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3D porous titanium

Sajad Arabnejad, Burnett Johnston, Michael Tanzer, Damiano Pasini
Current hip replacement femoral implants are made of fully solid materials which all have stiffness considerably higher than that of bone. This mechanical mismatch can cause significant bone resorption secondary to stress shielding, which can lead to serious complications such as peri-prosthetic fracture during or after revision surgery. In this work, a high strength fully porous material with tunable mechanical properties is introduced for use in hip replacement design. The implant macro geometry is based off of a short stem taper-wedge implant compatible with minimally invasive hip replacement surgery...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Peng Xiu, Zhaojun Jia, Jia Lv, Chuan Yin, Yan Cheng, Ke Zhang, Chunli Song, Huijie Leng, Yufeng Zheng, Hong Cai, Zhongjun Liu
3D printed porous titanium (Ti) holds enormous potential for load-bearing orthopedic applications. Although the 3D printing technique has good control over the macro-sturctures of porous Ti, the surface properties that affect tissue response are beyond its control, adding the need for tailored surface treatment to improve its osseointegration capacity. Here, the one step microarc oxidation (MAO) process was applied to a 3D printed porous Ti6Al4V (Ti64) scaffold to endow the scaffold with a homogeneous layer of microporous TiO2 and significant amounts of amorphous calcium-phosphate...
July 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S Amin Yavari, L Loozen, F L Paganelli, S Bakhshandeh, K Lietaert, J A Groot, A C Fluit, C H E Boel, J Alblas, H C Vogely, H Weinans, A A Zadpoor
Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has enabled fabrication of geometrically complex and fully interconnected porous biomaterials with huge surface areas that could be used for biofunctionalization to achieve multifunctional biomaterials. Covering the huge surface area of such porous titanium with nanotubes has been already shown to result in improved bone regeneration performance and implant fixation. In this study, we loaded TiO2 nanotubes with silver antimicrobial agents to equip them with an additional biofunctionality, i...
July 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bo Yin, Pei Ma, Jun Chen, Hai Wang, Gui Wu, Bo Li, Qiang Li, Zhifeng Huang, Guixing Qiu, Zhihong Wu
Porous titanium is a kind of promising material for bone substitution, while its bio-inert property results in demand of modifications to improve the osteointegration capacity. In this study, gelatin (Gel) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to construct 3D micro-scaffolds in the pores of porous titanium in the ratios of Gel:nHA = 1:0, Gel:nHA = 1:1, and Gel:nHA = 1:3, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation, and gene and protein expression levels of osteogenic markers were evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells, followed by bone regeneration assessment in a rabbit radius defect model...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roman Kubrin, Robert M Pasquarelli, Martin Waleczek, Hooi Sing Lee, Robert Zierold, Jefferson J do Rosário, Pavel N Dyachenko, Josep M Montero Moreno, Alexander Yu Petrov, Rolf Janssen, Manfred Eich, Kornelius Nielsch, Gerold A Schneider
A strategy for stacking multiple ceramic 3D photonic crystals is developed. Periodically structured porous films are produced by vertical convective self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) microspheres. After infiltration of the opaline templates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania and thermal decomposition of the polystyrene matrix, a ceramic 3D photonic crystal is formed. Further layers with different sizes of pores are deposited subsequently by repetition of the process. The influence of process parameters on morphology and photonic properties of double and triple stacks is systematically studied...
April 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Junning Chen, Liangjian Chen, Che-Cheng Chang, Zhongpu Zhang, Wei Li, Michael V Swain, Qing Li
Design of prosthetic implants to ensure rapid and stable osseointegration remains a significant challenge, and continuous efforts have been directed to new implant materials, structures and morphology. This paper aims to develop and characterise a porous titanium dental implant fabricated by metallic powder injection-moulding. The surface morphology of the specimens was firstly examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), followed by microscopic computerised tomography (μ-CT) scanning to capture its 3D microscopic features non-destructively...
February 25, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Bei Chang, Wen Song, Tianxiao Han, Jun Yan, Fuping Li, Lingzhou Zhao, Hongchao Kou, Yumei Zhang
UNLABELLED: The present work assesses the potential of three-dimensional (3D) porous titanium (pore size of 188-390 μm and porosity of 70%) fabricated by vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium meshes for applications in bone engineering. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were used to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of cells on titanium scaffolds with different pore sizes at day 7, day 14 and day 21 based on DNA contents, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen (COL) secretion and osteogenic gene expressions including ALP, COL-1, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), osteopontin (OPN), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), using smooth solid titanium plate as reference material...
March 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Geraldine Koenig, Hayriye Ozcelik, Lisa Haesler, Martina Cihova, Sait Ciftci, Agnes Dupret-Bories, Christian Debry, Martin Stelzle, Philippe Lavalle, Nihal Engin Vrana
UNLABELLED: Porous titanium implants are widely used in dental, orthopaedic and otorhinolaryngology fields to improve implant integration to host tissue. A possible step further to improve the integration with the host is the incorporation of autologous cells in porous titanium structures via cell-laden hydrogels. Fast gelling hydrogels have advantageous properties for in situ applications such as localisation of specific cells and growth factors at a target area without dispersion. The ability to control the cell types in different regions of an implant is important in applications where the target tissue (i) has structural heterogeneity (multiple cell types with a defined spatial configuration with respect to each other); (ii) has physical property gradients essential for its function (such as in the case of osteochondral tissue transition)...
March 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Eric A Lewallen, Dakota L Jones, Amel Dudakovic, Roman Thaler, Christopher R Paradise, Hilal M Kremers, Matthew P Abdel, Sanjeev Kakar, Allan B Dietz, Robert C Cohen, David G Lewallen, Andre J van Wijnen
Integration of porous metal prosthetics, which restore form and function of irreversibly damaged joints, into remaining healthy bone is critical for implant success. We investigated the biological properties of adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) and addressed their potential to alter the in vitro microenvironment of implants. We employed human AMSCs as a practical source for musculoskeletal applications because these cells can be obtained in large quantities, are multipotent, and have trophic paracrine functions...
May 1, 2016: Gene
Sheng Zhang, Xian Cheng, Yao Yao, Yehui Wei, Changjun Han, Yusheng Shi, Qingsong Wei, Zhen Zhang
Nb, an expensive and refractory element with good wear resistance and biocompatibility, is gaining more attention as a new metallic biomaterial. However, the high price of the raw material, as well as the high manufacturing costs because of Nb's strong oxygen affinity and high melting point have limited the widespread use of Nb and its compounds. To overcome these disadvantages, porous Nb coatings of various thicknesses were fabricated on Ti substrate via selective laser melting (SLM), which is a 3D printing technique that uses computer-controlled high-power laser to melt the metal...
August 2015: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Elisabeth Rieger, Agnès Dupret-Bories, Laetitia Salou, Marie-Helene Metz-Boutigue, Pierre Layrolle, Christian Debry, Philippe Lavalle, Nihal Engin Vrana
Porous titanium implants are widely employed in the orthopaedics field to ensure good bone fixation. Recently, the use of porous titanium implants has also been investigated in artificial larynx development in a clinical setting. Such uses necessitate a better understanding of the interaction of soft tissues with porous titanium structures. Moreover, surface treatments of titanium have been generally evaluated in planar structures, while the porous titanium implants have complex 3 dimensional (3D) architectures...
June 7, 2015: Nanoscale
Sepideh Minagar, Christopher C Berndt, Cuie Wen
Valve metals such as titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) that confer a stable oxide layer on their surfaces are commonly used as implant materials or alloying elements for titanium-based implants, due to their exceptional high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the nanostructures of tantala (Ta2O5), niobia (Nb2O5), zirconia (ZrO2) and titania (TiO2) in accordance to their roughness and wettability. Therefore, four kinds of metal oxide nanoporous and nanotubular Ta2O5, Nb2O5, ZrO2 and TiO2 were fabricated via anodization...
2015: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
F Mangano, L Chambrone, R van Noort, C Miller, P Hatton, C Mangano
Statement of Problem. Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is a technology that allows fabrication of complex-shaped objects from powder-based materials, according to a three-dimensional (3D) computer model. With DMLS, it is possible to fabricate titanium dental implants with an inherently porous surface, a key property required of implantation devices. Objective. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the reliability of DMLS titanium dental implants and their clinical and histologic/histomorphometric outcomes, as well as their mechanical properties...
2014: International Journal of Biomaterials
Sandipan Roy, Debojyoti Panda, Niloy Khutia, Amit Roy Chowdhury
The present study investigates the mechanical response of representative volume elements of porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy, to arrive at a desired range of pore geometries that would optimize the reduction in stiffness necessary for biocompatibility with the stress concentration arising around the pore periphery, under physiological loading conditions with respect to orthopedic hip implants. A comparative study of the two is performed with the aid of a newly defined optimizing parameter called pore efficiency that takes into consideration both the stiffness quantity and the stress localization around pores...
2014: International Journal of Biomaterials
Jean-Pierre Carrel, Anselm Wiskott, Mira Moussa, Philippe Rieder, Susanne Scherrer, Stéphane Durual
INTRODUCTION: OsteoFlux(®) (OF) is a 3D printed porous block of layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite. Its porosity and interconnectivity are defined, and it can be readily shaped to conform the bone bed's morphology. We investigated the performance of OF as a scaffold to promote the vertical growth of cortical bone in a sheep calvarial model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six titanium hemispheres were filled with OF, Bio-Oss (particulate bovine bone, BO), or Ceros (particulate TCP, CO) and placed onto the calvaria of 12 adult sheep (6 hemispheres/sheep)...
January 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Alice Cheng, Aiza Humayun, David J Cohen, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15-70% with compressive moduli of 2579-3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process...
December 2014: Biofabrication
Guofeng Jiang, Guo He
A new approach to the fabrication of porous magnesium by using the titanium wire space holder (TWSH) method has been developed. Since the entangled titanium wire structure is used as the space holder, the porous structure is pipe-like and interconnected, and the pore size is identical and equals to the diameter of the titanium wire. In particular, the pore size, porosity, and porous morphology of the porous magnesium can be exactly and individually controlled. When the porosity is in the range of 54.2-43.2%, the compressive yielding strength is in the range of 4...
October 2014: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
E Vanderleyden, S Van Bael, Y C Chai, J-P Kruth, J Schrooten, P Dubruel
In the present work, we studied the immobilisation of the biopolymer gelatin onto the surface of three dimensional (3D) regular Ti6Al4V porous implants to improve their surface bio-activity. The successful immobilisation of the gelatin coating was made possible by a polydopamine interlayer, a polymer coating inspired by the adhesive nature of mussels. The presence of both coatings was first optimised on two dimensional titanium (2D Ti) substrates and confirmed by different techniques including X-ray photelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy...
September 2014: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Aouni El-Hajje, Elizabeth C Kolos, Jun Kit Wang, Saeed Maleksaeedi, Zeming He, Florencia Edith Wiria, Cleo Choong, Andrew J Ruys
The elastic modulus of metallic orthopaedic implants is typically 6-12 times greater than cortical bone, causing stress shielding: over time, bone atrophies through decreased mechanical strain, which can lead to fracture at the implantation site. Introducing pores into an implant will lower the modulus significantly. Three dimensional printing (3DP) is capable of producing parts with dual porosity features: micropores by process (residual pores from binder burnout) and macropores by design via a computer aided design model...
November 2014: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Jung-Ho Kim, Faheem A Sheikh, Hyung Woo Ju, Hyun Jung Park, Bo Mi Moon, Ok Joo Lee, Chan Hum Park
The present study deals with fabrication of scaffolds composing of silk fibroin and TiO2 NPs fabricated using a salt-leaching process. At first instance, the TiO2 NPs were prepared by using sol-gel synthesis, affording to have average diameter of 77±21μm. Furthermore, the aqueous solutions of silk fibroin were mixed with 0.2%, 2.0% and 4.0% of TiO2 NPs and salt-leaching process was introduced which resulted in creation of porous scaffolds modified with TiO2 NPs. The presence of TiO2 NPs in scaffolds was confirmed by VP-FE-SEM-EDS, TGA and XRD...
July 2014: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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