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Stroke, brain, behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650593/human-neural-stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-improve-recovery-in-a-porcine-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#1
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Brian J Jurgielewicz, Samantha Spellicy, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Raymond L Swetenburg, David C Hess, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO...
April 12, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649514/endogenous-neuronal-replacement-in-the-juvenile-brain-following-cerebral-ischemia
#2
Krista M Rodgers, Jared T Ahrendsen, Olivia P Patsos, Frank A Strnad, Joan C Yonchek, Richard J Traystman, Wendy B Macklin, Paco S Herson
Replacement of dead neurons following ischemia, either via enhanced endogenous neurogenesis or stem cell therapy, has long been sought. Unfortunately, while various therapies that enhance neurogenesis or stem cell therapies have proven beneficial in animal models, they have all uniformly failed to truly replace dead neurons in the ischemic core to facilitate long-term recovery. Remarkably, we observe robust repopulation of medium-spiny neurons within the ischemic core of juvenile mice following experimental stroke...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627588/the-multidimensional-representational-space-of-observed-socio-affective-touch-experiences
#3
Haemy Lee Masson, Stien Van De Plas, Nicky Daniels, Hans Op de Beeck
Observed touch interactions provide useful information on how others communicate with the external world. Previous studies revealed shared neural circuits between the direct experience and the passive observation of simple touch, such as being stroked/slapped. Here, we investigate the complexity of the neural representations underlying the understanding of others' socio-affective touch interactions. Importantly, we use a recently developed touch database that contains a larger range of more complex social and non-social touch interactions...
April 5, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615782/preventive-effect-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-against-experimental-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-apoptosis-reduction-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induction
#4
Chang-Mu Chen, Cheng-Tien Wu, Ting-Hua Yang, Shing-Hwa Liu, Feng-Yi Yang
Stroke is known as the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Development of effectively neuroprotective or preventive strategies for ischemia stroke is imperative. For the purpose of stroke prevention, we tested the neuroprotective effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on ischemic stroke. Adult C57BL/6 mice were used to daily treatment with LIPUS for 5 days on left hemisphere before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess the protein expressions of signaling molecules...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605662/the-mtor-cell-signaling-pathway-is-crucial-to-the-long-term-protective-effects-of-ischemic-postconditioning-against-stroke
#5
Peng Wang, Rong Xie, Michelle Cheng, Robert Sapolsky, Xunming Ji, Heng Zhao
Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects against stroke, but few have studied the pathophysiological mechanisms of its long-term protective effects. Here, we investigated whether the mTOR pathway is involved in the long-term protective effects of IPostC. Stroke was induced in rats by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo) combined with 30 min of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion, and IPostC was induced after the CCA release. Injury size and behavioral tests were measured up to 3 weeks post stroke...
March 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603201/pr-957-mediates-neuroprotection-by-inhibiting-th17-differentiation-and-modulating-cytokine-production-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#6
Ying Guo, Xiuju Chen, Daojing Li, Haijie Liu, Yanan Ding, Ranran Han, Yanchao Shi, Xiaofeng Ma
Acute ischemic stroke can induce secondary brain injury by activating an inflammatory response that contributes to clinical impairment. As a specific inhibitor of the immunoproteasome subunit low molecular weight polypeptide 7 (LMP7), PR-957 may participate in regulating pathophysiologic and inflammatory responses in multiple diseases of the CNS. We investigated the neuroprotective properties of PR-957 in a mouse model of stroke, induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After MCAO and injections of PR-957 or vehicle, we evaluated mice behaviorally using modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) and sensorimotor tests, including the adhesive-removal test, a foot-fault test, and an inclined plane test...
March 30, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600431/effectiveness-of-arginase-inhibitors-against-experimentally-induced-stroke
#7
Waleed Barakat, Ahmad Fahmy, Mohamed Askar, Sherif El-Kannishy
Stroke is a lethal disease, but it disables more than it kills. Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide, with 90% of survivors having residual deficits. The pathophysiology of stroke is complex and involves a strong inflammatory response associated with oxidative stress and activation of several proteolytic enzymes. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of arginase inhibitors (L-citruline and L-ornithine) against ischemic stroke induced in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
March 29, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587284/electrical-stimulation-enhances-migratory-ability-of-transplanted-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-in-a-rodent-ischemic-stroke-model
#8
Jun Morimoto, Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Michiari Umakoshi, Ittetsu Kin, Ken Kuwahara, Kyohei Kin, Mihoko Okazaki, Hayato Takeuchi, Tatsuya Sasaki, Atsuhiko Toyoshima, Naoki Tajiri, Takashi Agari, Cesario V Borlongan, Isao Date
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation is an important strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Currently, there are no effective methods to guide BMSCs toward the targeted site. In this study, we investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on BMSCs migration in an ischemic model of rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g received right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 minutes. BMSCs (2.5×105 cells/ 4 µl PBS) were stereotaxically injected into the left corpus callosum at 1 day after MCAO...
March 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580816/overexpression-of-egr2-and-egr4-protects-rat-brains-against-ischemic-stroke-by-downregulating-jnk-signaling-pathway
#9
Rui-Na Niu, Xiao-Ping Shang, Jun-Fang Teng
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Egr2 and Egr4 upregulation on ischemic stroke recovery of rats. METHODS: In this study, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats assigned at random into control, sham and MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) group were treated accordingly to build MCAO models. The neurological severity scores (NSS) test was applied to assess rats' behavior. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining reflected infarct areas while Nissl staining revealed the number of neurons...
March 23, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572061/voxel-based-lesion-analysis-of-brain-regions-underlying-reading-and-writing
#10
Juliana V Baldo, Natalie Kacinik, Carl Ludy, Selvi Paulraj, Amber Moncrief, Vitória Piai, Brian Curran, And Turken, Tim Herron, Nina F Dronkers
The neural basis of reading and writing has been a source of inquiry as well as controversy in the neuroscience literature. Reading has been associated with both left posterior ventral temporal zones (termed the "visual word form area") as well as more dorsal zones, primarily in left parietal cortex. Writing has also been associated with left parietal cortex, as well as left sensorimotor cortex and prefrontal regions. Typically, the neural basis of reading and writing are examined in separate studies and/or rely on single case studies exhibiting specific deficits...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568282/dose-dependent-effect-of-intravenous-administration-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-neonatal-stroke-mice
#11
Emi Tanaka, Yuko Ogawa, Takeo Mukai, Yoshiaki Sato, Takashi Hamazaki, Tokiko Nagamura-Inoue, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Haruo Shintaku, Masahiro Tsuji
Neonatal brain injury induced by stroke causes significant disability, including cerebral palsy, and there is no effective therapy for stroke. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. In this study, we examined the safety and efficacy of intravenously administered human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) in neonatal stroke mice. Pups underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at postnatal day 12 (P12), and low-dose (1 × 104 ) or high-dose (1 × 105 ) UC-MSCs were administered intravenously 48 h after the insult (P14)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565957/association-of-higher-migraine-risk-among-female-and-younger-chronic-osteomyelitis-patients-evidence-from-a-taiwan-cohort-of-one-million
#12
Jiunn-Horng Chen, Shih-Chi Wu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chia-Hung Kao, Chun-Hung Tseng, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may trigger migraine development through neurovascular reactions in the brain. Most of the migraine patients, particularly the younger ones, do not have any risk factors for this disease. Hence, we assessed whether chronic osteomyelitis (COM), a chronic inflammatory disease, increases the risk of migraine. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the risk of migraine among female and middle-age COM patients with a large patient sample. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in this study...
March 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563983/protective-effects-of-paeonol-on-subacute-chronic-brain-injury-during-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#13
Bing Zhao, Qiao-Juan Shi, Zhen-Zhong Zhang, Shu-Yan Wang, Xi Wang, Hao Wang
Ischemic stroke is a highly complex pathological process that is divided into acute, subacute and chronic phases. Paeonol is a biologically active natural product with a variety of pharmacological effects, including those on neuronal activity. However, the effects of paeonol on subacute/chronic ischemic stroke have remained to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of paeonol against subacute and chronic cerebral ischemic injury and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555931/alarmin-hmgb1-induces-systemic-and-brain-inflammatory-exacerbation-in-post-stroke-infection-rat-model
#14
Il-Doo Kim, Hahnbie Lee, Seung-Woo Kim, Hye-Kyung Lee, Juli Choi, Pyung-Lim Han, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Post-stroke infection (PSI) is known to worsen functional outcomes of stroke patients and accounts to one-third of stroke-related deaths in hospital. In our previous reports, we demonstrated that massive release of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), an endogenous danger signal molecule, is promoted by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced acute damage in the postischemic brain, exacerbating neuronal damage by triggering delayed inflammatory processes. Moreover, augmentation of proinflammatory function of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by HMGB1 via direct interaction has been reported...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545211/ling-yang-gou-teng-decoction-prevents-vascular-dementia-through-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-induced-neurovascular-coupling-dysfunction
#15
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Runmei Yang, Xiuhua Liu, Yulin Lin, Dayong Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke (LS). The oxidative stress induced neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in the pathogenesis of VaD. Currently, there is no specific drug for VaD. Ling-Yang-Gou-Teng -Decoction (LG), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been used for preventing VaD in clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LG on VaD in rats...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540323/cell-based-therapy-enhances-activation-of-ventral-premotor-cortex-to-improve-recovery-following-primary-motor-cortex-injury
#16
Mary E Orczykowski, Kevin R Arndt, Lauren E Palitz, Brian C Kramer, Monica A Pessina, Adrian L Oblak, Seth P Finklestein, Farzad Mortazavi, Douglas L Rosene, Tara L Moore
Stroke results in enduring damage to the brain which is accompanied by innate neurorestorative processes, such as reorganization of surviving circuits. Nevertheless, patients are often left with permanent residual impairments. Cell based therapy is an emerging therapeutic that may function to enhance the innate neurorestorative capacity of the brain. We previously evaluated human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in our non-human primate model of cortical injury limited to the hand area of primary motor cortex...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537907/dose-response-therapeutic-time-window-and-tpa-combinatorial-efficacy-of-compound-21-a-randomized-blinded-preclinical-trial-in-a-rat-model-of-thromboembolic-stroke
#17
Tauheed Ishrat, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Bindu Pillai, Wael Eldahshan, Heba Ahmed, Jennifer L Waller, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
The aim of this translational, randomized, controlled, blinded preclinical trial was to determine the effect of compound 21 (C21) in embolic stroke. Rats were subjected to embolic-middle cerebral artery occlusion (eMCAO). They received C21 (0.01, 0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg/d) or saline (orally) for five days, with the first-dose given IV at 3 h post-eMCAO. For the time-window study, the optimal-dose of C21 was initiated at 3, 6 or 24 h post-eMCAO and continued for five days. For the combinatorial study, animals received IV-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at either 2 or 4 h, with IV-C21 (0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526858/paired-associative-stimulation-modulates-corticomotor-excitability-in-chronic-stroke-a-preliminary-investigation
#18
Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) combining repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain and enhance motor learning in neurologically-intact individuals. However, the extent to which PAS is an effective technique for inducing associative plasticity and improving motor function in individuals post-stroke is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a single session of PAS to modulate corticomotor excitability and motor skill performance in individuals post-stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526647/neural-mechanisms-of-two-different-verbal-working-memory-tasks-a-vlsm-study
#19
M V Ivanova, O V Dragoy, S V Kuptsova, S Akinina Yu, A G Petrushevskii, O N Fedina, A Turken, V M Shklovsky, N F Dronkers
Currently, a distributed bilateral network of frontal-parietal areas is regarded as the neural substrate of working memory (WM), with the verbal WM network being more left-lateralized. This conclusion is based primarily on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that provides correlational evidence for brain regions involved in a task. However, fMRI cannot differentiate the areas that are fundamentally required for performing a task. These data can only come from brain-injured individuals who fail the task after the loss of specific brain areas...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521586/upregulation-of-mir-216a-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-ischemic-injury-through-negatively-regulating-jak2-stat3-involved-apoptosis-and-inflammatory-pathways
#20
Yu Shuang Tian, Di Zhong, Qing Qing Liu, Xiu Li Zhao, Hong Xue Sun, Jing Jin, Hai Ning Wang, Guo Zhong Li
OBJECTIVE Ischemic stroke remains a significant cause of death and disability in industrialized nations. Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway play important roles in the downstream signal pathway regulation of ischemic stroke-related inflammatory neuronal damage. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulators in cerebral ischemic injury; therefore, the authors aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism between miRNAs and ischemic stroke, which may provide potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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