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Stroke, brain, behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547726/stroke-induces-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-to-infarcted-brain-areas-via-cxcr4-and-c-met-signaling
#1
Oh Young Bang, Gyeong Joon Moon, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Sooyoon Kim, Jeong Pyo Son, Yeon Hee Cho, Won Hyuk Chang, Yun-Hee Kim
Mesenchymal stem cells circulate between organs to repair and maintain tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum have therapeutic effects when intravenously administered after stroke. However, only a small number of mesenchymal stem cells reach the brain. We hypothesized that the serum from stroke patients increases mesenchymal stem cells trophism toward the infarcted brain area. Mesenchymal stem cells were grown in fetal bovine serum, normal serum from normal rats, or stroke serum from ischemic stroke rats...
May 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523230/targeting-resolution-of-neuroinflammation-after-ischemic-stroke-with-a-lipoxin-a4-analog-protective-mechanisms-and-long-term-effects-on-neurological-recovery
#2
Kimberly E Hawkins, Kelly M DeMars, Jon C Alexander, Lauren G de Leon, Sean C Pacheco, Christina Graves, Changjun Yang, Austin O McCrea, Jan C Frankowski, Timothy J Garrett, Marcelo Febo, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
BACKGROUND: Resolution of inflammation is an emerging new strategy to reduce damage following ischemic stroke. Lipoxin A4 (LXA 4) is an anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution lipid mediator that reduces neuroinflammation in stroke. Since LXA 4 is rapidly inactivated, potent analogs have been synthesized, including BML-111. We hypothesized that post-ischemic, intravenous treatment with BML-111 for 1 week would provide neuroprotection and reduce neurobehavioral deficits at 4 weeks after ischemic stroke in rats...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521701/unexpected-effects-of-acetylcholine-precursors-on-pilocarpine-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#3
Minwoo Lee, Bo Young Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) and Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) are both acetylcholine precursors and are considered to act as pro-cholinergic nootropic agents. Acetylcholine precursors have also recently found frequent use in the neurology clinic. Stroke and many types of dementia have been shown to respond favorably after treatment with these agents, not only in terms of cognitive dysfunction but also behavioral and psychological symptoms. The primary mechanisms of Acetylcholine precursors are the following: 1) Acetylcholine precursors themselves are used in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and 2) byproducts like glycerophosphate have protective functions for neuronal phospholipids...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512585/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-recovery-and-or-compensation-following-injury
#4
REVIEW
Michael J Hylin, Abigail L Kerr, Ryan Holden
Injury due to stroke and traumatic brain injury result in significant long-term effects upon behavioral functioning. One central question to rehabilitation research is whether the nature of behavioral improvement observed is due to recovery or the development of compensatory mechanisms. The nature of functional improvement can be viewed from the perspective of behavioral changes or changes in neuroanatomical plasticity that follows. Research suggests that these changes correspond to each other in a bidirectional manner...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506001/motor-cortex-stimulation-does-not-lead-to%C3%A2-functional-recovery-after-experimental-cortical-injury-in-rats
#5
Lisa-Maria Schönfeld, Ali Jahanshahi, Evi Lemmens, Matthias Bauwens, Sarah-Anna Hescham, Sandra Schipper, Melanie Lagiere, Sven Hendrix, Yasin Temel
BACKGROUND: Motor impairments are among the major complications that develop after cortical damage caused by either stroke or traumatic brain injury. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) can improve motor functions in animal models of stroke by inducing neuroplasticity. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the therapeutic effect of chronic MCS was assessed in a rat model of severe cortical damage. METHODS: A controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied to the forelimb area of the motor cortex followed by implantation of a flat electrode covering the lesion area...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502042/tale-of-the-good-and-the-bad-cdk5-remodeling-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Kavita Shah, Sandra Rossie
Cdk5 kinase, a cyclin-dependent kinase family member, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling in the brain. Cdk5 is essential for brain development during embryogenesis. After birth, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes such as learning and memory formation, drug addiction, pain signaling, and long-term behavior changes, all of which rely on rapid alterations in the cytoskeleton. Cdk5 activity is deregulated in various brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke, resulting in profound remodeling of the neuronal cytoskeleton, loss of synapses, and ultimately neurodegeneration...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495601/structural-connectivity-subserving-verbal-fluency-revealed-by-lesion-behavior-mapping-in-stroke-patients
#7
Mingyang Li, Yumei Zhang, Luping Song, Ruiwang Huang, Junhua Ding, Yuxing Fang, Yangwen Xu, Zaizhu Han
Tests of verbal fluency have been widely used to assess the cognitive functioning of persons, and are typically classified into two categories (semantic and phonological fluency). While widely-distributed divergent and convergent brain regions have been found to be involved in semantic and phonological fluency, the anatomical connectivity underlying the fluency is not well understood. The present study aims to construct a comprehensive white-matter network associated with semantic and phonological fluency by investigating the relationship between the integrity of 22 major tracts in the whole brain and semantic fluency (measured by 3 cues) and phonological fluency (measured by 2 cues) in a group of 51 stroke patients...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495517/berberine-confers-neuroprotection-in-coping-with-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-targeting-inflammatory-cytokines
#8
Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Faramarz Souri
SCOPE: Existing research indicates that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of berberine play major roles in coping with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases, but it is not known if this isoquinoline alkaloid affects inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 in focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were treated with 40mg/kg concentration of berberine 1h after focal cerebral ischemia and the anti-inflammatory properties of berberine were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis, water content measure and behavioral tests...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477436/brain-inflammasomes-in-stroke-and-depressive-disorders-regulation-by-estrogen
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Slowik, Leoni Lammerding, Stefanie Hoffmann, Cordian Beyer
Neuroinflammation is a devastating pathophysiological process which ends up in brain damage and neuronal death. Pathogens, cell fragments and cellular dysfunction trigger inflammatory responses. Irrespective of the cause, inflammasomes are key intracellular multiprotein signaling platforms which sense neuropathological conditions. The activation of inflammasomes leads to the auto-proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1, resulting in the proteolysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)1beta and IL18 into their bioactive forms...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473286/characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-for-spontaneous-hemorrhagic-stroke-using-in-vivo-pet-and-mr-multiparametric-imaging
#10
Salvador Castaneda Vega, Christine Weinl, Carsten Calaminus, Lisa Wang, Maren Harant, Walter Ehrlichmann, Dennis Thiele, Ursula Kohlhofer, Gerald Reischl, Johann-Martin Hempel, Ulrike Ernemann, Leticia Quintanilla Martinez, Alfred Nordheim, Bernd J Pichler
The clinical use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be a strong diagnostic tool in the field of neurology. The reliability of these methods to confirm clinical diagnoses has guided preclinical research to utilize these techniques for the characterization of animal disease models. Previously, we demonstrated that an endothelial cell-specific ablation of the murine Serum Response Factor (Srf(iECKO)) results in blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and hemorrhagic stroke...
May 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472090/test-repositioning-for-functional-assessment-of-neurological-outcome-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#11
Macarena Hernández-Jiménez, Carolina Peña-Martínez, María Del Carmen Godino, Jaime Díaz-Guzmán, María Ángeles Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain
Stroke is a cerebrovascular pathology for which the only approved treatment is fibrinolysis. Several studies have focused on the development of new drugs but none has led to effective therapies to date, due, among others, to the difficulty to evaluate clinical deficits in experimental animal models. The present study aims to explore the applicability of known behavioral tests not commonly used in ischemia for the neurological assessment of mice after experimental stroke in different brain areas. A total of 225 CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by ligature (pMCAO) or permanent anterior cerebral artery occlusion by photothrombosis (pACAO) models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468264/improvement-of-antioxidant-defences-and-mood-status-by-oral-gaba-tea-administration-in-a-mouse-model-of-post-stroke-depression
#12
Maria Daglia, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Sedigheh Khanjani, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Green GABA (GGABA) and Oolong GABA (OGABA) teas are relatively new varieties of tea, whose chemical composition and functional properties are largely under-studied, despite their promising health capacities. Post stroke depression (PSD) is a complication of stroke with high clinical relevance, yielding increasing mortality and morbidity rates, and a lower response to common therapies and rehabilitation. METHODS: Two chemically characterized commercial samples of GGABA and OGABA were investigated for effects on mood following oral administration using a mouse model of PSD, through common validated tests including the Despair Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test...
April 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464523/low-level-light-emitting-diode-therapy-promotes-long-term-functional-recovery-after-experimental-stroke-in-mice
#13
Hae In Lee, Sae-Won Lee, Nam Gyun Kim, Kyoung-Jun Park, Byung Tae Choi, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin
We aimed to investigate the effects of low-level light emitting diode therapy (LED-T) on the long-term functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia, and the optimal timing of LED-T initiation for achieving suitable functional recovery. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice via photothrombosis. These mice were assigned to a sham-operated (control), ischemic (vehicle), or LED-T group [initiation immediately (acute), 4 days (subacute) or 10 days (delayed) after ischemia, followed by once-daily treatment for 7 days]...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456939/genetic-mutation-of-glun2b-protects-brain-cells-against-stroke-damages
#14
Na Tang, Jianhua Wu, Houze Zhu, Honglin Yan, Yu Guo, You Cai, Huanhuan Yan, Yan Shi, Shu Shu, Lei Pei, Youming Lu
Immediately following ischemia, glutamate accumulates in the extracellular space and results in extensive stimulation of its receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. A large amount of Ca(2+) influx directly through the receptor-gated ion channels which leads to Ca(2+) overload and triggers several downstream lethal reactions. As a result, cell dies via apoptosis or necrosis, or both. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) physically and functionally interacts with the NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit at extra-synaptic sites and this interaction acts as a central mediator for stroke damage...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445916/brain-regions-essential-for-word-comprehension-drawing-inferences-from-patients
#15
Argye E Hillis, Christopher Rorden, Julius Fridriksson
Lesion-deficit association studies are important as they can reveal brain regions essential for specific functions, but sometimes appear to yield conflicting results. We aimed to show how pitfalls of lesions studies can be avoided, and converging results obtained, illustrating from studies of the role of posterior superior temporal gyrus in auditory word comprehension. We review published lesion studies on auditory comprehension and present new data from both acute and chronic stroke that address weaknesses in some previous studies...
April 26, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#16
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439518/diabetes-adult-neurogenesis-and-brain-remodeling-new-insights-from-rodent-and-zebrafish-models
#17
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, David Couret, Anaïs Hoarau, Olivier Meilhac, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Nicolas Diotel
The prevalence of diabetes rapidly increased during the last decades in association with important changes in lifestyle. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are well-known for inducing deleterious effects on physiologic processes, increasing for instance cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulceration. Interestingly, diabetes also impairs brain morphology and functions such as (1) decreased neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation and cell survival), (2) decreased brain volumes, (3) increased blood-brain barrier leakage, (4) increased cognitive impairments, as well as (5) increased stroke incidence and worse neurologic outcomes following stroke...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439234/salivary-oxytocin-concentration-associates-with-the-subjective-feeling-of-body-ownership-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#18
Masakazu Ide, Makoto Wada
Oxytocin is a hormone of the posterior pituitary that promotes lactation, maternal bonding, and birth. Recent studies have shown that oxytocin may modulate social recognition in both sexes, and thus it may be related to empathy. Brain regions that are associated with social recognition and empathy (e.g., the insular cortex) are activated in the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which involves illusory ownership of a rubber hand caused by brush strokes applied synchronously to both a rubber hand and one of the participant's hand, which is hidden from view...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431032/neuropsychology-and-rehabilitation-services-in-the-united-states-brief-report-from-a-survey-of-clinical-neuropsychologists
#19
Cady Block, Octavio A Santos, Yvonne Flores-Medina, Diego Fernando Rivera Camacho, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Objective: To provide a brief presentation of preliminary data on rehabilitation services provided by clinical neuropsychologists within the United States. Method: This survey utilized data extracted from a larger international research study conducted in 39 countries including N = 173 professionals who reported to engage in neuropsychological rehabilitative services within the past year (63.6% female, 44.36 ± 11.83 years of age) took part in the study. Results: Neuropsychologists providing rehabilitation services in the United States in the past year were more likely to provide individual versus group therapy, likely to employ technology (e...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430000/neuroprotective-and-regenerative-roles-of-intranasal-wnt-3a-administration-after-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#20
Zheng Zachory Wei, James Ya Zhang, Tammi M Taylor, Xiaohuan Gu, Yingying Zhao, Ling Wei
Wnt signaling is a conserved pathway involved in expansion of neural progenitors and lineage specification during development. However, the role of Wnt signaling in the post-stroke brain has not been well-elucidated. We hypothesized that Wnt-3a would play an important role for neurogenesis and brain repair. Adult male mice were subjected to a focal ischemic stroke targeting the sensorimotor cortex. Mice that received Wnt-3a (2 µg/kg/day, 1 h after stroke and once a day for the next 2 days, intranasal delivery) had reduced infarct volume compared to stroke controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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