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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456469/prophylactic-surgery-for-whom-when-and-how
#1
REVIEW
Christine Mau, Michael Untch
Risk-reducing surgery has proved to be a reasonable procedure in healthy women with a definitely elevated risk of developing cancer. Here we consider the elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. There is a clear indication for such surgery in healthy women with a pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation. For these patients, a risk-reducing bilateral mastectomy leads to a verifiable reduction in mortality from breast cancer, particularly for young patients. In most cases, surgery is combined with breast reconstruction...
December 2017: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455872/-pd-l1-expression-and-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Audrey Monneur, Anthony Gonçalves, François Bertucci
The development of immune checkpoints inhibitors represents one of the major recent advances in oncology. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) provides durable disease control, particularly in melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder and head and neck cancers. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current data on the expression of PD-L1 in breast cancer and on the preliminary clinical results of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer patients. In breast cancer, PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the presence of poor-prognosis factors, such as young age, high grade, ER-negativity, PR-negativity, and HER-2 overexpression, high proliferative index, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple negative, basal-like, HER-2-overexpressing)...
February 15, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455319/development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-decision-aid-for-genomic-research-participants-notified-of-clinically-actionable-research-findings-for-cancer-risk
#3
Amanda M Willis, Sian K Smith, Bettina Meiser, Mandy L Ballinger, David M Thomas, Martin Tattersall, Mary-Anne Young
Germline genomic testing is increasingly used in research to identify genetic causes of disease, including cancer. However, there is evidence that individuals who are notified of clinically actionable research findings have difficulty making informed decisions regarding uptake of genetic counseling for these findings. This study aimed to produce and pilot test a decision aid to assist participants in genomic research studies who are notified of clinically actionable research findings to make informed choices regarding uptake of genetic counseling...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455161/assessing-factors-associated-with-long-term-work-disability-after-cancer-in-belgium-a-population-based-cohort-study-using-competing-risks-analysis-with-a-7-year-follow-up
#4
Régine Levo Kiasuwa Mbengi, Alina Mioara Nicolaie, Els Goetghebeur, Renee Otter, Katrien Mortelmans, Sarah Missinnne, Marc Arbyn, Catherine Bouland, Christophe de Brouwer
OBJECTIVES: The number of workers with cancer has dramatically increasing worldwide. One of the main priorities is to preserve their quality of life and the sustainability of social security systems. We have carried out this study to assess factors associated with the ability to work after cancer. Such insight should help with the planning of rehabilitation needs and tailored programmes. PARTICIPANTS: We conducted this register-based cohort study using individual data from the Belgian Disability Insurance...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453318/integration-of-distinct-shca-signaling-complexes-promotes-breast-tumor-growth-and-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-resistance
#5
Jacqueline R Ha, Ryuhjin Ahn, Harvey W Smith, Valerie Sabourin, Steven Hėbert, Eduardo Cepeda Cañedo, Young Kyuen Im, Claudia Kleinman, William J Muller, Josie Ursini-Siegel
The commonality between most phospho-tyrosine signaling networks is their shared use of adaptor proteins to transduce mitogenic signals. ShcA (SHC1) is one such adaptor protein that employs two phospho-tyrosine binding domains (PTB and SH2) and key phospho-tyrosine residues to promote mammary tumorigenesis. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as ErbB2, engage the ShcA PTB domain to promote breast tumorigenesis by engaging Grb2 downstream of the ShcA tyrosine phosphorylation sites to activate AKT/mTOR signaling...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445940/differences-in-breast-cancer-incidence-among-young-women-aged-20-49-years-by-stage-and-tumor-characteristics-age-race-and-ethnicity-2004-2013
#6
Meredith L Shoemaker, Mary C White, Manxia Wu, Hannah K Weir, Isabelle Romieu
PURPOSE: Younger women diagnosed with breast cancer have poorer prognoses and higher mortality compared to older women. Young black women have higher incidence rates of breast cancer and more aggressive subtypes than women of other races/ethnicities. In this study, we examined recent trends and variations in breast cancer incidence among young women in the United States. METHODS: Using 2004-2013 National Program of Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program data, we calculated breast cancer incidence rates and trends and examined variations in stage, grade, and tumor subtype by age and race/ethnicity among young women aged 20-49 years...
February 14, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441754/extraspinal-percutaneous-osteoplasty-for-the-treatment-of-painful-bony-metastasis
#7
Jae Heon Lee, Su Young Kim, Hwoe Gyeong Ok, Tae Kyun Kim, Kyung Hoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Extraspinal percutaneous osteoplasties (POPs) are novel techniques for the treatment of painful bony metastasis, which is often the cause of both persistent and incidental breakthrough pain. This retrospective study explored the efficacy and complications of extraspinal POPs. METHODS: The origin of the cancer metastasis, performed POP sites, necessity of adjacent joint injections, pain and Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores, complications related to the POPs, and life expectancy were evaluated from the medical records from 2009 to 2016...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441104/current-status-of-brachytherapy-in-cancer-treatment-short-overview
#8
REVIEW
Janusz Skowronek
Cancer incidence and mortality depend on a number of factors, including age, socio-economic status and geographical location, and its prevalence is growing around the world. Most of cancer treatments include external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy with energy from radionuclides inserted directly into the tumor, is increasingly used in cancer treatment. For cervical and skin cancers, it has become a standard therapy for more than 100 years as well as an important part of the treatment guidelines for other malignancies, including head and neck, skin, breast, and prostate cancers...
December 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436850/mammography-cancer-detection-comparison-of-single-8mp-and-pair-of-5mp-reporting-monitors
#9
Cecilia J Strudley, Kenneth C Young, Lucy M Warren
OBJECTIVE: To compare breast cancer detection using a single 8MP display with using a standard pair of 5MP monitors. METHODS: An observer study was carried out in which mammograms were read using full field views only, and again with the additional use of magnified quadrant views. Seven observers read 300 cases, one view per breast, using each display type. Cases comprised 100 normal cases and 200 cases with cancers of subtle or very subtle appearance: 100 with malignant calcification clusters and 100 with non-calcified lesions...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436674/the-targeted-inhibition-of-hsp90-by-a-synthetic-small-molecule-dpide-offers-an-effective-treatment-strategy-against-tnbcs
#10
Yong Jin Oh, Sun You Park, Young Ho Seo
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are the most aggressive and metastatic subtype of breast cancers and exhibit poor clinical outcome due to the lack of drug target receptors such as estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). The limited effectiveness of therapeutic options and the poor prognosis of TNBC patients emphasize the urgent need for identifying new therapeutic agents. In this regard, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of TNBCs...
February 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436642/synergistic-anticancer-effects-of-ruxolitinib-and-calcitriol-in-estrogen-receptor%C3%A2-positive-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2%C3%A2-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Seung Taek Lim, Ye Won Jeon, Hongki Gwak, Se Young Kim, Young Jin Suh
The Janus kinase (JAK)1 and JAK2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, and the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) were previously reported to possess anticancer effects in breast cancer. The present study investigated the combined effects of ruxolitinib and calcitriol on an estrogen receptor (ER)‑positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)‑positive, breast cancer cell line. The ER and HER2‑positive MCF7‑HER18 breast cancer cell line was used to investigate the combination effect of ruxolitinib and calcitriol...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435854/chest-wall-recurrence-in-pt1-2n0-1-breast-cancer-patients-after-mastectomy-without-radiotherapy
#12
Ji Hyun Chang, Kyung Hwan Shin, Seung Do Ahn, Hae Jin Park, Eui Kyu Chie, Jin Ho Kim, Su Ssan Kim, Yong Bae Kim, Won Park, Yeon-Joo Kim, Hyun Soo Shin, Jin Hee Kim, Sun Young Lee, Kyubo Kim, Kyung Ran Park, Bae Kwon Jeong, Ja Young Kim, Suzy Kim
PURPOSE: In correlation with the nodal status in the era of modern radiotherapy, the chest wall recurrence (CWR) rate was investigated in pT1-2N0-1 breast cancer patients after a mastectomy without post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). METHODS: The data from the patients participating in two South Korean multi-institutional studies (KROG 14-22; N = 1842 and KROG 14-23; N = 1382) were analyzed. In total, 3224 pT1-2N0-1 breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy without PMRT were analyzed...
February 12, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434955/association-between-lysyl-oxidase-and-fibrotic-focus-in-relation-with-inflammation-in-breast-cancer
#13
Young Ju Jeong, Sung Hwan Park, Sung Hee Mun, Sang Gyu Kwak, Sun-Jae Lee, Hoon Kyu Oh
We hypothesized that lysyl oxidase (LOX) contributes to the formation of fibrotic focus (FF) in association with inflammation and serves a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. In the present study, the association between the expression of LOX family members and FF with regards to with inflammation was analyzed, and the prognostic significance of LOX and FF in breast cancer was investigated. Immunohistochemical staining for LOX, LOX-like protein (LOXL) 1, LOXL2 and LOXL3 was performed in primary breast cancer tissues...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434947/association-between-inflammation-and-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-in-breast-cancer
#14
Young Ju Jeong, Hoon Kyu Oh, Sung Hwan Park, Jin Gu Bong
Inflammation and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are becoming increasingly recognized as components of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. In the present study, the association between inflammation and BCSC phenotype was evaluated in human breast cancer tissue. Immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation (CD)24, 44, 4, 8 and 68 was performed using tissue microarray blocks containing 47 consecutive cases of invasive breast carcinoma and 10 normal breast tissue samples. The levels of inflammatory modulators and cytokines, and intratumoral or peritumoral lymphocyte infiltration, were assessed...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433971/large-scale-sequencing-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumour-tgct-cases-excludes-major-tgct-predisposition-gene
#15
Kevin Litchfield, Chey Loveday, Max Levy, Darshna Dudakia, Elizabeth Rapley, Jeremie Nsengimana, D Tim Bishop, Alison Reid, Robert Huddart, Peter Broderick, Richard S Houlston, Clare Turnbull
Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT), the most common cancer in young men, has a significant heritable basis that has long raised questions as to the existence of underlying major high-penetrance susceptibility gene(s). To determine the contribution of rare gene mutations to the inherited risk of TGCT, we analysed germline whole-exome data for 919 TGCT cases and 1609 cancer-free controls. We compared frequencies between TGCT cases and controls of rare (<1%) and low-frequency (1-5%) coding variants (1) individually and (2) collapsed at the gene level via burden testing (T1, disruptive; T2, all deleterious; and T3, all nonsynonymous) using Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction of significance thresholds...
February 9, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433804/stereotactic-breast-biopsy-with-benign-results-does-not-negatively-affect-future-screening-adherence
#16
Alana A Lewin, Yiming Gao, Leng Leng Lin Young, Marissa L Albert, James S Babb, Hildegard K Toth, Linda Moy, Samantha L Heller
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether false-positive stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVAB) affects subsequent mammographic screening adherence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Institutional Review Board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review of women with SVAB was performed between 2012 and 2014. Patient age, clinical history, biopsy pathology, and first postbiopsy screening mammogram were reviewed. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney, and χ2 tests...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423974/usefulness-of-rapiplug-in-nipple-reconstruction-to-improve-nipple-projection
#17
Joon Seok Lee, Joon Hyun Kwon, Jeong Woo Lee, Kang Young Choi, Ho Yun Chung, Byung Chae Cho, Jung Dug Yang
BACKGROUND: The final stage of breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer is nipple reconstruction. However, a consistent and reliable method resulting in the most ideal aesthetic results has yet to be clarified. This study analysed the long-term outcomes of nipple reconstruction using Rapiplug. METHODS: Forty-one patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy between January 2014 and February 2017 were enrolled. Nipple reconstruction was performed with C-V flap and Hammond flap, and hat-shaped Rapiplug was implanted at the flap core...
February 8, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416640/development-of-suspension-cell-culture-model-to-mimic-circulating-tumor-cells
#18
Ji Young Park, Ae Lee Jeong, Hyun Jeong Joo, Sora Han, So-Hyun Kim, Hye-Youn Kim, Jong-Seok Lim, Myeong-Sok Lee, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Young Yang
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are essential for the establishment of distant metastasis. Numerous studies have characterized CTCs as metastatic precursors; however, the molecular nature of CTCs has not been completely revealed yet due to the low number of CTCs in the blood stream. As an alternative approach, we developed a long-term suspension cell culture model using human breast cancer cell lines to mimic CTCs. We found that more than 40 passaged suspension cells acquired the ability to enhance metastasis like cancer stem cells...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415668/the-effect-of-propofol-and-sevoflurane-on-cancer-cell-natural-killer-cell-and-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-function-in-patients-undergoing-breast-cancer-surgery-an-in-vitro-analysis
#19
Jeong-Ae Lim, Chung-Sik Oh, Tae-Gyoon Yoon, Ji Yeon Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Young-Bum Yoo, Jung-Hyun Yang, Seong-Hyop Kim
BACKGROUND: To clarify the effect of anaesthetic agents on cancer immunity, we evaluated the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) counts and apoptosis rate in breast cancer and immune cells co-cultures from patients who underwent breast cancer surgery. METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected after inducing anaesthesia and at 1 and 24 h postoperatively in patients who had undergone breast cancer surgery...
February 7, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414922/perspective-insight-into-future-potential-fusion-gene-transcript-biomarker-candidates-in-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Ryong Nam Kim, Hyeong-Gon Moon, Wonshik Han, Dong-Young Noh
Next generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of a variety of new fusion gene types in clinical breast cancer samples by analyzing cancer genomes and transcriptomes. Although previous studies have focused on a few clinically validated oncogenic fusion genes as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in breast cancer, a perspective consideration has not been given thus far for a plethora of breast cancer fusion genes, which are being newly identified at an overwhelmingly increasing pace. In this perspective review, we discuss diverse fusion gene types recently identified in a variety of breast cancer subtypes, including breast clinical cancer samples in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) database...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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