOSE: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (EBCR) has been demonstrated to improve functional capacity in heart failure (HF). However, there are limited data on the effect of EBCR in patients with advanced HF and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). This meta-analysis sought to evaluate the effects of EBCR on functional capacity in patients with LVAD. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized studies assessing the impact of EBCR in patients following LVAD implantation compared with standard therapy (ST)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725232/transcriptome-wide-identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-solanum-lycopersicon-l-in-response-to-an-alfalfa-protein-hydrolysate-using-microarrays
#8
Andrea Ertani, Michela Schiavon, Serenella Nardi
An alfalfa-based protein hydrolysate (EM) has been tested in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants at two different concentrations (0.1 and 1 mL L(-1)) to get insight on its efficacy as biostimulant in this species and to unravel possible metabolic targets and molecular mechanisms that may shed light on its mode of action. EM was efficient in promoting the fresh biomass and content in chlorophyll and soluble sugars of tomato plants, especially when it was applied at the concentration of 1 mL L(-1). This effect on plant productivity was likely related to the EM-dependent up-regulation of genes identified via microarray and involved in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and developmental processes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724942/physiological-oxygen-tension-reduces-hepatocyte-dedifferentiation-in-in-vitro-culture
#9
Ren Guo, Xinxiu Xu, Yuting Lu, Xin Xie
Primary hepatocytes cultured in vitro are a powerful tool to study the functions of hepatocytes and to evaluate the metabolism and toxicity of new drugs. However, in vitro culture of hepatocytes has proven to be very difficult. Ordinary culture conditions lead to dedifferentiation of hepatocytes, resulting in rapid change in cell morphology and significant reduction in specific cell functions. In the current study, we show that hepatocyte dedifferentiation is a rapid process under 21% O2 conditions. Hepatocytes cultured in 21% O2 undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), obtain fibroblast-like morphology, and show decreased hepatic functions...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724630/altered-met-receptor-phosphorylation-and-lrp1-mediated-uptake-in-cells-lacking-carbohydrate-dependent-lysosomal-targeting
#10
Megan Aarnio-Peterson, Peng Zhao, Seok-Ho Yu, Courtney Christian, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Lance Wells, Richard Steet
Acid hydrolases utilize a carbohydrate-dependent mechanism for lysosomal targeting. These hydrolases acquire a mannose 6-phosphate tag by the action of the GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase enzyme, allowing them to bind receptors and traffic to endosomes. Loss of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase results in hydrolase hypersecretion and profound lysosomal storage. Little, however, is known about how these cellular phenotypes affect the trafficking, activity and localization of surface glycoproteins. To address this question, we profiled the abundance of surface glycoproteins in WT and CRISPR-mediated GNPTAB-/- HeLa cells and identified changes in numerous glycoproteins including the uptake receptor LRP1 and multiple receptor tyrosine kinases...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721747/faster-v%C3%AC-o2-kinetics-after-priming-exercises-of-different-duration-but-same-fatigue
#11
Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Arthur Peyrard, John Temesi, Guillaume Y Millet, Juan M Murias
This study compared the responses of two priming exercises of similar fatigue on the adjustment of the oxygen uptake time constant (τV̇O2) in cycling. Ten healthy young adults (25 ± 3 yr) performed: three step transitions from a 20-W baseline to the power output (PO) below the gas exchange threshold (MOD, MODPRE); a 3-min bout (P3MIN) at 90% of peak PO (POpeak), followed by MOD (MOD3MIN); and a 6-min bout (P6MIN) at 80% of POpeak, followed by MOD (MOD6MIN). The O2 supply-to-O2 demand ([HHb]/V̇O2) ratio was calculated for MODPRE, MOD3MIN, and MOD6MIN...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719807/evaluation-of-a-novel-radiotracer-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Alan A Wilson, Oleg Sadovski, José N Nobrega, Roger J Raymond, Francis R Bambico, Mina G Nashed, Armando Garcia, Peter M Bloomfield, Sylvain Houle, Romina Mizrahi, Junchao Tong
INTRODUCTION: Few, if any, radiotracers are available for the in vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system. ROS play a critical role in normal cell processes such as signaling and homeostasis but overproduction of ROS is implicated in several disorders. We describe here the radiosynthesis and initial ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]hydromethidine ([(11)C]HM) as a radiotracer to image ROS using positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: [(11)C]HM and its deuterated isotopologue [(11)C](4) were produced using [(11)C]methyl triflate in a one-pot, two-step reaction and purified by high performance liquid chromatography...
June 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718056/aeration-control-strategies-to-stimulate-simultaneous-nitrification-denitrification-via-nitrite-during-the-formation-of-aerobic-granular-sludge
#13
Thomas Dobbeleers, Jolien D'aes, Solange Miele, Michel Caluwé, Veerle Akkermans, Dominique Daens, Luc Geuens, Jan Dries
In this study, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), treating synthetic wastewater (COD/N = 5), was operated in two stages. During stage I, an aeration control strategy based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was applied, to accomplish nitrogen removal via nitrite >80%. In stage II, the development of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was examined while two aeration control strategies (OUR and pH slope) maintained the nitrite pathway and optimized the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) performance. Stimulation of slow-growing organisms, (denitrifying) polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (D)PAO and (denitrifying) glycogen-accumulating organisms (D)GAO leads to full granulation (at day 200, SVI10 = 47...
July 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717249/spectral-characteristics-of-cotton-seeds-treated-by-a-dielectric-barrier-discharge-plasma
#14
Xing-Quan Wang, Ren-Wu Zhou, Gerard de Groot, Kateryna Bazaka, Anthony B Murphy, Kostya Ken Ostrikov
Cold atmospheric plasma has recently emerged as a simple, low-cost and efficient physical method for inducing significant biological responses in seeds and plants without the use of traditional, potentially environmentally-hazardous chemicals, fungicides or hormones. While the beneficial effects of plasma treatment on seed germination, disease resistance and agricultural output have been reported, the mechanisms that underpin the observed biological responses are yet to be fully described. This study employs Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy to capture chemical interactions between plasmas and seed surfaces with the aim to provide a more comprehensive account of plasma-seed interactions...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716407/overexpression-of-lsi1-in-cold-sensitive-rice-mediates-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-and-enhances-resistance-to-chilling-stress
#15
Changxun Fang, Pengli Zhang, Xin Jian, Weisi Chen, Hongmei Lin, Yingzhe Li, Wenxiong Lin
Frequent cold spells in late spring can damage early rice seedlings. However, overexpression of the silicon-uptake gene Lsi1 (Lsi1-OX) in cold-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L., accession: Dular) notably enhances its chilling resistance. In this study, we found that continual chilling led to chlorophyll and RNA degradation in wild-type Dular leaves, whereas leaves from a Lsi1-OX line exhibited no obvious changes. A comparison of the global mRNA expression between the two rice lines showed that genes encoding photosynthesis-antenna proteins were downregulated and those encoding the proteasome were upregulated in the wild-type organism...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715773/developmental-toxicity-of-fe3o4-nanoparticles-on-cysts-and-three-larval-stages-of-artemia-salina
#16
Song Zhu, Ming-Yang Xue, Fei Luo, Wei-Chao Chen, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Using Artemia salina cysts (capsulated and decapsulated) and larvae (instar I, II and III) as experimental models, the potential effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) on marine ecosystems were investigated. Hatchability, mortality and a number of ethological, morphological and biochemical parameters were selected as end-points to define the toxic responses. Data showed that the hatching rates of capsulated and decapsulated cysts were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) following exposure to 600 mg/L for 24 and 36 h...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714804/cellular-proliferation-and-differentiation-induced-by-single-layer-molybdenum-disulfide-and-mediation-mechanisms-of-proteins-via-the-akt-mtor-p70s6k-signaling-pathway
#17
Wei Zou, Xingli Zhang, Mengyang Zhao, Qixing Zhou, Xiangang Hu
Single-layer molybdenum disulfide (SLMoS2) is a novel kind of 2D nanosheet that has attracted great attention regarding its use in biosensors, drug delivery, tissue engineering and therapy. However, our results demonstrated that SLMoS2 accelerated proliferation and promoted myogenic differentiation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). The abnormal proliferation and differentiation of HELFs contribute to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Specifically, SLMoS2 significantly stimulated the expression of myofibroblast- and mesenchymal-associated genes and proteins...
July 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713464/a-rapidly-incremented-tethered-swimming-test-for-defining-domain-specific-training-zones
#18
Dalton M Pessôa Filho, Leandro O C Siqueira, Astor R Simionato, Mário A C Espada, Daniel S Pestana, Fred J DiMenna
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a tethered-swimming incremental test comprising small increases in resistive force applied every 60 seconds could delineate the isocapnic region during rapidly-incremented exercise. Sixteen competitive swimmers (male, n = 11; female, n = 5) performed: (a) a test to determine highest force during 30 seconds of all-out tethered swimming (Favg) and the ΔF, which represented the difference between Favg and the force required to maintain body alignment (Fbase), and (b) an incremental test beginning with 60 seconds of tethered swimming against a load that exceeded Fbase by 30% of ΔF followed by increments of 5% of ΔF every 60 seconds...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713463/cardiopulmonary-performance-during-maximal-exercise-in-soccer-players-with-alterations-in-renal-function
#19
Anderson Pontes Morales, Felipe Sampaio-Jorge, Luiz Felipe da Cruz Rangel, Jackson de Souza Menezes, Tiago Costa Leite, Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the curves of cardiorespiratory variables during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in soccer players who had acute alterations in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after performing the pre-season training protocol. Sixteen male professional soccer players (25 ± 3 years; 179 ± 2 cm; and 77 ± 6 kg) were evaluated for oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR) and pulse relative oxygen (relative O2 Pulse) curves with intervals corresponding to 10% of the total duration of CPET...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713284/greater-progression-of-age-related-aortic-stiffening-in-adults-with-poor-trunk-flexibility-a-5-year-longitudinal-study
#20
Yuko Gando, Haruka Murakami, Kenta Yamamoto, Ryoko Kawakami, Harumi Ohno, Susumu S Sawada, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Motohiko Miyachi
Purpose: Having a low level of physical fitness, especially cardiorespiratory fitness, appears to accelerate age-related aortic stiffening. Whereas, some studies have reported that trunk flexibility is a component of physical fitness, it is also negatively associated with arterial stiffening independent of cardiorespiratory fitness in cross-sectional studies. However, no long-term longitudinal study has determined whether poor trunk flexibility accelerates the progression of age-related aortic stiffening. We examined trunk flexibility and aortic stiffness progression in a 5-year longitudinal study...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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