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Oxygen uptake

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919930/effects-of-12-weeks-of-nordic-walking-and-xco-walking-training-on-the-endurance-capacity-of-older-adults
#1
Tobias Morat, Jenny Krueger, Angus Gaedtke, Manuela Preuss, Joachim Latsch, Hans-Georg Predel
BACKGROUND: Several studies have already examined the positive effects of various forms of endurance training in patient groups and in healthy adults up to 60 years old. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of Nordic Walking (NW) and XCO Walking (XCO) training on endurance capacity in healthy older adults, aged 60 years and older. METHODS: Twenty-three older participants (mean age: 69.9 ± 5.4 years) were randomly assigned to either the NW group or the XCO group...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919863/oxygen-uptake-kinetics-is-slower-in-swimming-than-arm-cranking-and-cycling-during-heavy-intensity
#2
Ana Sousa, Fabio Borrani, Ferran A Rodríguez, Grégoire P Millet
Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics has been reported to be influenced by the activity mode. However, only few studies have compared [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics between activities in the same subjects in which they were equally trained. Therefore, this study compared the [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics response to swimming, arm cranking, and cycling within the same group of subjects within the heavy exercise intensity domain. Ten trained male triathletes (age 23.2 ± 4.5 years; height 180.8 ± 8...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919756/polymeric-mixed-micelles-loaded-mitoxantrone-for-overcoming-multidrug-resistance-in-breast-cancer-via-photodynamic-therapy
#3
Zeyong Li, Yuee Cai, Yiqiao Zhao, Hua Yu, Haiyu Zhou, Meiwan Chen
Mitoxantrone (MIT) is an anticancer agent with photosensitive properties that is commonly used in various cancers. Multidrug resistance (MDR) effect has been an obstacle to using MIT for cancer therapy. Photochemical internalization, on account of photodynamic therapy, has been applied to improve the therapeutic effect of cancers with MDR effect. In this study, an MIT-poly(ε-caprolactone)-pluronic F68-poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (MIT-PFP/PPP) mixed micelles system was applied to reverse the effect of MDR in MCF-7/ADR cells via photochemical reaction when exposed to near-infrared light...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919370/with-age-a-lower-individual-breathing-reserve-is-associated-with-a-higher-maximal-heart-rate
#4
Martin Burtscher, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Faulhaber, Johannes Burtscher
INTRODUCTION: Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax...
September 14, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919166/kinetic-analysis-of-oxygen-dynamics-under-a-variable-work-rate
#5
Alexander Artiga Gonzalez, Raphael Bertschinger, Fabian Brosda, Thorsten Dahmen, Patrick Thumm, Dietmar Saupe
Measurements of oxygen uptake are central to methods for the assessment of physical fitness and endurance capabilities in athletes. Two important parameters extracted from such data of incremental exercise tests are the maximal oxygen uptake and the critical power. A commonly accepted model of the dynamics of oxygen uptake during exercise at a constant work rate comprises a constant baseline oxygen uptake, an exponential fast component, and another exponential slow component for heavy and severe work rates...
September 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916839/study-of-tissue-level-hypoxic-response-in-microfluidic-environment
#6
Adnan Morshed, Prashanta Dutta
Availability of essential species like oxygen is critical in shaping the dynamics of tumor growth. When the intracellular oxygen level falls below normal, it initiates major cascades in cellular dynamics leading to tumor cell survival. In a cellular block with cells growing away from the blood vessel, the scenario can be aggravated for the cells further inside the block. In this study, the dynamics of intracellular species inside a colony of tumor cells are investigated by varying the cell block thickness and cell types in a microfluidic cell culture device...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915226/pulmonary-vascular-function-and-aerobic-exercise-capacity-at-moderate-altitude
#7
Vitalie Faoro, Gael Deboeck, Marco Vicenzi, Anne-Fleur Gaston, Bamodi Simaga, Grégory Doucende, Ilona Hapkova, Emma Roca, Enric Subirats, Fabienne Durand, Robert Naeije
PURPOSE: There has been suggestion that a greater "pulmonary vascular reserve" defined by a low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a high lung diffusing capacity (DL) allow for a superior aerobic exercise capacity. How pulmonary vascular reserve might affect exercise capacity at moderate altitude is not known. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects underwent an exercise stress echocardiography of the pulmonary circulation, combined with measurements of DL for nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test at sea level and at an altitude of 2250 m...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913895/nramp2-a-trans-golgi-network-localized-manganese-transporter-is-required-for-arabidopsis-root-growth-under-manganese-deficiency
#8
Huiling Gao, Wenxiang Xie, Changhong Yang, Jingyi Xu, Jingjun Li, Hua Wang, Xi Chen, Chao-Feng Huang
To cope with manganese (Mn) deficiency, plants have evolved an efficient transport system to uptake and redistribute Mn. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be demonstrated. We carried out a forward genetic screen in a root high-affinity Mn transporter nramp1 mutant background in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified an uncharacterized Mn transport NRAMP2. We investigated the effect of nramp2 mutation on root growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and we also examined the NRAMP2 expression pattern, and the subcellular localization and transport activity of NRAMP2...
September 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913666/quantitative-modeling-of-the-dynamics-and-intracellular-trafficking-of-far-red-light-activatable-prodrugs-implications-in-stimuli-responsive-drug-delivery-system
#9
Mengjie Li, Pritam Thapa, Pallavi Rajaputra, Moses Bio, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Youngjae You, Sukyung Woo
The combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with anti-tumor agents is a complimentary strategy to treat local cancers. We developed a unique photosensitizer (PS)-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug in which a PS is excited by near-infrared wavelength light to site-specifically release PTX while generating singlet oxygen (SO) to effectively kill cancer cells with both PTX and SO. The aim of the present study was to identify the determinants influencing the combined efficacy of this light-activatable prodrug, especially the bystander killing effects from released PTX...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912726/cardiovascular-and-muscular-consequences-of-work-matched-interval-type-of-concentric-and-eccentric-pedaling-exercise-on-a-soft-robot
#10
Martin Flück, Rebekka Bosshard, Max Lungarella
Eccentric types of endurance exercise are an acknowledged alternative to conventional concentric types of exercise rehabilitation for the cardiac patient, because they reduce cardiorespiratory strain due to a lower metabolic cost of producing an equivalent mechanical output. The former contention has not been tested in a power- and work-matched situation of interval-type exercise under identical conditions because concentric and eccentric types of exercise pose specific demands on the exercise machinery, which are not fulfilled in current practice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912653/validity-of-a-newly-designed-rectilinear-stepping-ergometer-submaximal-exercise-test-to-assess-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#11
Rubin Zhang, Likui Zhan, Shaoming Sun, Wei Peng, Yining Sun
The maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max), determined from graded maximal or submaximal exercise tests, is used to classify the cardiorespiratory fitness level of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the YMCA submaximal exercise test protocol performed on a newly-designed rectilinear stepping ergometer (RSE) that used up and down reciprocating vertical motion in place of conventional circular motion and giving precise measurement of workload, to determine V̇O2 max in young healthy male adults...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911142/deficient-endogenous-glucose-production-during-exercise-after-total-pancreatectomy-islet-autotransplantation
#12
Lindsey D Bogachus, Elizabeth Oseid, Melena Bellin, Adrian Vella, R Paul Robertson
Context: Total pancreatectomy followed by intrahepatic islet autotransplantation (TP/IAT) is performed to alleviate severe, unrelenting abdominal pain caused by chronic pancreatitis, to improve quality of life, and to prevent diabetes. Objective: To determine the cause of exercise-induced hypoglycemia that is a common complaint in TP/IAT recipients. Design: Participants completed 1 hour of steady-state exercise. Setting: Hospital research unit...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911053/co-ordination-of-ndh-and-cup-proteins-in-co2-uptake-in-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#13
Xunling Han, Nan Sun, Min Xu, Hualing Mi
High and low affinity CO2-uptake systems containing CupA (NDH-1MS) and CupB (NDH-1MS'), respectively, have been identified in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, but it is yet unknown how the complexes function in CO2 uptake. In this work, we found that deletion of cupB significantly lowered the growth of cells, and deletion of both cupA and cupB seriously suppressed the growth below pH 7.0 even under 3% CO2. The rate of photosynthetic oxygen evolution was decreased slightly by deletion of cupA but significantly by deletion of cupB and more severely by deletion of both cupA and cupB, especially in response to changed pH conditions under 3% CO2...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910408/effects-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-upon-the-metabolism-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#14
Jessica Karlsson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Mireille Alhouayek, Christopher J Fowler
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, a disease where disturbances in the endocannabinoid system are seen. In the present study we have investigated whether treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells affects anandamide (AEA) catabolic pathways. Additionally, we have investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can regulate the uptake of AEA into cells. Levels of AEA synthetic and catabolic enzymes were determined by qPCR. AEA uptake and hydrolysis in DU145 and RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910330/quality-of-life-measures-predict-cardiovascular-health-and-physical-performance-in-chronic-renal-failure-patients
#15
A Rogan, K McCarthy, G McGregor, T Hamborg, G Evans, S Hewins, N Aldridge, S Fletcher, N Krishnan, R Higgins, D Zehnder, S M Ting
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience complex functional and structural changes of the cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal system. This results in reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life and ultimately premature death. We investigated the relationship between subjective measures of health related quality of life and objective, standardised functional measures for cardiovascular and pulmonary health. METHODS: Between April 2010 and January 2013, 143 CKD stage-5 or CKD5d patients (age 46...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906105/enantioselective-phytotoxicity-of-dichlorprop-to-arabidopsis-thaliana-effect-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-and-role-of-fe
#16
Zunwei Chen, Jia Wang, Hui Chen, Yuezhong Wen, Weiping Liu
The ecotoxicology effects of chiral herbicides have long been recognized and have drawn increasing attention. The toxic mechanisms of herbicides in plants are involved in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause damage to target enzyme, but the relationship between these two factors in the enantioselectivity of chiral herbicides has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, even though cytochromes P450 enzymes (CYP450s) have been related to the phytotoxicity of herbicides, their roles in the enantioselectivity of chiral herbicides have yet to be explored...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906053/the-effects-of-menstrual-cycle-phase-on-the-incidence-of-plateau-at-v%C3%AB-o2max-and-associated-cardiorespiratory-dynamics
#17
Dan Gordon, Adrian Scruton, Richard Barnes, James Baker, Luciano Prado, Viviane Merzbach
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of menstrual cycle phase on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and associated cardiodynamic responses. A total of 16 active females volunteered of which n = 10 formed the non-oral contraceptive pill group (n-OCP), displaying a regular menstrual cycle of 28·4 ± 2·2 days (age 20·6 ± 1·6 years, height 169·9 ± 6·4 cm, mass 68·7 ± 7·9 kg) and n = 6 formed the oral contraceptive pill group (OCP) (monophasic pill) (age 21·7 years ± 2·16, height 168·1 cm ± 6·8 cm, mass 61·6 ± 6·8 kg)...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901530/metabolic-orchestration-of-t-lineage-differentiation-and-function
#18
REVIEW
Carmen S Yong, Daouda Mousatpha Abba Moussa, Gaspard Cretenet, Sandrina Kinet, Valérie Dardalhon, Naomi Taylor
T cells are stimulated by the engagement of antigen, cytokine, pathogen and hormone receptors. While research performed over many years has focused on deciphering the molecular components of these pathways, recent data underscore the importance of the metabolic environment in conditioning responses to receptor engagement. The ability of T cells to undergo a massive proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to receptor signals requires alterations to their bioenergetic homeostasis, allowing them to meet new energetic and biosynthetic demands...
September 13, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901362/what-do-we-actually-see-in-intracellular-sers-investigating-nanosensor-induced-variation
#19
J Taylor, J Milton, M Willett, J Wingfield, S Mahajan
Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs), predominantly gold (AuNPs), are easily internalised into cells and commonly employed as nanosensors for reporter-based and reporter-free intracellular SERS applications. While AuNPs are generally considered non-toxic to cells, many biological and toxicity studies report that exposure to NPs induces cell stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the upregulated transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, which can result in severe genotoxicity and apoptosis...
September 13, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901220/biomarkers-of-cardiometabolic-health-are-associated-with-body-composition-characteristics-but-not-physical-activity-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Tom E Nightingale, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Dylan Thompson, James Lj Bilzon
Objective To examine (i) the associations between physical activity dimensions, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition and, (ii) the associations between physical activity dimensions, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods A cross-sectional prospective cohort study with 7-day follow-up was conducted. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health were measured in thirty-three participants with SCI (> 1 year post injury)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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