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William E Bennett, Benjamin M Whittam, Konrad M Szymanski, Richard C Rink, Mark P Cain, Aaron E Carroll
The objective of this study is to determine the cost and charge differences between patients undergoing open vs. robotic pyeloplasty. This is a retrospective analysis of the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database in patients undergoing pyeloplasty between 2004 and 2013 conducted in large pediatric children's hospitals in the United States which contribute to PHIS. The participants included all pediatric patients undergoing pyeloplasty at these institutions. We assessed RCC-based cost, charge details, length of stay, and the presence of complications, and compared them between open and robotic cases...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Jennifer A Minneman, James L Grijalva, Michael J LaQuaglia, Heung Bae Kim, Shawn J Rangel, Khashayar Vakili
We sought to examine the relationship between liver transplant-related total cost, patient outcome, and hospital resource utilization at freestanding children's hospitals. Using the PHIS database, a retrospective study of 374 patients that underwent liver transplantation at 15 freestanding children's hospitals from July 2010 to December 2012 was performed. One-year graft failure and patient mortality rates from July 2010 to December 2012 for each center were also obtained from the SRTR. There was a 5.1-fold difference in median cost (median $146 444, range $59 487-302 058, P<...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Amy M Lavery, Brenda L Banwell, Geraldine Liu, Amy T Waldman
BACKGROUND: The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) during childhood or adolescence is increasingly recognized in the United States. Administrative databases quantify healthcare utilization as measured by hospital admissions, providing insight into the impact of MS in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: We examine the frequency of hospital admissions for pediatric MS in the US using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. METHODS: Data was extracted from the PHIS database using the ICD-9 code for MS (340...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Jamie R Robinson, Elenir B C Avritscher, James C Gay, Zachary I Willis, Luke R Putnam, Andrew Anglemyer, Claudia Pedroza, Jon E Tyson, Martin L Blakely
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) compared with "usual care" for treatment of perforated appendicitis in children. Secondary objective was to compare cost analyses using hospital accounting system data versus data in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). BACKGROUND: Value-based surgical care (outcomes relative to costs) is frequently touted, but outcomes and costs are rarely measured together...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Mary Arbuthnot, Chinwendu Onwubiko, David Mooney
BACKGROUND: In the case of the hemodynamically unstable child, splenorrhaphy is preferred to splenectomy to avert postsplenectomy sepsis. However, successful splenorrhaphy requires familiarity with the procedure. We sought to determine how many splenectomies or splenorrhaphies for trauma the average pediatric surgeon can be expected to perform during their career. METHODS: The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) Database was queried for patients ≤18years coded with an International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition diagnosis code of a splenic injury from 2004 to 2013...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Saswati Panda, Shekhar Srivastava, Zhai Li, Martin Vaeth, Stephen R Fuhs, Tony Hunter, Edward Y Skolnik
Whereas phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine is exceedingly well characterized, the role of histidine phosphorylation in mammalian signaling is largely unexplored. Here we show that phosphoglycerate mutase family 5 (PGAM5) functions as a phosphohistidine phosphatase that specifically associates with and dephosphorylates the catalytic histidine on nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B). By dephosphorylating NDPK-B, PGAM5 negatively regulates CD4(+) T cells by inhibiting NDPK-B-mediated histidine phosphorylation and activation of the K(+) channel KCa3...
August 4, 2016: Molecular Cell
Jeffrey H Silber, Paul R Rosenbaum, Wei Wang, Justin M Ludwig, Shawna Calhoun, James P Guevara, Joseph J Zorc, Ashley Zeigler, Orit Even-Shoshan
IMPORTANCE: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic illness among children, remaining a leading cause of pediatric hospitalizations and representing a major financial burden to many health care systems. OBJECTIVE: To implement a new auditing process examining whether differences in hospital practice style may be associated with potential resource savings or inefficiencies in treating pediatric asthma admissions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective matched-cohort design study, matched for asthma severity, compared practice patterns for patients admitted to Children's Hospital Association hospitals contributing data to the Pediatric Hospital Information System (PHIS) database...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
May O Lwin, Santosh Vijaykumar, Vajira Sampath Rathnayake, Gentatsu Lim, Chitra Panchapakesan, Schubert Foo, Ruwan Wijayamuni, Prasad Wimalaratne, Owen Noel Newton Fernando
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Soudamini Mohapatra, Lekha S
Carbendazim is widely used on pomegranate for control of a large number of fungal diseases. Its residue levels in/on pomegranate fruits and soil were evaluated under field conditions. The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method in conjunction with liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was used for analysis of carbendazim. Recovery of carbendazim was within 78.92-96.28 % and relative standard deviation within 3.8-10.9 % (n = 6). Carbendazim residues on pomegranate fruits dissipated at the half lives of 17...
July 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
David A Danford, Quentin Karels, Shelby Kutty
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterise the divergence of effort from outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) care by measuring mortality-related resource utilisation fraction (MRRUF) for various CHD lesions across institutions of differing volumes. METHODS: Study design was observational analysis of an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). The setting was inpatient; 2004-2013. Patients were ≤21 years old with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or other single ventricle (SV)...
2016: Open Heart
Elizabeth G Salazar, Yimei Li, Brian T Fisher, Susan R Rheingold, Julie Fitzgerald, Alix E Seif, Yuan-Shung Huang, Rochelle Bagatell, Richard Aplenc
Although inferior outcomes of children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) are established, national supportive care patterns for these patients are unknown. A validated retrospective cohort of paediatric patients diagnosed with ALL from 1999 to 2011 was assembled from the US Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database to examine organ toxicity, sepsis, and resource utilization in children with and without DS. Among 10699 ALL patients, 298 had DS-ALL (2·8%). In a multivariate model, DS was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·6-2·7), respiratory (OR 2·1, 95% CI: 1·6-2·9), neurologic (OR 3·4, 95% CI 1·9-6·2), and hepatic (OR 1·4, 95% CI 1·0-1·9) dysfunction and sepsis (OR 1·8, 95% CI: 1·4-2·4)...
August 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Esmaeil Nourani, Farshad Khunjush, Saliha Durmuş
Pathogenic microorganisms exploit host cellular mechanisms and evade host defense mechanisms through molecular pathogen-host interactions (PHIs). Therefore, comprehensive analysis of these PHI networks should be an initial step for developing effective therapeutics against infectious diseases. Computational prediction of PHI data is gaining increasing demand because of scarcity of experimental data. Prediction of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) within PHI systems can be formulated as a classification problem, which requires the knowledge of non-interacting protein pairs...
May 24, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Robert M Dorman, Kaveh Vali, David H Rothstein
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine trends in the treatment of patients with infectious parapneumonic effusions in U.S. children's hospitals over the past decade. METHODS: The PHIS database was queried for patients younger than 18years old with pneumonia and pleural effusion in three yearlong periods over the past decade. Variables included age, gender, payer, race/ethnicity, hospital region, hospital type, markers of illness severity, and treatment group (antibiotics alone, chest tube thoracostomy±thrombolytics, video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS), or thoracotomy)...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Mallorie B Heneghan, Susan R Rheingold, Yimei Li, Alix E Seif, Yuan-Shung Huang, Lisa McLeod, Lawrence Wells, Brian T Fisher, Richard Aplenc
BACKGROUND: Cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved, but as therapy has intensified, the burden of osteonecrosis (ON) has increased. Limited data exist regarding surgical interventions for pediatric ALL patients with ON. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-center cohort of children with newly diagnosed ALL was established with Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) data from 43 freestanding children's hospitals from 1999 to 2011. Patients with ON identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code were followed for up to 5 years after index ALL admission for the presence of ON-associated orthopedic surgical procedures...
April 2016: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Chutitorn Ketloy, Poonsook Keelapang, Eakachai Prompetchara, Amporn Suphatrakul, Chunya Puttikhunt, Watchara Kasinrerk, Eiji Konishi, Nopporn Sittisombut, Kiat Ruxrungtham
BACKGROUND: An important goal for dengue vaccines is to induce a high and durable level of neutralizing antibody. OBJECTIVES: Three strategies were investigated for improving the immunogenicity of a prM+E dengue serotype 2 (DENV-2) DNA vaccine: 1) expression in two different plasmids; 2) adjustment of dose; and, 3) introduction of the E sequence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) at the carboxy-terminal portion of DENV-2 E. METHODS: Expression cassettes were designed to encode a full-length prM+E sequence of DENV-2 virus employing human-preferred codons (D2prMEopt), or a chimeric prM+E sequence in which the 100-residue carboxy-terminal region of E was derived from JEV (D2prMEJE20opt)...
March 20, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Nicholas E Bruns, M Abid Shah, Amelia N Dorsey, Todd A Ponsky, Oliver S Soldes
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, our institution has experienced a relative increase in the number of mundane cases, such as appendectomy and incision and drainage of abscess, versus index (complex) cases. We sought to determine if this trend is present at the national level. METHODS: A retrospective review of surgical case volume at 36 freestanding children's hospitals was performed between January 2004 and December 2013 using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Stéphanie Raymond, Florence Nicot, Karine Sauné, Michelle Cazabat, Christophe Pasquier, Patrice Massip, Bruno Marchou, Pierre Delobel, Jacques Izopet
HIV-1 was mainly CCR5 tropic in recent seroconverters. We analyzed the coreceptor use in 239 primary HIV-1 infections (PHIs) between 1996 and 2014 using a validated recombinant virus phenotypic entry assay. CXCR4-using viruses were detected in 8.3%, 3.8%, and 6.1% of PHIs from 1996 to 2004, 2005 to 2009, and 2010 to 2014, respectively. The presence of CXCR4-using viruses was associated with the virological failure of antiretroviral treatment initiated during PHI (odds ratio, 7.9; 95% confidence interval, 1...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Char M Witmer, Michele P Lambert, Sarah H O'Brien, Cindy Neunert
BACKGROUND: Recent pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) guidelines have significantly altered and are encouraging an observational approach for patients without significant bleeding regardless of their platelet count. PROCEDURE: This retrospective multicenter cohort study utilized the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) administrative database. Subjects were 6 months to 18 years of age, admitted to a PHIS hospital between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2014, with a primary diagnosis code for ITP...
July 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Kathrine R Tan, Jane Coleman, Barbara Smith, Busiku Hamainza, Cecilia Katebe-Sakala, Casey Kean, Ashley Kowal, Jodi Vanden Eng, Tiffany K Parris, Carla T Mapp, Stephen C Smith, Robert Wirtz, Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Allen S Craig
BACKGROUND: A key goal of malaria control is to achieve universal access to, and use of, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) among people at risk for malaria. Quantifying the number of LLINs needed to achieve and maintain universal coverage requires knowing when nets need replacement. Longitudinal studies have observed physical deterioration in LLINs well before the assumed net lifespan of 3 years. The objective of this study was to describe attrition, physical integrity and insecticide persistence of LLINs over time to assist with better quantification of nets needing replacement...
2016: Malaria Journal
Tamara P Miller, Yimei Li, Marko Kavcic, Andrea B Troxel, Yuan-Shun V Huang, Lillian Sung, Todd A Alonzo, Robert Gerbing, Matt Hall, Marla H Daves, Terzah M Horton, Michael A Pulsipher, Jessica A Pollard, Rochelle Bagatell, Alix E Seif, Brian T Fisher, Selina Luger, Alan S Gamis, Peter C Adamson, Richard Aplenc
PURPOSE: Reporting of adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials is critical to understanding treatment safety, but data on AE accuracy are limited. This study sought to determine the accuracy of AE reporting for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia clinical trials and to test whether an external electronic data source can improve reporting. METHODS: Reported AEs were evaluated on two trials, Children's Oncology Group AAML03P1 and AAML0531 arm B, with identical chemotherapy regimens but with different toxicity reporting requirements...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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