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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107660/guided-growth-of-auditory-neurons-bioactive-particles-towards-gapless-neural-electrode-interface
#1
Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Hisamitsu Hayashi, Olafur Gudjonsson, Niklas Danckwardt-Lillieström, Håkan Engqvist, Helge Rask-Andersen, Wei Xia
Cochlear implant (CI) is a successful device to restore hearing. Despite continuous development, frequency discrimination is poor in CI users due to an anatomical gap between the auditory neurons and CI electrode causing current spread and unspecific neural stimulation. One strategy to close this anatomical gap is guiding the growth of neuron dendrites closer to CI electrodes through targeted slow release of neurotrophins. Biodegradable calcium phosphate hollow nanospheres (CPHSs) were produced and their capacity for uptake and release of neurotrophins investigated using (125)I-conjugated glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104408/adding-simultaneous-stimulating-channels-to-reduce-power-consumption-in-cochlear-implants
#2
Florian Langner, Aniket Saoji, Andreas Büchner, Waldo Nogueira
Sound coding strategies for Cochlear Implant (CI) listeners can be used to control the trade-off between speech performance and power consumption. Most commercial CI strategies use non-simultaneous channel stimulation, stimulating only one electrode at a time. One could add parallel simultaneous stimulating channels such that the electrical interaction between channels is increased. This would produce spectral smearing, because the electrical fields of the simultaneous stimulated channels interact, but also power savings...
January 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104407/metabotropic-glutamate-and-gaba-receptors-modulate-cellular-excitability-and-glutamatergic-transmission-in-chicken-cochlear-nucleus-angularis-neurons
#3
Wei Shi, Yong Lu
Neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) receive glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve, and GABAergic input from the superior olivary nucleus. Physiologically heterogeneous, NA neurons perform multiple functions including encoding sound intensity information. Using in vitro whole-cell patch recordings from acute brain slices and immunohistochemistry staining, we investigated neuromodulation mediated by metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors (mGluRs and GABABRs) in NA neurons. Based on their intrinsic firing patterns in response to somatic current injections, NA neurons were classified into one-spike (onset), damped, and tonic cells...
January 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104012/-simultaneous-triple-semicircular-canal-plugging-and-cochlear-implantation-in-advanced-meniere-s-disease
#4
D G Zhang, L Xu, Y C Han, Y F Lyu, J F Luo, Y W Li, R J Wang, Z M Fan, H B Wang
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of combining simultaneous triple semicircular canal plugging (TSCP) and cochlear implantation (CI) to treat vertigo and hearing loss in advanced Meniere's disease(MD) patients, so as to provide an alternative surgical procedure for treating this disorder. Methods: Data from seven patients, who were referred to our hospital and diagnosed with unilateral MD strictly meeting the criteria issued by Chinese Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Committee (2006), from Jan...
January 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102558/concise-reviews-regeneration-in-mammalian-cochlea-hair-cells-help-from-supporting-cells-transdifferentiation
#5
Bénédicte Franco, Brigitte Malgrange
It is commonly assumed that mammalian cochlear cells do not regenerate. Therefore, if hair cells are lost following an injury, no recovery could occur. However, during the first postnatal week, mice harbor some progenitor cells that retain the ability to give rise to new hair cells. These progenitor cells are in fact supporting cells. Upon hair cells loss, those cells are able to generate new hair cells both by direct transdifferentiation or following cell cycle re-entry and differentiation. However, this property of supporting cells is progressively lost after birth...
January 19, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101341/influence-of-high-altitude-hypoxic-environments-on-the-survival-of-cochlear-hair-cells-and-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-rats
#6
Dongyan Fan, Hailong Ren, Dunzhu Danzeng, Haonan Li, Ping Wang
The aim of the present study was to observe the histological changes in the peripheral auditory system in rats at different time-points after relocating from low altitude to high altitude (3,600 m). The general physical condition of the rats was observed and cochlear tissue samples were obtained every month. The morphology and survival of the cochlear hair cells (HCs) were observed using cochlear surface preparation at 1, 30, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after moving to the plateau area. Changes in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) were detected at different time-points using immunofluorescence technology on frozen sections...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099984/-longterm-results-of-a-screening-procedure-for-adult-cochlear-implant-candidates
#7
Ulrich Hoppe, Thomas Hocke, Anne Hast, Joachim Hornung
This study gives an estimation of the long term outcome of a screening procedure for cochlear implant candidacy in hearing aid users.In a recent retrospective study, hearing aid performance and audiometric measures in 185 subjects (318 ears) were analyzed. In the context of 2 years follow-up, the outcome of the ipsilateral screening procedure was analyzed. For patients who did receive a cochlear implant, their audiometric outcome measures were viewed into relation to their preoperative results.From the 96 ears identified as cochlear implant candidates, 34 were provided with a cochlear implant...
January 18, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099436/a-new-approach-to-model-pitch-perception-using-sparse-coding
#8
Oded Barzelay, Miriam Furst, Omri Barak
Our acoustical environment abounds with repetitive sounds, some of which are related to pitch perception. It is still unknown how the auditory system, in processing these sounds, relates a physical stimulus and its percept. Since, in mammals, all auditory stimuli are conveyed into the nervous system through the auditory nerve (AN) fibers, a model should explain the perception of pitch as a function of this particular input. However, pitch perception is invariant to certain features of the physical stimulus...
January 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098509/-compassionate-use-protocol-for-auditory-brainstem-implantation-in-neurofibromatosis-type-2-early-house-ear-institute-experience
#9
Daniel S Roberts, William H Slattery, Brian S Chen, Steve R Otto, Marc S Schwartz, Gregory P Lekovic
OBJECTIVE: To report the preliminary outcomes of auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) under a compassionate use protocol for two ABI devices that are not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who underwent microsurgery for vestibular schwannoma (VS) and placement of either the Cochlear ABI541 or Med-El Synchrony ABIs. Peri-operative and device- related complications were reviewed...
January 18, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098502/united-kingdom-national-paediatric-bilateral-project-results-of-professional-rating-scales-and-parent-questionnaires
#10
H E Cullington, D Bele, J C Brinton, S Cooper, M Daft, J Harding, N Hatton, J Humphries, M E Lutman, J Maddocks, J Maggs, K Millward, G O'Donoghue, S Patel, K Rajput, V Salmon, T Sear, A Speers, A Wheeler, K Wilson
OBJECTIVES: This fourteen-centre project used professional rating scales and parent questionnaires to assess longitudinal outcomes in a large non-selected population of children receiving simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implants. METHODS: This was an observational non-randomized service evaluation. Data were collected at four time points: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, one year, two years, and three years after...
January 18, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097918/the-hearing-benefit-of-cochlear-implantation-for-individuals-with-unilateral-hearing-loss-but-no-tinnitus
#11
Henryk Skarzynski, Artur Lorens, Marika Kruszynska, Anita Obrycka, Dorota Pastuszak, Piotr Henryk Skarzynski
CONCLUSION: Cochlear implants improve the hearing abilities of individuals with unilateral hearing loss and no tinnitus. The benefit is no different from that seen in patients with unilateral hearing loss and incapacitating tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation in individuals with unilateral hearing loss and no tinnitus and compare them to those obtained in a similar group who had incapacitating tinnitus. METHODS: Six cases who did not experience tinnitus before operation and 15 subjects with pre-operative tinnitus were evaluated with a structured interview, a monosyllabic word test under difficult listening situations, a sound localization test, and an APHAB (abbreviated profile of hearing aid benefit) questionnaire...
January 18, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097439/modeling-responses-in-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus-implications-for-forward-masking-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#12
Nima Salimi, Muhammad S A Zilany, Laurel H Carney
A phenomenological model of the responses of neurons in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) of the rodent is presented in this study. Pure tones at the characteristic frequency (CF) and broadband noise stimuli evoke offset-type responses in these neurons. SPON neurons also phase-lock to the envelope of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli for a range of modulation frequencies. Model SPON neuron received inhibitory input that was relayed by the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body from the contralateral model ventral cochlear nucleus neuron...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096408/rhythm-judgments-reveal-a-frequency-asymmetry-in-the-perception-and-neural-coding-of-sound-synchrony
#13
Magdalena Wojtczak, Anahita H Mehta, Andrew J Oxenham
In modern Western music, melody is commonly conveyed by pitch changes in the highest-register voice, whereas meter or rhythm is often carried by instruments with lower pitches. An intriguing and recently suggested possibility is that the custom of assigning rhythmic functions to lower-pitch instruments may have emerged because of fundamental properties of the auditory system that result in superior time encoding for low pitches. Here we compare rhythm and synchrony perception between low- and high-frequency tones, using both behavioral and EEG techniques...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089576/conditional-deletion-of-pejvakin-in-adult-outer-hair-cells-causes-progressive-hearing-loss-in-mice
#14
Suzan L Harris, Marcin Kazmierczak, Tina Pangršič, Prahar Shah, Nadiya Chuchvara, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Tobias Moser, Martin Schwander
Mutations in the Pejvakin (Pjvk) gene cause autosomal recessive hearing loss DFNB59 with audiological features of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) or cochlear dysfunction. The precise mechanisms underlying the variable clinical phenotypes of DFNB59 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mice with conditional ablation of the Pjvk gene in all sensory hair cells or only in outer hair cells (OHCs) show similar auditory phenotypes with early-onset profound hearing loss. By contrast, loss of Pjvk in adult OHCs causes a slowly progressive hearing loss associated with OHC degeneration and delayed loss of inner hair cells (IHCs), indicating a primary role for pejvakin in regulating OHC function and survival...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089173/use-of-interactive-ibooks-for-patient-education-in-otology
#15
Omid Moshtaghi, Yarah M Haidar, Ronald Sahyouni, Ramin Rajaii, Afsheen Moshtaghi, Amin Mahmoodi, Yaser Ghavami, Harrison W Lin, Hamid R Djalilian
INTRODUCTION: Physicians in the ambulatory setting face challenges in adequately educating patients in a brief office encounter. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of an iPad-based interactive educational module (iBook) in various otologic pathologies. METHODS: Patients presenting with symptoms of tinnitus, dizziness, hearing loss, or cochlear implant evaluation were included. In total, 44 patients received the iBook and 22 patients served as controls...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088500/voice-emotion-perception-and-production-in-cochlear-implant-users
#16
REVIEW
N T Jiam, M Caldwell, M L Deroche, M Chatterjee, C J Limb
Voice emotion is a fundamental component of human social interaction and social development. Unfortunately, cochlear implant users are often forced to interface with highly degraded prosodic cues as a result of device constraints in extraction, processing, and transmission. As such, individuals with cochlear implants frequently demonstrate significant difficulty in recognizing voice emotions in comparison to their normal hearing counterparts. Cochlear implant-mediated perception and production of voice emotion is an important but relatively understudied area of research...
January 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087419/cochlear-synaptopathy-in-acquired-sensorineural-hearing-loss-manifestations-and-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
M Charles Liberman, Sharon G Kujawa
Common causes of hearing loss in humans - exposure to loud noise or ototoxic drugs and aging - often damage sensory hair cells, reflected as elevated thresholds on the clinical audiogram. Recent studies in animal models suggest, however, that well before this overt hearing loss can be seen, a more insidious, but likely more common, process is taking place that permanently interrupts synaptic communication between sensory inner hair cells and subsets of cochlear nerve fibers. The silencing of affected neurons alters auditory information processing, whether accompanied by threshold elevations or not, and is a likely contributor to a variety of perceptual abnormalities, including speech-in-noise difficulties, tinnitus and hyperacusis...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087418/degeneration-of-auditory-nerve-fibers-in-guinea-pigs-with-severe-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#18
Steven Kroon, Dyan Ramekers, Emma M Smeets, Ferry G J Hendriksen, Sjaak F L Klis, Huib Versnel
Damage to and loss of the organ of Corti leads to secondary degeneration of the spiral ganglion cell (SGC) somata of the auditory nerve. Extensively examined in animal models, this degeneration process of SGC somata following deafening is well known. However, degeneration of auditory nerve axons, which conduct auditory information towards the brainstem, and its relation to SGC soma degeneration are largely unknown. The consequences of degeneration of the axons are relevant for cochlear implantation, which is applied to a deafened system but depends on the condition of the auditory nerve...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#19
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087338/auditory-hindbrain-atrophy-and-anomalous-calcium-binding-protein-expression-after-neonatal-exposure-to-monosodium-glutamate
#20
Lindsey Foran, Kaitlyn Blackburn, Randy J Kulesza
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, elevated extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Previous studies have shown that MSG administration during the early postnatal period results in neurodegenerative changes in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
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