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Stroke, brain, behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243202/non-invasive-cerebellar-stimulation-a-promising-approach-for-stroke-recovery
#1
REVIEW
Maximilian J Wessel, Friedhelm C Hummel
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) combined with behavioral training is a promising strategy to augment recovery after stroke. Current research efforts have been mainly focusing on primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation. However, the translation from proof-of-principle to clinical applications is not yet satisfactory. Possible reasons are the heterogeneous properties of stroke, generalization of the stimulation protocols, and hence the lack of patient stratification. One strategy to overcome these limitations could be the evaluation of alternative stimulation targets, like the cerebellum...
December 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231507/-effect-of-acupuncture-treatment-on-gene-expression-of-neurotransmitters-of-brain-tissue-in-rats-with-post-stroke-depression
#2
Wei Xiao, Xianbao Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yan Wang, Xiaoli Guo, Ling He, Fajun Liang, Huixing Hu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of acupuncture on mRNA of the neurotransmitter serotonin transporter (5-HTT), 5-HT1Areceptor (5-HT1AR), norepinephrineα2 receptor (NEα2R) in brain tissue in rats with post-stroke depression. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a medication group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each one. The model of post-stroke depression was established by occlusion of middle cerebral artery and chronic unpredictable mild stress method...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#3
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222024/continuous-and-not-continuous-2-week-treadmill-training-enhances-the-performance-in-the-passive-avoidance-test-in-ischemic-gerbils
#4
Ana Paula Cassiano Silveira, Takae Tamy Kitabatake, Vivian Mozol Pantaleo, Hélio Zangrossi, Guilherme Bertolino, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, João Eduardo de Araujo
This study aims to investigate the frequency and total duration effects of the 2-week treadmill training after experimental ischemic stroke in the passive avoidance test. We performed bilateral occlusion of common external carotid arteries, for five minutes, in Mongolian gerbils. The training groups were: continuous training for twelve consecutive days or not continuous training for six non-consecutive days. The groups remained in the treadmill for 15min, with the speed set at 10m/min, and the training started 24h after the stroke...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218753/neuronal-responses-to-the-scratching-and-caressing-of-one-s-own-skin-in-patients-with-skin-picking-disorder
#5
Anne Schienle, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a common mental disorder. The predominant symptom involves the repeated scratching and picking of one's own skin. This behavior causes severe tissue damage (sores, scars, and infections), often leading to disfigurement. Besides physical injury, SPD is associated with clinically significant distress and impairment in important areas of functioning. The neurobiological mechanisms of SPD are still poorly understood. In this study, 30 SPD patients and 31 control participants (35 women, 26 men) with a mean age of 34 years were instructed to either scratch or gently stroke a small skin area on their arms during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215306/a-peptide-mimetic-of-tyrosine-phosphatase-step-as-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-treatment-of-cerebral-ischemic-stroke
#6
Ranjana Poddar, Sathyanarayanan Rajagopal, Lucas Winter, Andrea M Allan, Surojit Paul
Extensive research over the last two decades has advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. However, current pharmacologic therapies are still limited to rapid reperfusion using thrombolytic agents, and neuroprotective approaches that can reduce the consequences of ischemic and reperfusion injury, are still not available. To bridge this gap, we have evaluated the long-term efficacy and therapeutic time window of a novel peptide-based neuroprotectant TAT-STEP, derived from the brain-enriched and neuron-specific tyrosine phosphatase STEP...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212737/astrocytic-lrp4-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-4-contributes-to-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-by-regulating-atp-release-and-adenosine-a2ar-adenosine-a2a-receptor-signaling
#7
Xin-Chun Ye, Jin-Xia Hu, Lei Li, Qiang Li, Fu-Lei Tang, Sen Lin, Dong Sun, Xiang-Dong Sun, Gui-Yun Cui, Lin Mei, Wen-Cheng Xiong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, where it regulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by suppressing ATP release. Here, we investigated Lrp4's function in ischemia/stroke-induced brain injury response, which includes glutamate-induced neuronal death and reactive astrogliosis. METHODS: The brain-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4GFAP-Cre), astrocytic-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4GFAP-creER), and their control mice (Lrp4f/f) were subjected to photothrombotic ischemia and the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209269/if-time-is-brain-where-is-the-improvement-in-prehospital-time-after-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Jeremy N Pulvers, John D G Watson
Despite the availability of thrombolytic and endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke, many patients are ineligible due to delayed hospital arrival. The identification of factors related to either early or delayed hospital arrival may reveal potential targets of intervention to reduce prehospital delay and improve access to time-critical thrombolysis and clot retrieval therapy. Here, we have reviewed studies reporting on factors associated with either early or delayed hospital arrival after stroke, together with an analysis of stroke onset to hospital arrival times...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204954/chronic-fluoxetine-induces-activity-changes-in-recovery-from-poststroke-anxiety-depression-and-cognitive-impairment
#9
Faranak Vahid-Ansari, Paul R Albert
Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common outcome of stroke that limits recovery and is only partially responsive to chronic antidepressant treatment. In order to elucidate changes in the cortical-limbic circuitry associated with PSD and its treatment, we examined a novel mouse model of persistent PSD. Focal endothelin-1-induced ischemia of the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in male C57BL6 mice resulted in a chronic anxiety and depression phenotype. Here, we show severe cognitive impairment in spatial learning and memory in the stroke mice...
December 4, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201553/proinflammatory-cytokines-correlate-with-early-exercise-attenuating-anxiety-like-behavior-after-cerebral-ischemia
#10
Qi Zhang, Jingjun Zhang, Yuzhong Yan, Pengyue Zhang, Wei Zhang, Rong Xia
Background and Objective: Stroke may cause neuropsychiatric problems, which have negative effects on cognitive functions and behavior. Exercise plays an important role in reducing the occurrence and development of stroke, the concrete mechanism is not fully clarified. In this study, we attempted to determine whether early treadmill exercise attenuates anxiety-like behavior by regulation of inflammation after brain ischemia. Method: We subjected adult male rats to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min and trained rats started to run on a treadmill from postoperative day 1 to day 14...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196212/axl-activation-attenuates-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-the-tlr-traf-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-after-mcao-in-rats
#11
Guangyong Wu, Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke activates Toll-like receptors (TLRs), triggering rapid inflammatory cytokine production. Axl signaling has multiple roles, including regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells, and maintaining cell survival, however, its role in inflammation after ischemic stroke has not been examined. We hypothesized that activation of Axl by recombinant Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (rGas6) attenuates neuroinflammation by inhibiting the TLR/TRAF/NF-κB pathway after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats...
November 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193484/network-dynamics-engaged-in-the-modulation-of-motor-behavior-in-stroke-patients
#12
Eva-Maria Pool, Martha Leimbach, Ellen Binder, Charlotte Nettekoven, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Christian Grefkes
Stroke patients with motor deficits typically feature enhanced neural activity in several cortical areas when moving their affected hand. However, also healthy subjects may show higher levels of neural activity in tasks with higher motor demands. Therefore, the question arises to what extent stroke-related overactivity reflects performance-level-associated recruitment of neural resources rather than stroke-induced neural reorganization. We here investigated which areas in the lesioned brain enable the flexible adaption to varying motor demands compared to healthy subjects...
November 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188434/photothrombotic-stroke-as-a-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Anatoly B Uzdensky
The search of effective anti-stroke neuroprotectors requires various stroke models adequate for different aspects of the ischemic processes. The photothrombotic stroke model is particularly suitable for the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration. It is a model of occlusion of small cerebral vessels, which provides detailed study of molecular mechanisms of ischemic cell death and useful for search of potential anti-stroke agents. Its advantages include well-defined location and size of ischemic lesion that are determined by the aiming of the laser beam at the predetermined brain region; easy impact dosing by changing light intensity and duration; low invasiveness and minimal surgical intervention without craniotomy and mechanical manipulations with blood vessel, which carry the risk of brain trauma; low animal mortality and prolonged sensorimotor impairment that provide long-term study of stroke consequences including behavior impairment and recovery; independence on genetic variations of blood pressure and vascular architecture; and high reproducibility...
November 29, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177115/levels-of-detail-analysis-of-microwave-scattering-from-human-head-models-for-brain-stroke-detection
#14
Awais Munawar Qureshi, Zartasha Mustansar
In this paper, we have presented a microwave scattering analysis from multiple human head models. This study incorporates different levels of detail in the human head models and its effect on microwave scattering phenomenon. Two levels of detail are taken into account; (i) Simplified ellipse shaped head model (ii) Anatomically realistic head model, implemented using 2-D geometry. In addition, heterogenic and frequency-dispersive behavior of the brain tissues has also been incorporated in our head models. It is identified during this study that the microwave scattering phenomenon changes significantly once the complexity of head model is increased by incorporating more details using magnetic resonance imaging database...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172008/effects-of-cerebrolysin-on-nerve-growth-factor-system-in-the-aging-rat-brain
#15
Mikhail Stepanichev, Mikhail Onufriev, Viktor Aniol, Sofia Freiman, Hemma Brandstaetter, Stefan Winter, Natalia Lazareva, Alla Guekht, Natalia Gulyaeva
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with some cognitive decline and enhanced risk of development of neurodegenerative diseases. It is assumed that altered metabolism and functions of neurotrophin systems may underlie these age-related functional and structural modifications. CerebrolysinTM (CBL) is a neuropeptide mixture with neurotrophic effects, which is widely used for the treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury patients. It is also evident that CBL has an overall beneficial effect and a favorable benefit-risk ratio in patients with dementia...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169656/cardiovascular-responses-to-intranasal-neuropeptide-y-in-single-prolonged-stress-rodent-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Robert Camp, Charles T Stier, Lidia I Serova, Jaclyn McCloskey, John G Edwards, Miguel Reyes-Zaragoza, Esther L Sabban
Delivery of neuropeptide Y (NPY) to the brain by intranasal administration shows promise as non-invasive means for preventing or treating PTSD symptoms. Here, radiotelemetry and echocardiography were used to determine effects of intranasal NPY on cardiovascular functions in absence and presence of stress. Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetric probes, and subjected to single prolonged stress (SPS), followed by intranasal vehicle (V) or NPY (150μg) under conditions shown to prevent development of many of the behavioral neuroendocrine and biochemical impairments...
November 8, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166593/neural-correlates-of-improvements-in-personality-and-behavior-following-a-neurological-event
#17
Marcie L King, Kenneth Manzel, Joel Bruss, Daniel Tranel
Research on changes in personality and behavior following brain damage has focused largely on negative outcomes, such as increased irritability, moodiness, and social inappropriateness. However, clinical observations suggest that some patients may actually show positive personality and behavioral changes following a neurological event. In the current work, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of positive personality and behavioral changes following a discrete neurological event (e.g., stroke, benign tumor resection)...
November 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163331/the-mobility-assessment-course-for-the-diagnosis-of-spatial-neglect-taking-a-step-forward
#18
Megan Grech, Tracey Stuart, Lindy Williams, Celia Chen, Tobias Loetscher
Spatial neglect after stroke can be a challenging syndrome to diagnose under standard neuropsychological assessment. There is now sufficient evidence that those affected might demonstrate neglect behavior in everyday settings despite showing no signs of neglect during common neglect tasks. This discrepancy is attributed to the simplified and unrealistic nature of common pen and paper based tasks that do not match the demanding, novel, and complex environment of everyday life. As such, increasing task demands under more ecologically valid scenarios has become an important method of increasing test sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150299/a-new-analytical-model-for-the-changes-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-ischemic-diseases
#19
Feng Qiu, Hui Cao, Yue Wu
Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play an important role in ischemic diseases. However, few studies focused on the generation and decay process of VEGF and no model yet can quantify different VEGF behavior caused in different area, like heart or brain. We compare the results across different groups and quantify the effectiveness of the selected training protocols. By applying the model to experimental data, the analytical model has been proposed to simulate the changes of vascular endothelial growth factor as a function of time and training protocols in ischemic diseases...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145182/pathological-yawning-laughing-and-crying
#20
Olivier Walusinski
Yawning, laughing, and crying are normal physiological behaviors of humans in good health. As with all physiological behaviors, their deregulation can reveal disorders. Pathological yawning occurs in salvos of 10-20 successive yawns, and the number of yawns per day can exceed one hundred. After listing the functional etiologies, we will give the clinical keys for differentiating the most serious causes: iatrogenic, tumors, strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and intracranial hypertension. Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of emotional display involving pathological laughing and crying (PLC) may be encountered in various neurological diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy (cerebellar), cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injuries, mass lesions in the cerebellopontine junction, and epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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