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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929172/a-literature-review-of-in-situ-transmission-electron-microscopy-technique-in-corrosion-studies
#1
REVIEW
Zhengwei Song, Zhi-Hui Xie
One of the biggest challenges in corrosion investigation is foreseeing precisely how and where materials will degenerate in a designated condition owing to scarceness of accurate corrosion mechanisms. Recent fast development of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique makes it achievable to better understand the corrosion mechanism and physicochemical processes at the interfaces between samples and gases or electrolytes by dynamical capture the microstructural and chemical changes with high resolution within a realistic or near-realistic environment...
June 18, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929157/attentional-bias-modification-alters-intrinsic-functional-network-of-attentional-control-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Yuko Hakamata, Shinya Mizukami, Shotaro Komi, Eisuke Sato, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Yuki Motomura, Kazushi Maruo, Shuhei Izawa, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
INTRODUCTION: Attentional bias modification (ABM) alleviates anxiety by moderating biased attentional processing toward threat; however, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We examined how ABM changes functional connectivity (FC) and functional network measures, leading to anxiety reduction. METHODS: Fifty-four healthy anxious individuals received either ABM or sham training for 1 month in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Anxious traits, attentional control, and attentional bias were assessed...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929153/pain-and-anxiety-and-their-relationship-with-medication-doses-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#3
Sunyoung Park, Se Hee Na, Jooyoung Oh, Jong Seok Lee, Seung-Taek Oh, Jae-Jin Kim, Jin Young Park
PURPOSE: Pain and anxiety are understudied despite their importance to the general medical condition. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pain and anxiety and their relationship to the doses of opioids and anxiolytics administered in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: The subjects included 1349 conscious, critically ill patients admitted to an ICU. Psychiatrists evaluated the patients daily for pain and anxiety. Data regarding the doses of opioids and benzodiazepines administered were gathered...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929059/evaluation-of-forensic-genetics-findings-given-activity-level-propositions-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Duncan Taylor, Bas Kokshoorn, Alex Biedermann
The evaluation of results of forensic genetic analyses given activity level propositions is an emerging discipline in forensic genetics. Although it is a topic with a long history, it has never been considered to be such a critically important topic for the field, as today. With the increasing sensitivity of analysis techniques, and advances in data interpretation using probabilistic models ('probabilistic genotyping'), there is an increasing demand on forensic biologists to share specialised knowledge to help recipients of expert information address mode and timing of transfer and persistence of traces in court...
June 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929058/responses-to-spaceflight-of-mouse-mandibular-bone-and-teeth
#5
Didem Dagdeviren, Zana Kalajzic, Douglas J Adams, Ivo Kalajzic, Alan Lurie, Maija I Mednieks, Arthur R Hand
OBJECTIVE: To determine if spaceflight and microgravity affect non-weight bearing bones and development and mineralization of teeth, reasoning that combining an organ and a cellular level approach can lead to greater insights about these effects. DESIGN: Mandibles and incisors of mice flown on the US STS-135 space shuttle mission and the Russian Bion-M1 satellite were studied using micro-computed tomography and immunohistochemistry. Ground controls were mice housed in standard vivarium cages and flight habitats...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929041/bone-and-plasma-citrate-is-reduced-in-osteoporosis
#6
Hongdong Chen, Yeyang Wang, Huaiqian Dai, Xinggui Tian, Zhong-Kai Cui, Zhenguo Chen, Le Hu, Qiancheng Song, Anling Liu, Zhiyong Zhang, Guozhi Xiao, Jian Yang, Yu Jiang, Xiaochun Bai
High concentration of citrate exists in bone of humans and all osteo-vertebrates, and citrate incorporation imparts important biomechanical and other functional properties to bone. However, which cells are responsible for citrate production in bone remains unclear and whether the citrate component changes with bone loss during osteoporosis is also not known. Here, we show that the citrate content is markedly reduced in the bone of mice or rats with age-related, ovariectomy-induced or retinoic acid-induced bone loss...
June 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929012/non-coding-rnas-in-lipid-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Xinbo Zhang, Nathan L Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world, begins with lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, which is the initial step in atherogenesis. Alterations in lipid metabolism result in increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders, and treatment of lipid disorders remains the most common strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of CVD. Work done over the past decade has identified numerous classes of non-coding RNA molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as critical regulators of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and CVD, mostly acting at post-transcriptional level...
June 18, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929005/establishing-the-functional-connectivity-of-the-frontotemporal-network-in-pre-attentive-change-detection-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-event-related-optical-signal
#8
Chun-Yu Tse, Yip Long-Yin, Troby Ka-Yan Lui, Xue-Zhen Xiao, Yang Wang, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Nathan Allen Parks, Sandra Sau-Man Chan, Sebastiaan Franciscus Wijnandus Neggers
Current theories of pre-attentive deviant detection postulate that before the Superior Temporal Cortex (STC) detects a change, the Inferior Frontal Cortex (IFC) engages in stimulus analysis, which is particularly critical for ambiguous deviations (e.g., deviant preceded by a short train of standards). These theories rest on the assumption that IFC and STC are functionally connected, which has only been supported by correlational brain imaging studies. We examined this functional connectivity assumption by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt IFC function, while measuring the later STC mismatch response with the event-related optical signal (EROS)...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928995/engineering-folate-targeting-diselenide-containing-triblock-copolymer-as-a-redox-responsive-shell-sheddable-micelle-for-antitumor-therapy-in-vivo
#9
Farnaz Behroozi, Mohammad-Jafar Abdkhodaie, Hamid Sadeghi Abandansari, Leila Satarian, Mohammad Molazem, Khuloud T Al-Jamal, Hossein Baharvand
The oxidation-reduction (redox)-responsive micelle system is based on a diselenide-containing triblock copolymer, poly(ε-caprolactone)-bis(diselenide-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(ethylene glycol)-folate) [PCL-(SeSe-mPEG/PEG-FA)2 ]. This has helped in the development of tumor-targeted delivery for hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The diselenide bond, as a redox-sensitive linkage, was designed in such a manner that it is located at the hydrophilic-hydrophobic hinge to allow complete collapse of the micelle and thus efficient drug release in redox environments...
June 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928931/oxytocin-alters-the-morphology-of-hypothalamic-neurons-via-the-transcription-factor-myocyte-enhancer-factor-2a-mef-2a
#10
Magdalena Meyer, Ilona Berger, Julia Winter, Benjamin Jurek
Oxytocin (OT) has gained attention not only as anxiolytic drug and as potential treatment option for autistic children; it also acts as a growth and differentiation factor in neuronal cells. While behavioral effects of OT have been studied in detail, knowledge about the cellular effects of OT is relatively sparse. In this study, we present evidence for three hypotheses: 1) OT leads to neurite retraction in hypothalamic neurons via the OT receptor (OTR) 2) The transcription factor MEF-2A is a central regulator of OT-induced neurite retraction, and 3) The MAPK pathway is critical for OT-induced MEF-2A activation...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928890/dynamic-regulation-of-brain-aromatase-and-isotocin-receptor-gene-expression-depends-on-parenting-status
#11
Ross DeAngelis, Logan Dodd, Amanda Snyder, Justin S Rhodes
Fathering behavior is critical for offspring survival in many species across diverse taxa, but our understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating paternal care is limited in part because of the few primarily paternal species among the common animal models. However, many teleosts display primarily paternal care, and among the teleosts, anemonefish species are particularly well suited for isolating molecular mechanisms of fathering as they perform parental care in isolation of many other typically competing behaviors such as territorial defense and nest building...
June 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928875/trpv4-promotes-the-migration-and-invasion-of-glioma-cells-via-akt-rac1-signaling
#12
Qing Ou-Yang, Bing Li, Minhui Xu, Hong Liang
Experimental evidence indicates a critical role of TRPV4 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4) in controlling the cell migratory activity of multiple tumors. However, the oncogenic role of TRPV4 in glioma still remains elusive. In this study, we tried to investigate the oncogenic role of TRPV4 in glioma. We found that the expression levels of TRPV4 were upregulated in glioma and the high levels of TRPV4 indicated a worse prognosis in patients with glioma. TRPV4 was critical for glioma migration and invasion: activating TRPV4 by agonist GSK1016790 A enhanced glioma migration and invasion, while, the specific TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 suppressed glioma migration and invasion...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928866/hepatitis-b-virus-promotes-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-male-chinese-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-through-the-lef-1-mir-371a-5p-srcin1-pleiotrophin-slug-pathway
#13
Pei-Song Bai, Peng Hou, Ying Kong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a male-dominant cancer. Several factors may contribute to the gender difference. Recent investigations have reported that miRNAs are involved in sex-linked signaling pathways and play a critical role in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. Therefore, we speculated that some of these miRNAs might contribute to the gender differences observed in HBV-related HCC. Our results showed that miR-371a-5p was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue and serum from HCC patients and that the expression level of miR-371a-5p was related to HBV infection, sexuality, TNM stage, adjacent organ invasion and microvascular invasion...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928834/effectiveness-of-workplace-lactation-interventions-on-breastfeeding-outcomes-in-the-united-states-an-updated-systematic-review
#14
Julia H Kim, Jong C Shin, Sharon M Donovan
Background Returning to work is one of the main barriers to breastfeeding duration among working mothers in the United States. However, the impact of workplace lactation programs is unclear. Research Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of workplace lactation programs in the United States on breastfeeding practices. Methods A systematic search was conducted of seven databases through September 2017. Articles ( N = 10) meeting the inclusion criteria of describing a workplace lactation intervention and evaluation in the United States and measuring initiation, exclusivity, or duration using an experimental or observational study design were critically evaluated...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928794/evolution-of-the-us-energy-system-and-related-emissions-under-varying-social-and-technological-development-paradigms-plausible-scenarios-for-use-in-robust-decision-making
#15
Kristen E Brown, Troy Alan Hottle, Rubenka Bandyopadhyay, Samaneh Babaee, Rebecca Susanne Dodder, Pervin Ozge Kaplan, Carol Lenox, Dan Loughlin
The energy system is the primary source of air pollution. Thus, evolution of the energy system into the future will affect society's ability to maintain air quality. Anticipating this evolution is difficult because of inherent uncertainty in predicting future energy demand, fuel use, and technology adoption. We apply Scenario Planning to address this uncertainty, developing four very different visions of the future. Stakeholder engagement suggested technological progress and social attitudes toward the environment are critical and uncertain factors for determining future emissions...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928790/targeted-ablation-of-cardiac-sympathetic-neurons-attenuates-adverse-post-infarction-remodeling-and-left-ventricle-dysfunction
#16
Liang Xiong, Yu Liu, Mingmin Zhou, Guangji Wang, Dajun Quan, Wei Shuai, Caijie Shen, Bin Kong, Congxin Huang, He Huang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In this study, we investigated whether targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neurons (TACSN) could suppress myocardial infarction-induced adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction. What is the main finding and its importance? TACSN significantly alleviated sympathetic remodeling and neuroendocrine activation, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improved the left ventricular function. Thus, TACSN may have a beneficial effect on adverse post-infarction remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928778/altered-synaptic-and-firing-properties-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-arsacs
#17
Visou Ady, Brenda Toscano-Márquez, Moushumi Nath, Philip K Chang, Jeanette Hui, Anna Cook, François Charron, Roxanne Larivière, Bernard Brais, R Anne McKinney, Alanna J Watt
KEY POINTS: ARSACS is an early-onset neurodegenerative human disease characterized in part by ataxia and Purkinje cell loss in anterior cerebellar lobules. A knock-out mouse model has been developed that recapitulates several features of ARSACS. Using this ARSACS mouse model, we report changes in synaptic input and intrinsic firing in cerebellar Purkinje cells, as well as in their synaptic output in the DCN. Changes in firing are observed in anterior lobules that later exhibit Purkinje cell death, but not in posterior lobules that do not...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928673/monoclonal-antibodies-reveal-dynamic-plasticity-between-lgr5-and-bmi1-expressing-intestinal-cell-populations
#18
Nicholas R Smith, John R Swain, Paige S Davies, Alexandra C Gallagher, Michael S Parappilly, Catherine Z Beach, Philip R Streeter, Ian A Williamson, Scott T Magness, Melissa H Wong
Background & Aims: Continual renewal of the intestinal epithelium is dependent on active- and slow-cycling stem cells that are confined to the crypt base. Tight regulation of these stem cell populations maintains homeostasis by balancing proliferation and differentiation to support critical intestinal functions. The hierarchical relation of discrete stem cell populations in homeostasis or during regenerative epithelial repair remains controversial. Although recent studies have supported a model for the active-cycling leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)+ intestinal stem cell (ISC) functioning upstream of the slow-cycling B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1)-expressing cell, other studies have reported the opposite relation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928670/the-role-of-ion-transporters-in-the-pathophysiology-of-infectious-diarrhea
#19
REVIEW
Soumita Das, Rashini Jayaratne, Kim E Barrett
Every year, enteric infections and associated diarrhea kill millions of people. The situation is compounded by increases in the number of enteric pathogens that are acquiring resistance to antibiotics, as well as (hitherto) a relative paucity of information on host molecular targets that may contribute to diarrhea. Many forms of diarrheal disease depend on the dysregulation of intestinal ion transporters, and an associated imbalance between secretory and absorptive functions of the intestinal epithelium. A number of major transporters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases and thus an understanding of their expression, localization, and regulation after infection with various bacteria, viruses, and protozoa likely will prove critical in designing new therapies...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928667/creation-and-evaluation-of-an-anesthesiology-and-critical-care-podcast
#20
Jed Wolpaw, Serkan Toy
Background: Podcasts have become an integral part of Free Open Access Medical education. After only 1 year since launching the Anesthesia and Critical Care Reviews and Commentary (ACCRAC) podcast, more than 7000 people were listening to unique content monthly. The study goal was to capture the listeners' views of their use of educational podcasts in general and of the ACCRAC podcast in particular. Methods: After institutional review board exempt status was obtained, a request was posted on the ACCRAC site inviting users to participate in an anonymous survey...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
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