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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288450/systems-biology-modeling-to-study-pathogen-host-interactions
#1
Müberra Fatma Cesur, Saliha Durmuş
Pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) underlie the process of infection. The systems biology view of the whole PHI system is superior to the investigation of the pathogen or host separately in understanding the infection mechanisms. Especially, the identification of host-oriented drug targets for the next-generation anti-infection therapeutics requires the properties of the host factors targeted by pathogens. Here, we provide an outline of computational analysis of PHI networks, focusing on the properties of the pathogen-targeted host proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276703/a-framework-for-integrating-qualitative-and-quantitative-data-in-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-studies-a-case-study-of-pesticide-usage-in-eastern-uganda
#2
James Muleme, Clovice Kankya, John C Ssempebwa, Stella Mazeri, Adrian Muwonge
Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) studies guide the implementation of public health interventions (PHIs), and they are important tools for political persuasion. The design and implementation of PHIs assumes a linear KAP relationship, i.e., an awareness campaign results in the desirable societal behavioral change. However, there is no robust framework for testing this relationship before and after PHIs. Here, we use qualitative and quantitative data on pesticide usage to test this linear relationship, identify associated context specific factors as well as assemble a framework that could be used to guide and evaluate PHIs...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260563/smart-nanoparticles-undergo-phase-transition-for-enhanced-cellular-uptake-and-subsequent-intracellular-drug-release-in-tumor-microenvironment
#3
Guihua Ye, Yajun Jiang, Xiaoying Yang, Hongxiang Hu, Beibei Wang, Lu Sun, Victor C Yang, Duxin Sun, Wei Gao
The inefficient cellular uptake and intracellular drug release at tumor site are two major obstacles limiting the antitumor efficacy of nanoparticle delivery systems. To overcome both problems, we designed a smart nanoparticles undergo phase transition in tumor microenvironment. The smart nanoparticles are generated using a lipid-polypetide hybrid nanoparticle, which comprises a PEGylated lipid monolayer shell and a pH sensitive hydrophobic poly-L-histidine (PHIS) core, and is loaded with antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
December 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240000/complete-versus-staged-repair-for-neonates-with-tetralogy-of-fallot-establishment-and-validation-of-a-cohort-of-2235-patients-using-detailed-surgery-sequence-review-of-health-care-administrative-data
#4
Jill J Savla, Brian T Fisher, Jennifer A Faerber, Yuan-Shung V Huang, Laura Mercer-Rosa
BACKGROUND: The surgical strategy for neonates with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) consists of complete or staged repair. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of these approaches is facilitated by a large multicenter cohort. We propose a novel process for cohort assembly using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), an administrative database that contains clinical and billing data for inpatient and emergency department stays from tertiary children's hospitals. METHODS: A 4-step process was used to identify neonates with TOF: (1) screen neonates in PHIS with International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) diagnosis or procedure codes for TOF; (2) include patients with TOF procedures before 30 days of age; (3) exclude patients with missing 2-year follow-up data; (4) analyze patients' 2-year surgery sequence patterns, exclude patients inconsistent with a treatment strategy for TOF, and designate patients as complete or staged repair...
December 12, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223439/a-unique-linkage-of-administrative-and-clinical-registry-databases-to-expand-analytic-possibilities-in-pediatric-heart-transplantation-research
#5
Justin Godown, Cary Thurm, Debra A Dodd, Jonathan H Soslow, Brian Feingold, Andrew H Smith, Bret A Mettler, Bryn Thompson, Matt Hall
BACKGROUND: Large clinical, research, and administrative databases are increasingly utilized to facilitate pediatric heart transplant (HTx) research. Linking databases has proven to be a robust strategy across multiple disciplines to expand the possible analyses that can be performed while leveraging the strengths of each dataset. We describe a unique linkage of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) database and the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) administrative database to provide a platform to assess resource utilization in pediatric HTx...
December 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200202/advances-in-development-of-new-tools-for-the-study-of-phosphohistidine
#6
Mehul V Makwana, Richmond Muimo, Richard Fw Jackson
Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification that is an integral part of cellular function. The O-phosphorylated amino-acid residues, such as phosphoserine (pSer), phosphothreonine (pThr) and phosphotyrosine (pTyr), have dominated the literature while the acid labile N-linked phosphorylated amino acids, such as phosphohistidine (pHis), have largely been historically overlooked because of the acidic conditions routinely used in amino-acid detection and analysis. This review highlights some misinterpretations that have arisen in the existing literature, pinpoints outstanding questions and potential future directions to clarify the role of pHis in mammalian signalling systems...
December 4, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195181/one-pot-synthesis-of-ph-responsive-charge-switchable-pegylated-nanoscale-coordination-polymers-for-improved-cancer-therapy
#7
Yu Yang, Ligeng Xu, Wenjun Zhu, Liangzhu Feng, Jingjing Liu, Qian Chen, Ziliang Dong, Jiayue Zhao, Zhuang Liu, Meiwan Chen
Nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) are promising nanomedicine platforms featured with biodegradability and versatile functionalities. However, multi-step post-synthesis surface modification is usually required to functionalize as-made NCPs before their biomedical applications. Moreover, efforts are still required to design therapeutic NCPs responsive to the unique tumor microenvironment to achieve more specific and effective therapy. Herein, we uncover a simple yet general strategy to synthesize a series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified NCPs via a one-step method by adding poly-histidine-PEG co-polymer into the mixture of metal ions and organic ligands during NCPs formation...
November 22, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189614/acquired-infection-and-antimicrobial-utilization-during-initial-nicu-hospitalization-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#8
Sarah Keene, Karna Murthy, Eugenia Pallotto, Beverly Brozanski, Jason Gien, Isabella Zaniletti, Cheryl Hulbert, Ruth Seabrook, Natalie Rintoul, Louis Chicoine, Nicolas Porta, Theresa R Grover
BACKGROUND: In addition to substantial medical and surgical intervention, neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) often have concurrent concerns for acquired infection. However, few studies focus on infection and corresponding antimicrobial utilization in this population. METHODS: The Children's Hospital Neonatal Database was queried for CDH infants hospitalized from Jan 2010- Feb 2016. Patient charts were linked to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database...
November 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129789/dual-ph-responsive-multifunctional-nanoparticles-for-targeted-treatment-of-breast-cancer-by-combining-immunotherapy-and-chemotherapy
#9
Yuanyuan Liu, Linan Qiao, Sipei Zhang, Guoyun Wan, Bowei Chen, Ping Zhou, Ning Zhang, Yinsong Wang
In the present study, a dual pH-responsive multifunctional nanoparticle system was designed for combining immunotherapy and chemotherapy to treat breast cancer through targeting immune cells and cancer cells. A proven anti-tumor immune regulator, R848, was encapsulated with poly(L-histidine) (PHIS) to form PHIS/R848 nanocores. Doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA) through an acid-cleavable hydrazone bond linkage to synthesize polymeric prodrug HA-DOX, which was subsequently coated outside PHIS/R848 nanocores to form HA-DOX/PHIS/R848 nanoparticles...
November 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128552/venous-thromboembolism-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#10
Hemalatha G Rangarajan, Joseph R Stanek, Rolla Abu-Arja, Rajinder P S Bajwa, Jeffery J Auletta, Dean A Lee, Sarah H O Brien, Riten Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is associated with a pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant environment which places recipients at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While the incidence of VTE in adult HCT recipients has been extensively studied, similar data for children are lacking. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to analyze the prevalence of VTE and associated risk factors in a large cohort of patients who underwent HCT at tertiary-care US children's hospitals...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106917/variation-in-prophylactic-antibiotic-use-for-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-need-for-better-stewardship-in-pediatric-surgery
#11
Kibileri Williams, Lauren Baumann, Fizan Abdullah, Shawn D St Peter, Tolulope A Oyetunji
PURPOSE: The role of prophylactic antibiotics for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been questioned over the last decade. Although gradually being discontinued in the adult population, the practice among pediatric surgeons remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate the use of perioperative antibiotics in children undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for symptomatic cholelithiasis and biliary dyskinesia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database for 2015 and selected all patients 18years old or younger who underwent LC for cholelithiasis (without cholecystitis) or biliary dyskinesia...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102151/age-at-orchiopexy-for-undescended-testis-in-the-united-states
#12
Kibileri Williams, Lauren Baumann, Adil Shah, Fizan Abdullah, Emilie K Johnson, Tolulope A Oyetunji
PURPOSE: Undescended testis (UDT) is the most common congenital anomaly of the male genitalia. The American Urological Association guidelines recommend orchiopexy by age 18months to ameliorate the risk of subfertility. The study aim was to assess adherence to these guidelines on a national level. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed both the State Ambulatory Surgery Database (SASD) in 2012 and the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) for 2015. All patients aged 18years or less with a diagnosis of UDT who underwent orchiopexy were included...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094435/the-burden-of-common-infections-in-children-and-adolescents-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-pediatric-health-information-system-study
#13
Lindsey Korbel, Robert S Easterling, Nidhi Punja, John David Spencer
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased infection risk. The healthcare utilization of pediatric and adolescent diabetic patients with infection is not well defined. This study evaluates the number of pediatric and adolescent patients with DM that seek medical treatment for infection management and assesses its socioeconomic impact. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database on children and adolescents with DM who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) or were hospitalized for infection management from 2008 to 2014...
November 2, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058706/histidine-kinases-and-the-missing-phosphoproteome-from-prokaryotes-to-eukaryotes
#14
Kevin Adam, Tony Hunter
Protein phosphorylation is the most common type of post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The phosphoproteome is defined as the complete set of experimentally detectable phosphorylation sites present in a cell's proteome under various conditions. However, we are still far from identifying all the phosphorylation sites in a cell mainly due to the lack of information about phosphorylation events involving residues other than Ser, Thr and Tyr. Four types of phosphate-protein linkage exist and these generate nine different phosphoresidues-pSer, pThr, pTyr, pHis, pLys, pArg, pAsp, pGlu and pCys...
October 23, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048950/integrating-population-heterogeneity-indices-with-microfluidic-cell-based-assays
#15
Thomas A Moore, Alexander Li, Edmond W K Young
Recent advances in cell-based assays have involved the integration of single-cell analyses and microfluidics technology to facilitate both high-content and high-throughput applications. These technical advances have yielded large datasets with single-cell resolution, and have given rise to the study of cell population dynamics, but statistical analyses of these populations and their properties have received much less attention, particularly for cells cultured in microfluidic systems. The objective of this study was to perform statistical analyses using Pittsburgh Heterogeneity Indices (PHIs) to understand the heterogeneity and evolution of cell population demographics on datasets generated from a microfluidic single-cell-resolution cell-based assay...
October 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020143/anti-infective-acquisition-costs-for-a-stewardship-program-getting-to-the-bottom-line
#16
Sarah K Parker, Amanda L Hurst, Cary Thurm, Matthew Millard, Timothy C Jenkins, Jason Child, Casey Dugan
Background: Though antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are in place for patient safety, financial justification is often required. In 2016, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommended that anti-infective costs be measured by patient-level administration data normalized for patient census. Few publications use this methodology. Here, we aim to compare 3 methods of drug cost analysis during 3 phases of an ASP as an example of this recommendation's implementation...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978554/association-of-pediatric-medical-emergency-teams-with-hospital-mortality
#17
Shelby Kutty, Philip G Jones, Quentin Karels, Navya Joseph, John A Spertus, Paul S Chan
Background -Implementation of a medical emergency teams has been identified as a potential strategy to reduce hospital deaths, as these teams respond to patients with acute physiological decline in an effort to prevent in-hospital cardiac arrest. However, prior studies of the association between medical emergency teams and hospital mortality have been limited and typically have not accounted for pre-implementation mortality trends. Methods -Within the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) for freestanding pediatric hospitals, annual risk-adjusted mortality rates were calculated for sites between 2000 and 2015...
October 4, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970191/lessons-from-the-implementation-of-mo-buzz-a-mobile-pandemic-surveillance-system-for-dengue
#18
May Oo Lwin, Karthikayen Jayasundar, Anita Sheldenkar, Ruwan Wijayamuni, Prasad Wimalaratne, Kacey C Ernst, Schubert Foo
BACKGROUND: Approximately 128 countries and 3.9 billion people are at risk of dengue infection. Incidence of dengue has increased over the past decades, becoming a growing public health concern for countries with populations that are increasingly susceptible to this vector-borne disease, such as Sri Lanka. Almost 55,150 dengue cases were reported in Sri Lanka in 2016, with more than 30.40% of cases (n=16,767) originating from Colombo, which struggles with an outdated manual paper-based dengue outbreak management system...
October 2, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966009/preemptive-ladd-procedure-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-and-abdominal-wall-defects-does-not-reduce-the-risk-of-future-volvulus
#19
Erin P Ward, Andrew Wang, Hari Thangarajah, David Lazar, Stephen Bickler, Timothy Fairbanks, Karen M Kling
INTRODUCTION: Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), gastroschisis, and omphalocele are prone to abnormalities of intestinal rotation and thus future midgut volvulus. Controversy exists whether routine preemptive Ladd procedure in this subgroup of asymptomatic patients is of value to reduce future volvulus. METHODS: The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database was queried for neonates with CDH, gastroschisis, and omphalocele between January 2009 and September 2015...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946222/dissipation-rate-study-and-pre-harvest-intervals-calculation-of-imidacloprid-and-oxamyl-in-exported-egyptian-green-beans-and-chili-peppers-after-pestigation-treatment
#20
Ahmad Hanafi, Marilena Dasenaki, Anna Bletsou, Nikolaos S Thomaidis
Two QuEChERS-based methods were developed and validated, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection, in order to accurately determine residues of imidacloprid and oxamyl in green beans and chili peppers after treatment via irrigation system under field conditions in Egyptian farms. The validation included experiments for specificity, linearity, trueness, precision, matrix effect and limits of detection and quantification according to European Commission standards. The dissipation rates of both pesticides in green beans and chili peppers were studied and the pre-harvest intervals (PHIs) were calculated...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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