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oral agents diabetes

Sung-Ho Kim, Jung-Hwa Yoo, Woo Je Lee, Cheol-Young Park
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They increase endogenous levels of incretin hormones, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, decrease glucagon secretion, and contribute to reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. Although DPP-4 inhibitors have similar benefits, they can be differentiated in terms of their chemical structure, pharmacology, efficacy and safety profiles, and clinical considerations. Gemigliptin (brand name: Zemiglo), developed by LG Life Sciences, is a potent, selective, competitive, and long acting DPP-4 inhibitor...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Kenji Sugawara, Kohei Honda, Yoshie Reien, Norihide Yokoi, Chihiro Seki, Harumi Takahashi, Kohtaro Minami, Ichiro Mori, Akio Matsumoto, Haruaki Nakaya, Susumu Seino
Insulin secretagogues are used for treatment of type 2 diabetes. We attempted to discover novel small molecules to stimulate insulin secretion by using in silico similarity search using sulfonylureas as query, followed by measurement of insulin secretion. Among 38 compounds selected by in silico similarity search, we found three diphenylsemicarbazides and one quinolone that stimulate insulin secretion. We focused on compound 8 (C8), which had the strongest insulin-secreting effect. Based on the structure-activity relationship of C8-derivatives, we identified diphenylthiosemicarbazide (DSC) 108 as the most potent secretagogue...
2016: PloS One
Motoko Tanaka, Kazuki Yoshida, Shingo Fukuma, Kazuko Ito, Kazutaka Matsushita, Masafumi Fukagawa, Shunichi Fukuhara, Tadao Akizawa
OBJECTIVES: Anemia is an important prognostic factor in hemodialysis patients. It has been reported that parathyroidectomy ameliorates anemia and reduces the requirement of postoperative erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cinacalcet, which is considered as a pharmacological parathyroidectomy, on anemia in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: We used data from a prospective cohort of Japanese hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism; the criteria were: intact parathyroid hormone concentrations ≥ 180 pg/mL or use of an intravenous or oral vitamin D receptor activator...
2016: PloS One
S K Sharma, S H Verma
OBJECTIVES: To study the complete fasting lipid profile and other parameters (weight, body mass index, HbA1c, fasting blood sugar and postprandial blood sugar)in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin, to study the effect of addition of pioglitazone on lipid profile and other parameters in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin, to study the effect of addition of rosiglitazone on lipid profile and other parameters in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin and to compare the effect of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on lipid profile and other parameters in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients on OHA/insulin...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Hiren N Hirapara, Vishal M Ghori, Ashish P Anovadiya, Chandrabhanu R Tripathi
AIM: To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
William F Kendall, Emmanuel C Opara
Since the discovery of insulin by Banting and Best in 1921, the prognosis and treatment options for individuals with diabetes have improved. The development of various insulin types, various oral agents, and insulin pumps have improved the available medical options for individuals afflicted with diabetes. The current need for frequent blood glucose monitoring imposed by multiple daily insulin injections, result in significant life-style challenges for in individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). In contrast the use of surgical interventions, such as whole organ pancreas transplantation (PT) requires less-intensive glucose monitoring while the organ is viable...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Katsunori Suzuki, Yurie Mitsuma, Takaaki Sato, Takumi Anraku, Mariko Hatta
BACKGROUND: Some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on insulin have poor glycemic control and require add-on therapy to reach target glucose values. Increased insulin doses or the addition of an oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) may improve glycemic control, but many patients fail to achieve target values. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment efficacy and safety of three different therapies in such patients. METHODS: T2DM outpatients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
KhaderSyed Zameer Ahmed, Syed Zameer Ahmed Sidhra, Ponnusamy Ponmurugan, Balasubramanian Senthil Kumar
Solanum trilobatum Linn is a medicinal plants used in India from many centuries to cure various diseases. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the ameliorative potential of the ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Solanum trilobatum (St) against alloxan induced diabetic rats. Solanum trilobatum leaf extract and fractions were administered orally at two different concentration (100-200mg/kg body weight) to alloxan induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic efficacy was validated through various biochemical parameters, enzyme assays, renal markers and antioxidant properties were also determined...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rudra Prasad Roy, Kaushik Ghosh, Manas Ghosh, Amitava Acharyya, Ambarish Bhattacharya, Mrinal Pal, Sisir Chakraborty, Nilanjan Sengupta
BACKGROUND: Long-term therapy with metformin was shown to decrease the Vitamin B12 level and manifested as peripheral neuropathy. AIM: The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in early Type 2 diabetic patients (duration ≤5 years or drug treatment ≤3 years) and the relationship among metformin exposure and levels of cobalamin (Cbl), folic acid, and homocysteine (Hcy) with severity of peripheral neuropathy. METHODOLOGY: This is a cross-sectional study involving randomly selected ninety patients (male 56, female 34) between age groups of 35 and 70 years, comparing those who had received >6 months of metformin (Group A) (n = 35) with those without metformin (Group B) (n = 35) and patients taking metformin with other oral hypoglycemic agent (Group C) (n = 20)...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jin Li, Guangwei Xie, Qingzhong Tian, Yuanchao Hu, Qingliang Meng, Minkang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic jejunoileal side-to-side anastomosis (LJISSA) is an upcoming procedure that offers good metabolic improvement without causing significant malabsorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of this novel procedure for the control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 24-32 kg/m 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with T2DM who underwent LJISSA between February 2010 and May 2013 were recruited in this study...
October 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Benjamin Derman, Milli Jain, Elizabeth McAninch, Casey Gashti
A 59-year-old man presented with polyuria and polydipsia immediately following his sixth cycle of rituximab and bendamustine for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. He initially compensated by increasing his oral fluid intake at home, but later developed septic shock and was admitted with orders to be kept nil per os (NPO). This prompted an episode of acute hypernatremia during which he exhibited continued polyuria with inappropriately dilute urine. Desmopressin challenge yielded no response in the urine osmolality, indicating a nephrogenic source of his diabetes insipidus (DI)...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
James Zheng Shen, Ting Long Jacky Ng, Wing Shing Ho
The incidence of cardiovascular disorders is increasing worldwide. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. High blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and smoking are key risk factors for heart disease. Other medical conditions such as diabetes, overweight, obesity and lifestyle can put people at a higher risk for coronary heart disease. The preventive measures based on the common drugs may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The present review highlights the contributions of therapeutic potential of phytochemicals in management of cardiovascular diseases...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sonal Singh, Eugene E Wright, Anita Ym Kwan, Juliette C Thompson, Iqra A Syed, Ellen E Korol, Nathalie A Waser, Maria B Yu, Rattan Juneja
AIMS: Since 2005, several glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been approved to treat people with type 2 diabetes. These agents are considered for use at the same point in the treatment paradigm as basal insulins. A comprehensive comparison of these drug classes, therefore, can help inform treatment decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of GLP-1 RAs compared with basal insulins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PubMed databases were searched...
October 7, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Bon Jeong Ku, Ho Sang Shon, Doo Man Kim, Tae Sun Park, Yong-Seong Kim, In Joo Kim, Dong Seop Choi
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To assess the time to initiation of insulin therapy and concurrently investigate both patient- and physician-related factors associated with delaying insulin therapy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) uncontrolled on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, observational disease registry study was conducted across 69 centers in Korea. T2D patients who had received two or more OHAs within the last 5 years, had a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥8% in the last 6 months, and had not received insulin were included...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Balekari Umamahesh, Ciddi Veeresham
AIM: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Alberto A Chiappori, Gregory A Otterson, Afshin Dowlati, Anne M Traynor, Leora Horn, Taofeek K Owonikoko, Helen J Ross, Christine L Hann, Taher Abu Hejleh, Jorge Nieva, Xiuhua Zhao, Michael Schell, Daniel M Sullivan
LESSONS LEARNED: Targeted therapy options for SCLC patients are limited; no agent, thus far, has resulted in a strategy promising enough to progress to phase III trials.Linsitinib, a potent insulin growth factor-1-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may be one agent with activity against SCLC.Despite lack of a reliable predictive biomarker in this disease, which may have partly contributed to the negative outcome reported here, linsitinib, although safe, showed no clinical activity in unselected, relapsed SCLC patients...
October 2016: Oncologist
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