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Christopher M Ruzas, Peter E DeWitt, Kimberly S Bennett, Kevin E Chapman, Nicole Harlaar, Tellen D Bennett
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in US children. Post-traumatic seizures (PTS) occur in 11-42% of children with severe TBI and are associated with unfavorable outcome. Electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring may be used to detect PTS and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be used to treat PTS, but national rates of EEG and AED use are not known. The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and timing of EEG and AED use in children hospitalized after severe TBI...
November 21, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Lena E Winestone, Kelly D Getz, Tamara P Miller, Jennifer J Wilkes, Leah Sack, Yimei Li, Yuan-Shung Huang, Alix E Seif, Rochelle Bagatell, Brian T Fisher, Andrew Epstein, Richard Aplenc
Black patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience higher mortality than White patients. We compared induction mortality, acuity of illness prior to chemotherapy, and insurance type between Black and White patients to assess whether acuity of presentation mediates the disparity. Within a retrospective cohort of 1,122 children with AML treated with two courses of standard induction chemotherapy between 2004 to 2014 in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, the association between race (Black versus White) and inpatient mortality during induction was examined...
November 10, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Michael Wolf, Courtney McCracken, Elizabeth Wang, William Mahle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Ryan Coleman, Corey Chartan, Brady Moffett, Elizabeth Neptune, Nidhy Varghese, Fadel Ruiz, George Mallory, Lara Shekerdemian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Katherine H Chan, Teresa Bell, Mark Cain, Aaron Carroll, Brian D Benneyworth
PURPOSE: Guidelines recommend surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for clean-contaminated procedures but none for clean procedures. The purpose of this study was to describe variations in surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for outpatient urological procedures at United States children's hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the PHIS (Pediatric Health Information System®) database we performed a retrospective cohort study of patients younger than 18 years who underwent clean and/or clean-contaminated outpatient urological procedures from 2012 to 2014...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Urology
Qing Chen, Miaomiao Long, Lipeng Qiu, Mengqin Zhu, Zhen Li, Mingxi Qiao, Haiyang Hu, Xiuli Zhao, Dawei Chen
To improve the targeting efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based micelles, pH-sensitive mixed micelles based on HA-g-poly(L-histidine) (PHis) and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 copolymers were prepared and decorated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) peptide, a tumor cell-specific peptide ligand, on their surface. The doxorubicin-loaded micelles (HA-PHis/peptide-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 mixed micelles [PHTM]) were characterized to have a unimodal size distribution and pH-dependent drug release pattern...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
William E Bennett, Benjamin M Whittam, Konrad M Szymanski, Richard C Rink, Mark P Cain, Aaron E Carroll
The objective of this study is to determine the cost and charge differences between patients undergoing open vs. robotic pyeloplasty. This is a retrospective analysis of the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database in patients undergoing pyeloplasty between 2004 and 2013 conducted in large pediatric children's hospitals in the United States which contribute to PHIS. The participants included all pediatric patients undergoing pyeloplasty at these institutions. We assessed RCC-based cost, charge details, length of stay, and the presence of complications, and compared them between open and robotic cases...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Jennifer A Minneman, James L Grijalva, Michael J LaQuaglia, Heung Bae Kim, Shawn J Rangel, Khashayar Vakili
We sought to examine the relationship between liver transplant-related total cost, patient outcome, and hospital resource utilization at freestanding children's hospitals. Using the PHIS database, a retrospective study of 374 patients that underwent liver transplantation at 15 freestanding children's hospitals from July 2010 to December 2012 was performed. One-year graft failure and patient mortality rates from July 2010 to December 2012 for each center were also obtained from the SRTR. There was a 5.1-fold difference in median cost (median $146 444, range $59 487-302 058, P<...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Amy M Lavery, Brenda L Banwell, Geraldine Liu, Amy T Waldman
BACKGROUND: The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) during childhood or adolescence is increasingly recognized in the United States. Administrative databases quantify healthcare utilization as measured by hospital admissions, providing insight into the impact of MS in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: We examine the frequency of hospital admissions for pediatric MS in the US using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. METHODS: Data was extracted from the PHIS database using the ICD-9 code for MS (340...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jamie R Robinson, Elenir B C Avritscher, James C Gay, Zachary I Willis, Luke R Putnam, Andrew Anglemyer, Claudia Pedroza, Jon E Tyson, Martin L Blakely
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) compared with "usual care" for treatment of perforated appendicitis in children. Secondary objective was to compare cost analyses using hospital accounting system data versus data in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). BACKGROUND: Value-based surgical care (outcomes relative to costs) is frequently touted, but outcomes and costs are rarely measured together...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Mary Arbuthnot, Chinwendu Onwubiko, David Mooney
BACKGROUND: In the case of the hemodynamically unstable child, splenorrhaphy is preferred to splenectomy to avert postsplenectomy sepsis. However, successful splenorrhaphy requires familiarity with the procedure. We sought to determine how many splenectomies or splenorrhaphies for trauma the average pediatric surgeon can be expected to perform during their career. METHODS: The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) Database was queried for patients ≤18years coded with an International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition diagnosis code of a splenic injury from 2004 to 2013...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Saswati Panda, Shekhar Srivastava, Zhai Li, Martin Vaeth, Stephen R Fuhs, Tony Hunter, Edward Y Skolnik
Whereas phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine is exceedingly well characterized, the role of histidine phosphorylation in mammalian signaling is largely unexplored. Here we show that phosphoglycerate mutase family 5 (PGAM5) functions as a phosphohistidine phosphatase that specifically associates with and dephosphorylates the catalytic histidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B). By dephosphorylating NDPK-B, PGAM5 negatively regulates CD4(+) T cells by inhibiting NDPK-B-mediated histidine phosphorylation and activation of the K(+) channel KCa3...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Cell
Jeffrey H Silber, Paul R Rosenbaum, Wei Wang, Justin M Ludwig, Shawna Calhoun, James P Guevara, Joseph J Zorc, Ashley Zeigler, Orit Even-Shoshan
IMPORTANCE: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic illness among children, remaining a leading cause of pediatric hospitalizations and representing a major financial burden to many health care systems. OBJECTIVE: To implement a new auditing process examining whether differences in hospital practice style may be associated with potential resource savings or inefficiencies in treating pediatric asthma admissions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective matched-cohort design study, matched for asthma severity, compared practice patterns for patients admitted to Children's Hospital Association hospitals contributing data to the Pediatric Hospital Information System (PHIS) database...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
May O Lwin, Santosh Vijaykumar, Vajira Sampath Rathnayake, Gentatsu Lim, Chitra Panchapakesan, Schubert Foo, Ruwan Wijayamuni, Prasad Wimalaratne, Owen Noel Newton Fernando
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Soudamini Mohapatra, Lekha S
Carbendazim is widely used on pomegranate for control of a large number of fungal diseases. Its residue levels in/on pomegranate fruits and soil were evaluated under field conditions. The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method in conjunction with liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was used for analysis of carbendazim. Recovery of carbendazim was within 78.92-96.28 % and relative standard deviation within 3.8-10.9 % (n = 6). Carbendazim residues on pomegranate fruits dissipated at the half lives of 17...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
David A Danford, Quentin Karels, Shelby Kutty
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterise the divergence of effort from outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) care by measuring mortality-related resource utilisation fraction (MRRUF) for various CHD lesions across institutions of differing volumes. METHODS: Study design was observational analysis of an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). The setting was inpatient; 2004-2013. Patients were ≤21 years old with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or other single ventricle (SV)...
2016: Open Heart
Elizabeth G Salazar, Yimei Li, Brian T Fisher, Susan R Rheingold, Julie Fitzgerald, Alix E Seif, Yuan-Shung Huang, Rochelle Bagatell, Richard Aplenc
Although inferior outcomes of children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) are established, national supportive care patterns for these patients are unknown. A validated retrospective cohort of paediatric patients diagnosed with ALL from 1999 to 2011 was assembled from the US Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database to examine organ toxicity, sepsis, and resource utilization in children with and without DS. Among 10699 ALL patients, 298 had DS-ALL (2·8%). In a multivariate model, DS was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·6-2·7), respiratory (OR 2·1, 95% CI: 1·6-2·9), neurologic (OR 3·4, 95% CI 1·9-6·2), and hepatic (OR 1·4, 95% CI 1·0-1·9) dysfunction and sepsis (OR 1·8, 95% CI: 1·4-2·4)...
August 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Esmaeil Nourani, Farshad Khunjush, Saliha Durmuş
Pathogenic microorganisms exploit host cellular mechanisms and evade host defense mechanisms through molecular pathogen-host interactions (PHIs). Therefore, comprehensive analysis of these PHI networks should be an initial step for developing effective therapeutics against infectious diseases. Computational prediction of PHI data is gaining increasing demand because of scarcity of experimental data. Prediction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) within PHI systems can be formulated as a classification problem, which requires the knowledge of non-interacting protein pairs...
May 24, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Robert M Dorman, Kaveh Vali, David H Rothstein
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine trends in the treatment of patients with infectious parapneumonic effusions in U.S. children's hospitals over the past decade. METHODS: The PHIS database was queried for patients younger than 18years old with pneumonia and pleural effusion in three yearlong periods over the past decade. Variables included age, gender, payer, race/ethnicity, hospital region, hospital type, markers of illness severity, and treatment group (antibiotics alone, chest tube thoracostomy±thrombolytics, video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS), or thoracotomy)...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Mallorie B Heneghan, Susan R Rheingold, Yimei Li, Alix E Seif, Yuan-Shung Huang, Lisa McLeod, Lawrence Wells, Brian T Fisher, Richard Aplenc
BACKGROUND: Cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved, but as therapy has intensified, the burden of osteonecrosis (ON) has increased. Limited data exist regarding surgical interventions for pediatric ALL patients with ON. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-center cohort of children with newly diagnosed ALL was established with Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) data from 43 freestanding children's hospitals from 1999 to 2011. Patients with ON identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code were followed for up to 5 years after index ALL admission for the presence of ON-associated orthopedic surgical procedures...
April 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
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