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Pesticide exposure

Yiwen Wang, Limei Chen, Caifeng Wang, Yi Hum, Yu Gao, Yijun Zhou, Rong Shi, Yan Zhang, Michihiro Kamijima, Jun Ueyama, Ying Tian
BACKGROUND: Use of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) is widespread in China. Although animal studies suggested that OP exposure could affect thyroid function, little is explored in human populations. METHODS: We investigated levels of OP exposure in pregnant women and the relationship between OPs and thyroid hormones in Shandong, China. We enrolled 637 pregnant women from April 2011 to December 2013. OP exposure was assessed by a questionnaire administered to the pregnant women in the hospital and by analyses of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of OPs in pregnant women (n = 413)...
October 2017: Epidemiology
H Verma, T Sharma, S Gupta, B D Banerjee
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The etiology of UBC is multifactorial and includes both exogenous and endogenous factors. Exogenous risk factors include exposure to heavy metals, aromatic amines, and environmental pollutants including pesticides such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Environmental factors alone are incapable of directly producing DNA damage and may require activation by phase I metabolizing enzymes like cytochrome P450 in order to become active carcinogen...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Jose Ricardo Suarez-Lopez, Cheyenne R Butcher, Sheila Gahagan, Harvey Checkoway, Bruce H Alexander, Wael K Al-Delaimy
PURPOSE: Mother's Day (May) is a holiday with substantial demand for flowers, associated with heightened flower production and escalated pesticide use. The effect of spray seasons on pesticide exposures of children living in agricultural communities but who do not work in agriculture is poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the association of time after Mother's Day harvest with children's acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. AChE is a physiological marker of organophosphate/carbamate pesticide exposures that may take up to 3 months to normalize after its inhibition...
October 13, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Sunwook Kim, Maury A Nussbaum, Paul J Laurienti, Haiying Chen, Sara A Quandt, Dana Boyd Barr, Thomas A Arcury
OBJECTIVE: Apply a data-driven approach to explore associations between postural balance and pesticide exposure among Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers. METHODS: Lasso-regularized, generalized linear models were used to examine associations between postural control measures in four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty) and dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolite levels. RESULTS: Obtained models generally performed poorly at explaining postural control measures...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Thomas A Arcury, Paul J Laurienti, Jennifer W Talton, Haiying Chen, Timothy D Howard, Dana Boyd Barr, Dana C Mora, Sara A Quandt
OBJECTIVES: This paper compares detections and concentrations of pesticide urinary metabolites for Latina farmworkers and non-farmworkers in North Carolina. METHODS: Thirty-one farmworkers and 55 non-farmworkers provided urine samples in 2012 and 2013. Urine samples were analyzed for detections and concentrations of organophosphate insecticide, bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide, and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolites. RESULTS: Detections for several organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticide urinary metabolites were present for substantial proportions of the farmworkers and non-farmworkers...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Christine G Parks, Aimee A D'Aloisio, Dale P Sandler
Farming and pesticide exposure may influence risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the role of early life pesticide exposures is not known. In the Sister Study, a national cohort of women ages 35-74 (enrolled 2004-2009), we examined childhood pesticide exposures in adult-onset RA. Cases (n = 424), reported at enrollment and confirmed by disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or steroid use for RA and ≥6 weeks bilateral joint swelling, were compared to 48,919 non-cases. Data included pesticide use at the longest childhood residence through age 14, farm residence of ≥12 months with agricultural pesticide exposures through age 18, and maternal farm experience...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Anthony Laugeray, Ameziane Herzine, Olivier Perche, Olivier Richard, Céline Montecot-Dubourg, Arnaud Menuet, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Laurianne Lesné, Bernard Jegou, Stéphane Mortaud
Accumulating evidence suggests that developmental exposure to environmental chemicals may modify the course of brain development, ultimately leading to neuropsychiatric / neurodegenerative disorders later in life. In the present study, we assessed the impact of one of the most frequently used pesticides in both residential and agricultural applications - the synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin (CYP) - on developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Female mice were perinatally exposed to low doses of CYP (5 and 20 mg/kg body weight) from gestation to postnatal day 15...
2017: PloS One
Camille Carles, Ghislaine Bouvier, Yolande Esquirol, Camille Pouchieu, Lucile Migault, Clément Piel, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Séverine Tual, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi
Occupational exposure to pesticides concerns a wide population of workers not only in agriculture. The reliability of self-reported information on pesticide use is questionable because of the diversity of use. The PESTIPOP job-exposure matrix has been designed to assess pesticide occupational exposure in the general population. The matrix is composed of two axes: the first axis corresponding to jobs (combinations of occupations and industries) and the second one to pesticide exposure. The estimated exposure metric is the probability of exposure coupled with a reliability assessment (low, medium or high)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Roy R Gerona, Jackie M Schwartz, Janet Pan, Matthew M Friesen, Thomas Lin, Tracey J Woodruff
The use and advantages of high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) as a discovery tool for environmental chemical monitoring has been demonstrated for environmental samples but not for biological samples. We developed a method using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight MS (LC-QTOF/MS) for discovery of previously unmeasured environmental chemicals in human serum. Using non-targeted data acquisition (full scan MS analysis) we were able to screen for environmental organic acids (EOAs) in 20 serum samples from second trimester pregnant women...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Anne-Helen Harding, David Fox, Yiqun Chen, Neil Pearce, David Fishwick, Gillian Frost
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to monitor the exposure and health of workers in Great Britain who use pesticides as a part of their job, and to gain a better understanding of the relationship between long-term exposure to pesticides and health. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants are professional pesticide users who are certified in the safe use of pesticides or who were born before 1965 and apply pesticides under 'grandfather rights'. Overall response rate was 20%; participants are mostly male (98%) and the average age is 54 years, ranging from 17 to over 80 years...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Open
Kristiann Fry, Melinda C Power
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are environmentally and biologically persistent chemicals that include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Currently, data on the associations between exposure to POPs and the risk of mortality in the U.S. population is limited. Our objective was to determine if higher exposure to POPs is associated with greater risk of all-cause, cancer, heart/cerebrovascular disease, or other-cause mortality...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Juan José Villaverde, Beatriz Sevilla-Morán, Carmen López-Goti, Luisa Calvo, José Luis Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España
The photochemical fate of the herbicide clethodim in natural waters was investigated under simulated and natural sunlight radiation. This herbicide exhibited a rapid degradation rate in simulated aquatic environment with half-lives ranged from 27.9min to 4.6h. The commercial formulation of clethodim showed a faster degradation with half-lives from 19.3min to 1.4h. It has also been demonstrated that the photolytic behavior of clethodim was affected by the water composition and the radiation intensity. Nine major photoproducts were identified and their distribution was dependent on the experimental conditions...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Risto Raimets, Reet Karise, Marika Mänd, Tanel Kaart, Sally Ponting, Jimao Song, James E Cresswell
BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over honey bee colony losses, and also among wild bees there is evidence for extinctions and range contractions in Europe and North America. Pesticides have been proposed as a potential cause of this decline. Bees are exposed simultaneously to variety of agrochemicals, which may cause synergistically detrimental impacts, which are incompletely understood. We investigated the toxicity of the fungicide imazalil in mixture with four common insecticides: fipronil (phenylpyrazoid); cypermethrin (pyrethroid); thiamethoxam; and imidacloprid (neonicotinoids)...
October 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
Pål A Olsvik, Kaja H Skjærven, Liv Søfteland
Screening has revealed that aquafeeds with high inclusion of plant material may contain small amounts of endocrine disrupting agricultural pesticides. In this work, bisphenol A (BPA) and genistein (GEN) were selected as model endocrine disrupting toxicants with impact on DNA methylation in fish. Atlantic salmon hepatocytes were exposed in vitro to four concentrations of BPA and GEN (0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 μM) for 48 h. Toxicity endpoints included cytotoxicity, global DNA methylation, targeted transcriptomics and metabolomic screening (100 μM)...
September 17, 2017: Chemosphere
E A D Mitchell, B Mulhauser, M Mulot, A Mutabazi, G Glauser, A Aebi
Growing evidence for global pollinator decline is causing concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services maintenance. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been identified or suspected as a key factor responsible for this decline. We assessed the global exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoids by analyzing 198 honey samples from across the world. We found at least one of five tested compounds (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in 75% of all samples, 45% of samples contained two or more of these compounds, and 10% contained four or five...
October 6, 2017: Science
Brashket Seth, Anuradha Yadav, Swati Agarwal, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Rajnish Kumar Chaturvedi
The widely used carbamate pesticide carbofuran causes neurophysiological and neurobehavioral deficits in rodents and humans and therefore poses serious health hazards around the world. Previously, we reported that gestational carbofuran exposure has detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons from neural stem cells (NSC), in offspring. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for carbofuran-impaired neurogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we observed that chronic carbofuran exposure from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 21 altered expression of genes and transcription factors and levels of proteins involved in neurogenesis and the TGF-β pathway (i...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Melissa Morselli, Chiara Maria Vitale, Alessio Ippolito, Sara Villa, Roberto Giacchini, Marco Vighi, Antonio Di Guardo
The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in agricultural areas implies potential chemical loadings to surface waters, which can pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Due to the spatio-temporal variability of PPP applications and of the processes regulating their transport to surface waters, aquatic organisms are typically exposed to pulses of contaminants. In small mountain watersheds, where runoff fluxes are more rapid due to the steep slopes, such exposure peaks are particularly likely to occur...
October 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zijian Li
Regulations for pesticides in soil are important for controlling human health risk; humans can be exposed to pesticides by ingesting soil, inhaling soil dust, and through dermal contact. Previous studies focused on analyses of numerical standard values for pesticides and evaluated the same pesticide using different standards among different jurisdictions. To understand the health consequences associated with pesticide soil standard values, lifetime theoretical maximum contribution and risk characterization factors were used in this study to quantify the severity of damage using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) under the maximum "legal" exposure to persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides that are commonly regulated by the Stockholm Convention...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Kimberly C Paul, Chenxiao Ling, Anne Lee, Tu My To, Myles Cockburn, Mary Haan, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a major health concern among older Mexican Americans, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may be influenced by environmental exposures. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether agricultural based ambient organophosphorus (OP) exposure influences 1) the rate of cognitive decline and mortality and 2) whether these associations are mediated through metabolic or inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: In a subset of older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (n = 430), who completed modified mini-mental state exams (3MSE) up to 7 times (1998-2007), we examined the relationship between estimated ambient OP exposures and cognitive decline (linear repeated measures model) and time to dementia or being cognitively impaired but not demented (CIND) and time to mortality (cox proportional hazards model)...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Research
Edwin R Burgess, B H King
Pest management plans for house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), often include insecticides. Because of resistance and environmental concerns with traditional insecticides, safe new pesticides and pesticide formulations are needed. The insecticidal potential of two sugar alcohols, xylitol and erythritol, against adult house flies was assessed. Flies consumed both xylitol and erythritol. The proportion of flies that exhibited the proboscis extension reflex, which is associated with feeding, did not differ significantly between the sugar alcohols and sucrose in an experiment with 20% solutions and older flies, but was less for the sugar alcohols in an experiment with 2M solutions and younger flies...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
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