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Anesthetic neurotoxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#1
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918332/isoflurane-impairs-motor-function-recovery-by-increasing-neuroapoptosis-and-degeneration-during-spinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#2
Shih-Yuan Fang, Jung-Shun Lee, Jun-Neng Roan, Yu-Chuan Tsai, Chen-Fuh Lam
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) leads to variable degrees of neurologic deficit in patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. The effect of intraoperative neuroprotection against SCI and the subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury is still limited. Because isoflurane is a commonly used anesthetic agent during major operation, and its neuroprotective and neurotoxicity effects have both been discussed, this study aimed to investigate the effect of isoflurane on the spinal cord's functional recovery in a rat model of cord ischemia...
December 1, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914827/inhibition-of-long-non-coding-rna-igf2as-protects-apoptosis-and-neuronal-loss-in-anesthetic-damaged-mouse-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#3
Chengwei Song, Chengjun Song, Kui Chen, Xiangdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of neural stem cell-derived neurons serves as an excellent model to study anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. In our study, we examined the functional role of long non-coding RNA, IGF2AS, in regulating ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in murine neural stem cells. METHODS: Murine E18.5 brain-derived neural stem cells were cultured in vitro. During neural differentiation stage, ketamine-induced gene expression changes of IGF2 and IGF2AS were recorded by qRT-PCR...
November 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895665/sugammadex-enhanced-neuronal-apoptosis-following-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposure-in-mice
#4
Maiko Satomoto, Zhongliang Sun, Yushi U Adachi, Koshi Makita
In rodents, neonatal sevoflurane exposure induces neonatal apoptosis in the brain and results in learning deficits. Sugammadex is a new selective neuromuscular blockade (NMB) binding agent that anesthesiologists can use to achieve immediate reversal of an NMB with few side effects. Given its molecular weight of 2178, sugammadex is thought to be unable to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Volatile anesthetics can influence BBB opening and integrity. Therefore, we investigated whether the intraperitoneal administration of sugammadex could exacerbate neuronal damage following neonatal 2% sevoflurane exposure via changes in BBB integrity...
2016: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882447/neonatal-repeated-exposure-to-isoflurane-not-sevoflurane-in-mice-reversibly-impaired-spatial-cognition-at-juvenile-age
#5
Jianhui Liu, Yanhong Zhao, Junjun Yang, Xiaoqing Zhang, Wei Zhang, Peijun Wang
Inhalation anesthetics facilitate surgical procedures in millions of children each year. However, animal studies demonstrate that exposure to the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause neuronal cell death in developing brains. The long-term cytotoxic effects of sevoflurane, the most popular pediatric anesthetic, have not been compared with isoflurane. Thus, this study was designed to compare the effects of equipotent doses of these two anesthetics on neonatal long-term neurotoxicity. Postnatal 7-day-old (P7) C57/BL male mice were exposed to 1...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876652/isoflurane-exposure-leads-to-apoptosis-of-neurons-and-oligodendrocytes-in-20-and-40-day-old-rhesus-macaques
#6
Katie J Schenning, Kevin K Noguchi, Lauren Drew Martin, Francesca M Manzella, Omar H Cabrera, Gregory A Dissen, Ansgar M Brambrink
Previously we reported that a 5-hour exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane triggers robust neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In an attempt to further describe the window of vulnerability to anesthetic neurotoxicity, we exposed P20 and P40 rhesus macaques to 5h of isoflurane anesthesia or no exposure (control animals). Brains were collected 3h later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze neuronal and glial apoptosis. Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis distributed throughout cortex and white matter, respectively...
November 19, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873010/regional-block-via-continuous-caudal-infusion-as-sole-anesthetic-for-inguinal-hernia-repair-in-conscious-neonates
#7
Claudia M Mueller, Tiffany J Sinclair, Megan Stevens, Micaela Esquivel, Noah Gordon
PURPOSE: The use of general anesthesia in young children has come under increasing scrutiny due to its potential long-term neurotoxic effects. Meanwhile, regional anesthesia for surgical procedures in neonates has many advantages, including preservation of respiratory status and faster return to feeding. We describe the successful use of 3% 2-chloroprocaine administered via continuous caudal infusion as the sole anesthetic agent during elective surgical procedures in infants. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent elective surgical procedures under continuous caudal regional anesthetic at a single institution was performed...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871903/review-of-preclinical-studies-on-pediatric-general-anesthesia-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#8
Jennifer L Walters, Merle G Paule
Thousands of infants and children undergo complicated surgical procedures that require prolonged periods of anesthesia and/or sedation each year. A growing body of preclinical research suggests pediatric anesthetics are harmful to the developing brain; yet, the extent to which these effects generalize to the clinical setting remains unclear. As there will be a continuing need for surgical and other interventions requiring sedation and/or anesthesia during the neonatal period, it seems clear that research efforts should focus on determining the extent to which general anesthetics can affect the developing brain as well as determining strategies for preventing or ameliorating the adverse effects associated with exposure to such agents...
November 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871551/exposure-to-anesthetic-gases-among-operating-room-personnel-and-risk-of-genotoxicity-a-systematic-review-of-the-human-biomonitoring-studies
#9
REVIEW
Serkan Yılmaz, Nazan Çakırer Çalbayram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anesthetic gases have been used for a long time. Adverse effects of anesthetic gases to occupationally exposed people have been well documented in the literature. Due to low solubility, these gases are rapidly eliminated from the human body. Nevertheless, neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and reproductive toxicological effects have been shown in many of the scientific works. However, there is no detailed systematic bio-monitoring review about genotoxicity risk among occupationally exposed people...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859797/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-a-novel-dimeric-inhibitor-of-psd-95-on-excitotoxicity-and-functional-recovery-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Jens Bak Sommer, Anders Bach, Hana Malá, Kristian Strømgaard, Jesper Mogensen, Darryl Scott Pickering
PSD-95 inhibitors have been shown to be neuroprotective in stroke, but have only to a very limited extent been evaluated in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that has pathophysiological mechanisms in common with stroke. The aims of the current study were to assess the effects of a novel dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, UCCB01-147, on histopathology and long-term cognitive outcome after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. As excitotoxic cell death is thought to be a prominent part of the pathophysiology of TBI, we also investigated the neuroprotective effects of UCCB01-147 and related compounds on NMDA-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856359/anesthetic-neurotoxicity-apoptosis-and-autophagic-cell-death-mediated-by-calcium-dysregulation
#11
Meirong Yang, Huafeng Wei
A number of findings suggested that general anesthetics induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various animal models. Although clinical evidence regarding the correlation between anesthetic exposures at young age and subsequent cognitive impairments remains unclear, repeated or consistent exposures to general anesthetics may be a potential harmful risk in developing human brains. The mechanisms underlying the anesthetic neurotoxicity have received extensive attention recently. We will attempt a brief review to summarize current understanding on the role of both apoptosis and autophagic cell death mediated by calcium dysregulation in anesthetic neurotoxicity...
November 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836289/anesthetic-neurotoxicity-new-findings-and-future-directions
#12
Michael C Montana, Alex S Evers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820616/the-relevance-of-anesthetic-drug-induced-neurotoxicity
#13
Tom G Hansen, Thomas Engelhardt, Markus Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817157/isoflurane-decreases-proliferation-and-differentiation-but-none-of-the-effects-persist-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitor-cells
#14
Hye-Min Sohn, Hye Young Kim, Seongjoo Park, Sung-Hee Han, Jin-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: Volatile anesthetics are a potential risk for cognitive impairment in the developing brain. Isoflurane causes cell death, reduces neurogenesis, and changes neuronal differentiation. In this study, the effects of a single isoflurane exposure on the developing human brain were evaluated using human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs). METHODS: Multipotent NPCs were derived from hESCs and randomly exposed to either 5 vol% isoflurane (4 h) or no isoflurane (control group)...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785338/dose-dependent-effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-early-lifetime-on-apoptosis-in-hippocampus-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#15
Xue Zhou, Wenda Li, Xiaohui Chen, Xiaoyu Yang, Zhibin Zhou, Dihan Lu, Xia Feng
Sevoflurane has become a main method for induction of anesthesia in pediatric populations. Preclinical evidence suggest the neurotoxic effect of volatile anesthetics on the developing brain including sevoflurane. This study investigates the effect of different doses of sevoflurane on the developing brain. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats of postnatal (P) day 7 were exposed to 0.3%, 1.3% and 2.3% sevoflurane for 6 hours. 6 hours after exposure, Nissl staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of the hippocampus and western-blot was done to evaluate the expression changes in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784630/minimally-invasive-biomarkers-of-general-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#16
X Zhang, F Liu, W Slikker, C Wang, M G Paule
The association of general anesthesia with developmental neurotoxicity, while nearly impossible to study in pediatric populations, is clearly demonstrable in a variety of animal models from rodents to nonhuman primates. Nearly all general anesthetics tested have been shown to cause abnormal brain cell death in animals when administered during periods of rapid brain growth. The ability to repeatedly assess in the same subjects adverse effects induced by general anesthetics provides significant power to address the time course of important events associated with exposures...
October 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769790/isoflurane-neurotoxicity-involves-activation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-via-intracellular-calcium-in-neonatal-rodents
#17
Dongdong Chai, Hong Jiang, Qifang Li
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane up-regulated the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels during induction of neurodegeneration in the brain of neonatal rats. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and the underlying signaling pathway in the neurodegenration induced by isoflurane in rodent developing brain. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to isoflurane (0.4mM) for 12h. Neuron injury was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetra-zolium bromide (MTT) test and quantification of lactate dehydrogenaserelease...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768675/optimal-timing-of-surgical-procedures-in-pediatric-patients
#18
Riva R Ko, Teeda Pinyavat, Steven Stylianos, Sarah M Lambert, Richard C Anderson, Pamela F Gallin, Lynne G Maxwell, Christopher G Ward, Jayant K Deshpande, Constance S Houck
The Pediatric Anesthesia Neuro Development Assessment (PANDA) team at the Anesthesiology Department at Columbia University Medical Center held its fifth biennial symposium to discuss issues regarding potential neurotoxicity of anesthetic agents in pediatric patients. Overall optimal surgical timing as well as a "critical window" for surgery on a specialty specific basis are areas of focus for the American Academy of Pediatrics Surgical Advisory Panel. An ad hoc panel of pediatric surgical experts representing general surgery, urology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology was assembled for this meeting and provided a dialogue focused on the benefits of early intervention versus potential anesthetic risk, addressing parental concerns, and the need for continued interdisciplinary collaboration in this area...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768673/summary-of-the-update-session-on-clinical-neurotoxicity-studies
#19
Teeda Pinyavat, David O Warner, Randall P Flick, Mary Ellen McCann, Dean B Andropoulos, Danquig Hu, Jeffrey W Sall, Marisa N Spann, Caleb Ing
During the Fifth Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment Symposium, experts and stakeholders met to present and discuss recent advances made in the study of neurodevelopmental outcomes after exposure to anesthetic drugs in infants and children. This article summarizes the update of 5 ongoing clinical studies: General Anesthesia compared to Spinal Anesthesia, Toxicity of Remifentanil and Dexmedetomidine, Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids, the University of California San Francisco human cohort study, and Columbia University Medical Center Neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging study...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768672/report-on-the-fifth-panda-symposium-on-anesthesia-and-neurodevelopment-in-children
#20
Tonya L K Miller, Raymond Park, Lena S Sun
On April 16 and 17, 2016, the Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment Assessment (PANDA) study held its fifth biennial symposium at the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York. The PANDA symposium has served as a key forum for clinicians, researchers, and other major stakeholders to gather and review the current state of preclinical and clinical research related to anesthetic neurotoxicity in children. Goals of the meeting included assessing how current knowledge has translated and impacted clinical care of patients who may be at risk, and future directions for research and policy...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
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