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Stroke, brain, behavior

Z Liang, Y-J Chi, G-Q Lin, S-H Luo, Q-Y Jiang, Y-K Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific role of microRNA-26 (miRNA-26a) in a rat model of cerebral ischemic stroke and the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established to induce permanent cerebral infarction. Neuro-behavior was observed and scored after model establishment. The expression of miRNA-26a in brain tissue and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) of rats after cerebral ischemic stroke was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Paul A Lapchak, Paul D Boitano, Geoffrey de Couto, Eduardo Marbán
Acute ischemic stroke is devastating to patients and their families because of few viable therapeutic options to promote recovery after reperfusion windows close. Recent breakthroughs in biotechnology have resulted in a reproducible patented process for the purification of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs). Because CDC-EVs have many features potentially beneficial to treat acute ischemic stroke, CDC-EVs were evaluated in an established small-clot rabbit embolic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Xuan Wang, Zu-Jun Sun, Jun-Lu Wu, Wen-Qiang Quan, Wei-Dong Xiao, Helen Chew, Cui-Min Jiang, Dong Li
Although naloxone has been documented to exert neuroprotection in animal model of cerebral ischemia, the mechanism is not well understood. In this present study we investigated whether naloxone affected the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in ischemic brain injury of rats. SD rats were subjected to a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery, and received naloxone (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, i.v.) immediately after ischemia. Neurological deficits were evaluated 24 h after ischemia using the McGraw Stroke Index, and then the rats were killed, and the brains were collected for further analyses...
June 14, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Roberta Ferrucci, Alberto Priori
The cerebellum plays a fundamental role in movement execution and motor control in humans. Because of multiple cerebellar connections and a broad variety of motor and nonmotor functions, the field of cerebellar stimulation with noninvasive techniques has gained success among researchers in the last few years. These techniques allow investigation of the neural network noninvasively, collecting more information on cerebellar physiology and pathophysiology. Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) - repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation of the brain - in patients with neurologic diseases...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Shihui Xing, Ayan Mandal, Elizabeth H Lacey, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Jinsheng Zeng, Peter E Turkeltaub
BACKGROUND: In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, picture naming engages widely distributed brain regions in the parietal, frontal, and temporal cortices. However, it remains unknown whether those activated areas, along with white matter pathways between them, are actually crucial for naming. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify nodes and pathways implicated in naming in healthy older adults and test the impact of lesions to the connectome on naming ability...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Jeremy D Coplan, Anna V Rozenboym, Sasha L Fulton, Venkatesh Panthangi, Jean Tang, Lakshmi Thiramangalakdi, Tarique D Perera, Yang Liu, Haroon Kamran, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Leonard A Rosenblum, John G Kral, Louis Salciccioli, Jason Lazar
Background: Early life stress (ELS) in macaques in the form of insecure maternal attachment putatively induces epigenetic adaptations resulting in a "thrifty phenotype" throughout the life cycle. For instance, ELS induces persistent increases in insulin resistance, hippocampal and corpus callosum atrophy and reduced "behavioral plasticity", which, taken together, engenders an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders in humans but also a putative sparing of calories...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Alessandra Sussulini, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis
Biochemical imbalances, provoked by aging or a secondary illness, might directly affect the brain, causing severe problems, such as loss of memory or alteration of behavior patterns. Brain disorders are usually classified as injuries (such as stroke, hematomas, and concussions), tumors, and neurodegenerative (such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases) and mental (such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) diseases. As the pathophysiology of these illnesses is not completely established and multiple factors are involved, metallomics, a bioanalytical strategy that allows the detection of metal ions and metalloproteins in diverse biological matrices, is of extreme relevance in identifying which elements are affected by a disease and/or treatment...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gal Ifergane, Matthew Boyko, Dmitri Frank, Honore N Shiyntum, Julia Grinshpun, Ruslan Kuts, Amir B Geva, Zeev Kaplan, Vladimir Zeldetz, Hagit Cohen
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most frequent psychiatric complication following ischemic stroke. It affects up to 60% of all patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality following ischemic stroke. The pathophysiology of PSD remains elusive and appears to be multifactorial, rather than "purely" biological or psychosocial in origin. Thus, valid animal models of PSD would contribute to the study of the etiology (and treatment) of this disorder...
June 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Shuhui Dai, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Nemanja Novakovic, Zhou Fei, Guohua Xi
Brain iron overload is involved in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). There is evidence that systemic administration of minocycline reduces brain iron level and improves neurological outcome in experimental models of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. However, there is evidence in cerebral ischemia that minocycline is not protective in aged female animals. Since most ICH research has used male models, this study was designed to provide an overall view of ICH-induced iron deposits at different time points (1 to 28 days) in aged (18-month old) female Fischer 344 rat ICH model and to investigate the neuroprotective effects of minocycline in those rats...
June 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
M Bönstrup, R Schulz, G Schön, B Cheng, J Feldheim, G Thomalla, C Gerloff
Objective: Motor recovery after stroke shows a high inter-subject variability. The brain's potential to form new connections determines individual levels of recovery of motor function. Most of our daily activities require visuomotor integration, which engages parietal areas. Compared to the frontal motor system, less is known about the parietal motor system's reconfiguration related to stroke recovery. Here, we tested if functional connectivity among parietal and frontal motor areas undergoes plastic changes after stroke and assessed the behavioral relevance for motor function after stroke...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Flavia Turcato, Paul Kim, Austin Barnett, Yongming Jin, Mike Scerba, Anthony Casey, Warren Selman, Nigel H Greig, Yu Luo
OBJECTIVE: Although cerebral ischemia can activate endogenous reparative processes, such as proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ), the majority of these new cells die shortly after injury and do not appropriately differentiate into neurons, or migrate and functionally integrate into the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel strategy for treatment of stroke after injury by optimizing the survival of ischemia-induced endogenous NSCs in the SVZ and SGZ...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Li Yu, Hao-Fang Wan, Chang Li, Jie-Hong Yang, Hui-Fen Zhou, Hai-Tong Wan, Yu He
Background and Objectives: Guhong Injection (GHI) is usually administered for the treatment of stroke in clinics. Aceglutamide and hydroxyl safflower yellow A (HSYA) are its key ingredients for brain protective effect. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of aceglutamide and HSYA under pathological and normal conditions, the pharmacokinetic parameters and characteristics of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and normal rats given the same dosage of GHI were studied compared. Methods: 12 SD rats were divided into two groups, namely, MCAO and normal groups...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Somayyeh Hamzei Taj, Debbie Le Blon, Chloé Hoornaert, Jasmijn Daans, Alessandra Quarta, Jelle Praet, Annemie Van der Linden, Peter Ponsaerts, Mathias Hoehn
BACKGROUND: Subtle adjustment of the activation status of CNS resident microglia and peripheral macrophages, to promote their neuroprotective and neuroregenerative functions, may facilitate research towards curing neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we investigated whether targeted intracerebral delivery of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)13, by means of transplanting IL13-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (IL13-MSCs), can promote a phenotypic switch in both microglia and macrophages during the pro-inflammatory phase in a mouse model of ischemic stroke...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mohammad-Reza Rahmani, Ali Shamsizadeh, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Gholamreza Bazmandegan, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a prevalent disorder which is associated with several complications including inflammation. JZL-184 (JZL) inhibits arachidonic acid (AA) production and consequently results in two-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) accumulation. Both reduced production of AA metabolic products and increased 2-AG, the agonist of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1), can result in reduced inflammation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of JZL in the improvement of stroke complications in mouse permanent cerebral ischemia (PPMCAO) model using AM251, the antagonist of CB1...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nadia Karina Paschke, Wiebke Neumann, Tanja Uhrig, Manuel Winkler, Eva Neumaier-Probst, Marc Fatar, Lothar Rudi Schad, Frank Gerrit Zöllner
OBJECTIVES: Sodium magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides noninvasive insights to cellular processes by measuring tissue sodium concentration (TSC). Many clinical studies combine sodium MR imaging with clinical standard MR procedures, in which contrast media is frequently administered. This work investigates the influence of gadolinium-based contrast agents on quantification of TSC. Thus, either scan pauses between early and late contrast-enhanced acquisitions can be used efficiently or sodium imaging can be performed as the final scan after dynamic contrast-enhanced acquisition...
May 31, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Ludmila Belayev, Sung-Ha Hong, Hemant Menghani, Shawn J Marcell, Andre Obenaus, Raul S Freitas, Larissa Khoutorova, Veronica Balaszczuk, Bokkyoo Jun, Reinaldo B Oriá, Nicolas G Bazan
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) are neuroprotective after experimental ischemic stroke. To explore underlying mechanisms, SD rats underwent 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with DHA (5 mg/kg, IV) or NPD1 (5 μg/per rat, ICV) and vehicles 1 h after. Neuro-behavioral assessments was conducted on days 1, 2, and 3, and on week 1, 2, 3, or 4. BrdU was injected on days 4, 5, and 6, immunohistochemistry was performed on week 2 or 4, MRI on day 7, and lipidomic analysis at 4 and 5 h after onset of stroke...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Claire Leconte, Zsolt Csaba, Linda Chafa, Julien Pansiot, Mustapha Talatizi, Kristin Simon, Raffaella Moretti, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Olivier Baud, Valérie C Besson
Neonatal acute ischemic stroke is a cause of neonatal brain injury that occurs more frequently in males, resulting in associated neurobehavioral disorders. The bases for these sex differences are poorly understood but might include the number, morphology and activation of microglia in the developing brain when subjected to stroke. Interestingly, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition preferentially protects males against neonatal ischemia. This study aims to examine the effects of PJ34, a PARP inhibitor, on microglial phenotypes at 3 and 8 days and on neurobehavioral disorders in adulthood for both male and female P9 mice subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo)...
May 28, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
YinZhong Ma, Li Li, LingLei Kong, ZhiMei Zhu, Wen Zhang, JunKe Song, Junlei Chang, GuanHua Du
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) remains the only approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke but has a restrictive treatment time window of 4.5 hr. Prolonged ischemia causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and increases the incidence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) secondary to reperfusion. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of pinocembrin (PCB; a pleiotropic neuroprotective agent) on t-PA administration-induced BBB damage in a novel rat thromboembolic stroke model. By assessing the leakage of Evans blue into the ischemic hemisphere, we demonstrated that PCB pretreatment 5 min before t-PA administration significantly reduced BBB damage following 2 hr, 4 hr, 6 hr, and even 8 hr ischemia...
2018: BioMed Research International
Kert Mätlik, Jenni E Anttila, Tseng Kuan-Yin, Olli-Pekka Smolander, Emmi Pakarinen, Leevi Lehtonen, Usama Abo-Ramadan, Päivi Lindholm, Congjun Zheng, Brandon Harvey, Urmas Arumäe, Maria Lindahl, Mikko Airavaara
Stroke is the most common cause of adult disability in developed countries, largely because spontaneous recovery is often incomplete, and no pharmacological means to hasten the recovery exist. It was recently shown that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) induces alternative or M2 activation of immune cells after retinal damage in both fruit fly and mouse and mediates retinal repair. Therefore, we set out to study whether poststroke MANF administration would enhance brain tissue repair and affect behavioral recovery of rats after cerebral ischemic injury...
May 2018: Science Advances
Aryo Zare, Ali Jahanshahi, Mohammad-Sajjad Rahnama'i, Sandra Schipper, Gommert A van Koeveringe
The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), as one of the mostly preserved evolutionary components of the brain, is an axial structure modulating various important functions of the organism, including autonomic, behavioral, pain, and micturition control. It has a critical role in urinary bladder physiology, with respect to storage and voiding of urine. The PAG has a columnar composition and has extensive connections with its cranially and caudally located components of the central nervous system (CNS). The PAG serves as the control tower of the detrusor and sphincter contractions...
May 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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