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oral agents diabetes

Mohammed Al Za'abi, Suhail Al Salam, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Priyadarsini Manoj, Abderrahim Nemmar, Badreldin H Ali
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of treatment with gum acacia (GA), a prebiotic shown previously to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), in diabetic and non - diabetic rats with adenine - induced CKD has been investigated using several conventional and novel physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic and non - diabetic rats were randomly divided into several groups, and given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Rajesh Kumari, Venus Dalal, Garima Kachhawa, Ipshita Sahoo, Rajesh Khadgawat, Reeta Mahey, Vidushi Kulshrestha, Perumal Vanamail, J B Sharma, Neerja Bhatla, Alka Kriplani
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the maternal and perinatal outcome in GDM during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with GDM who got antenatal care and delivered in our hospital in previous 5 years...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Kiking Ritarwan, Aznan Lelo, Yunita Sari Pane, Nerdy Nerdy
AIM: To study the protective effect of medicines on the formation of atherosclerosis in mice, it is needed to conduct the study in mice which is not genetically diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ) to produce hyperglycemia and atherosclerosis, compared with mice treated by yolk or its combination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six mice, Double Deutch Webster strain, male, receive 10 weeks, 20 - 30 gr bodyweight were divided into 4 groups (n = 14) i.e. control (do not received any agents), STZ (45 mg/kg/BW was injected intraperitoneally for 5 days), yolk (0...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Xia Dai, Zu-Chun Luo, Lu Zhai, Wen-Piao Zhao, Feng Huang
INTRODUCTION: Empagliflozin is a new, emerging oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) which has shown significant benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with cardiovascular disease. In this analysis, our aim was to systematically compare the adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with a low (10 mg) versus a high (25 mg) dose of empagliflozin as (1) monotherapy, (2) as an add-on to other OHAs, and (3) as an add-on specifically to metformin, in patients who were treated for T2DM. METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared empagliflozin 10 mg versus 25 mg in patients who were treated for T2DM and which reported adverse drug reactions as their clinical endpoints...
March 9, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
B Chacko, M Whitley, U Beckmann, K Murray, M Rowley
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i)-associated euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA) is a serious and increasingly recognised complication of treatment with this class of oral hypoglycaemic agents and can present a diagnostic challenge, resulting in delayed recognition, inappropriate treatment and potentially life-threatening acidosis. We present two cases of patients developing SGLT2i-associated euDKA in the early postoperative period. We support ceasing SGLT2i for 72 hours preoperatively and would suggest continuing to withhold the medication until oral intake is restored, and recommend a wider awareness of SGLT2i-associated diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) amongst patients and their healthcare providers with an emphasis on checking ketone levels irrespective of blood glucose levels in the postoperative setting...
March 2018: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Neha Charaya, Deepti Pandita, Ajmer Singh Grewal, Viney Lather
Glucokinase (GK) is the main enzyme which controls the blood glucose levels in a safe and narrow physiological range in humans. GK activators are the novel type of therapeutic agents which act on GK enzyme and show their anti-diabetic potential. The present work was planned to synthesize and evaluate the antidiabetic potential of a new series of thiazole-2-yl benzamide derivatives as potential GK activators. A series of thiazole-2-yl benzamide derivatives were synthesized from benzoic acid and evaluated by in vitro enzymatic assay for GK activation...
February 27, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
A H Heald, A A Fryer, S G Anderson, M Livingston, M Lunt, M Davies, Gyc Moreno, R Gadsby, R J Young, M Stedman
AIMS: Despite increasing spend on new Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) therapies, the proportion of people with T2DM achieving target glycaemia outcomes is declining. Our aim was to determine, using published General Practice level data, how differences in T2DM prescribing patterns relate to glycaemic target achievement levels. METHODS: Multiple linear regression modelling was used to link practice characteristics and defined daily dose (DDD) of class of medication in 2015/16 and changes to 2014/15 in medication to proportions achieving target glycaemic control (TGC; glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≤7...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Bahendeka Silver, Kaushik Ramaiya, Swai Babu Andrew, Otieno Fredrick, Sarita Bajaj, Sanjay Kalra, Bavuma M Charlotte, Karigire Claudine, Anthony Makhoba
A diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia should be confirmed prior to ordering, dispensing, or administering insulin (A). Insulin is the primary treatment in all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (A). Typically, patients with T1DM will require initiation with multiple daily injections at the time of diagnosis. This is usually short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogue given 0 to 15 min before meals together with one or more daily separate injections of intermediate or long-acting insulin...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Hiroki Nakajima, Sadanori Okada, Takako Mohri, Eiichiro Kanda, Naoyuki Inaba, Yoko Hirasawa, Hiroaki Seino, Hisamoto Kuroda, Toru Hiyoshi, Tetsuji Niiya, Hitoshi Ishii
Background: The benefits of sodium glucose cotransporters 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus include plasma glucose control, reduction in body weight and blood pressure, and low risk of hypoglycemia, although they may also cause genitourinary infections, polyuria, or volume depletion. It is not clear whether dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, improves treatment satisfaction among patients in a comprehensive way despite the negative side effects. This study assessed the effect of dapagliflozin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, and treatment satisfaction in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Takatoshi Anno, Hideaki Kaneto, Ryo Shigemoto, Fumiko Kawasaki, Yasuhiro Kawai, Noriyo Urata, Hirofumi Kawamoto, Kohei Kaku, Niro Okimoto
Hypoglycemia is induced by many causes, especially over-dose of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic subjects. In such a case, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is usually observed. On the other hand, it is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in clinical practice. Herein, we experienced similar 2 cases of non-diabetic hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both of them were elderly subjects with low body weight...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Afaque H Khan, Samina Zaidi
We report five cases of treatment-resistant schizophrenia that presented with prominent negative and positive symptoms. They fulfill the criteria of diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). They showed lack of response despite receiving multiple trials of first and second generation psychotropic agents. We decided to give these patients a trial of clozapine to improve their negative and positive symptoms as well as their quality of life...
December 20, 2017: Curēus
Wesley Nuffer, Ashley Guesnier, Jennifer M Trujillo
There have been several new treatment approaches established for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D), with treatment guidelines listing both glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and basal insulin therapies as considerations for patients who have failed to control their blood glucose with oral antidiabetic agents. New studies have highlighted the importance of initiating combination therapy earlier in the T2D disease process to avoid clinical inertia and prevent the long-term complications arising from uncontrolled diabetes...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Brian Mac Grory, Shadi Yaghi
In this article, we discuss major advances in the treatment and prevention of ischemic stroke that have taken placed in the past 3 years. The most important advance in acute stroke treatment is the validation and widespread adoption of intra-arterial therapies for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Five clinical trials spanning multiple continents were published in early 2015 that proved that intra-arterial treatment - both with and without tPA - is beneficial in improving functional recovery after stroke...
March 1, 2018: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Patrick O Richard, Ardalan E Ahmad, Shaheena Bashir, Alexandre Zlotta, Bimal Bhindi, Ricardo Leao, Madhur Nayan, Aza Mohammed, Neil E Fleshner, Girish S Kulkarni
INTRODUCTION: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for 75-85% of all bladder cancers (UBC). Many UBC patients are also afflicted by diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been postulated that several oral hypoglycemic agents could impact disease-specific survival (DSS), but the data are sparse among NMIBC patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate the impact of metformin on DSS and overall survival (OS) in NMIBC patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective, population-based study that used linked administrative databases to identify diabetic patients ≥66 years who were subsequently diagnosed with NMIBC in Ontario, between 1992 and 2012...
February 23, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Yining Xu, Yaxian Zheng, Lei Wu, Xi Zhu, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Although nanoparticles (NPs) have been demonstrated as promising tools for improving oral absorption of biotherapeutics, most of them still have very limited oral bioavailability. Lyso-endosomal degradation in epithelial cells is one of important but often-neglected physiological barriers, limiting the transport of cargoes across the intestinal epithelium. We herein reported a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) platform with a unique feature of endosomal escape for oral protein drug delivery. The SLNs consisted of a solid-lipid shell, which contained an endosomal escape agent (GLFEAIEGFIENGWEGMIDGWYG, HA2), and an aqueous core that loaded with insulin (INS HA2-O-SLNs)...
February 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rai-Hseng Hsu, Wei-De Lin, Mei-Chyn Chao, Hui-Pin Hsiao, Siew-Lee Wong, Pao-Chin Chiu, Shao-Yin Chu, Yu-Yuan Ke, Beng-Huat Lau, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chung-Hsing Wang, Ni-Chung Lee
BACKGROUND: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare disorder characterized by scarce adipose tissue. This disease is distributed worldwide, but little is known about these patients in the Chinese population. Here, we delineate the phenotype and prognosis of CGL in our cohort. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CGL from 8 medical centers were reviewed. The initial presentation, laboratory findings, and molecular testing were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were analyzed, and the current median age was 3...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
M E Trautmann, J Vora
As Type 2 diabetes progresses, treatment is intensified with additional therapies in an effort to manage hyperglycaemia effectively and therefore avoid complications. When greater efficacy is required, options for injectable treatments include glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and insulin, which may be added on to oral glucose-lowering treatments. Among individuals receiving long-acting basal insulin as their first injectable treatment, ~40-60% are unable to achieve or maintain their target HbA1c goals...
February 25, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Nese Saltoglu, Onder Ergonul, Necla Tulek, Mucahit Yemisen, Ayten Kadanali, Gul Karagoz, Ayse Batirel, Oznur Ak, Cagla Sonmezer, Haluk Eraksoy, Atahan Cagatay, Serkan Surme, Salih A Nemli, Tuna Demirdal, Omer Coskun, Derya Ozturk, Nurgul Ceran, Filiz Pehlivanoglu, Gonul Sengoz, Turan Aslan, Yasemin Akkoyunlu, Oral Oncul, Hakan Ay, Lutfiye Mulazımoglu, Buket Erturk, Fatma Yilmaz, Gulsen Yoruk, Nuray Uzun, Funda Simsek, Taner Yildirmak, Kadriye Kart Yaşar, Meral Sonmezoglu, Yasar Küçükardali, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay, Nail Ozgunes, Fatma Sargın
OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical outcome of the diabetic patients who had foot infections with multidrug resistant organisms. METHODS: We included the patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) from 19 centers, between May 2011 and December 2015. Infection was defined according to IDSA DFI guidelines. Patients with severe infection, complicated moderate infection were hospitalized. The patients were followed-up for 6 months after discharge. RESULTS: In total, 791 patients with DFI were included, 531(67%) was male, median age was 62 (19-90)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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