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Anesthetic toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745230/bupivacaine-s75-r25-loaded-in-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-factorial-design-hplc-quantification-method-and-physicochemical-stability-study
#1
Gustavo Henrique Rodrigues Da Silva, Ligia Nunes de Moraes Ribeiro, Viviane Guilherme, Simone Ramos de Castro, Márcia Cristina Breitkreitz, Eneida de Paula
Bupivacaine is the most used local anesthetic in surgical procedures, producing prolonged anesthesia. The major limiting factor for the clinical use of bupivacaine comes from its systemic toxicity. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are vehicles for sustained drug delivery that are able to minimize the toxicity and to increase the action time of lipophilic drugs. This work reports a 22 factorial design, which elucidate the role of the lipids mixture in the NLC, towards an optimized formulation. It also provides a new method for Bupivacaine S75:R25 (BVCS75) quantification in NLC...
July 26, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734732/perinatal-and-neonatal-use-of-sedation-and-analgesia
#2
REVIEW
Christopher McPherson, Terrie Inder
Optimal obstetric and neonatal care requires the provision of adequate analgesia for painful procedures. However, anesthetic and analgesic agents have the potential to adversely impact the developing fetal/neonatal brain. In this setting, clinicians must assess the risks and benefits of pharmacologic anesthesia and analgesia for specific indications in this population. General anesthesia is required for non-obstetric surgery and cesarean section in the absence of neuraxial anesthesia for the health of the mother and fetus...
July 19, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727583/serum-bupivacaine-concentration-after-periarticular-injection-with-a-mixture-of-liposomal-bupivacaine-and-bupivacaine-hcl-during-total-knee-arthroplasty
#3
Michael J Buys, Marian F Murphy, Christine M Warrick, Nathan L Pace, Jeremy M Gililland, Christopher E Pelt, Byron R Bankhead, John L Patzkowsky, Ken B Johnson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A relatively new technique to reduce postoperative pain for total knee arthroplasty is to inject a mixture of 266 mg of liposomal bupivacaine and 125 mg of 0.25% bupivacaine HCl with epinephrine 1:300,000 around the knee joint at the time of surgery. Currently, no publications report serum bupivacaine concentrations over time after periarticular injection of liposomal mixed with free bupivacaine. This information is important to ensure safe serum bupivacaine concentrations are maintained especially when considering supplemental or rescue peripheral nerve blocks...
July 20, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719457/regional-anesthesia-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#4
Werner Ten Hoope, Marjolein Looije, Philipp Lirk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize recent relevant literature regarding regional anesthesia in the diabetic neuropathic patient and formulate recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic neuropathic nerves, but not nerves of diabetic patients per se, exhibit complex functional changes. As a result, they seem more sensitive to local anesthetics, and are more difficult to stimulate. When catheters are used postoperatively, diabetes is an independent risk factor for infection...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717108/isoflurane-is-a-suitable-alternative-to-ether-for-anesthetizing-rats-prior-to-euthanasia-for-gene-expression-analysis
#5
Noriyuki Nakatsu, Yoshinobu Igarashi, Taiki Aoshi, Isao Hamaguchi, Masumichi Saito, Takuo Mizukami, Haruka Momose, Ken J Ishii, Hiroshi Yamada
Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710553/metabolism-and-distribution-of-pharmacological-homoarginine-in-plasma-and-main-organs-of-the-anesthetized-rat
#6
Duygu Naile Günes, Arslan Arinc Kayacelebi, Erik Hanff, Joel Lundgren, Björn Redfors, Dimitrios Tsikas
L-Homoarginine (hArg) and guanidinoacetate (GAA) are produced from L-arginine (Arg) by the catalytic action of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase methylates GAA on its non-guanidine N atom to produce creatine. Arg and hArg are converted by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to nitric oxide (NO). NO is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate which circulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an NOS inhibitor, is widely accepted to be exclusively produced after asymmetric N (G)-methylation of Arg residues in proteins and their regular proteolysis...
July 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692439/lipid-emulsion-in-local-anesthetic-toxicity
#7
Martyn Harvey, Grant Cave
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enthusiasm for regional anesthesia has been driven by multimodal benefits to patient outcomes. Despite widespread awareness and improved techniques (including the increasing use of ultrasound guidance for block placement), intravascular sequestration and the attendant risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) remains. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) for the treatment of LAST has been endorsed by anesthetic regulatory societies on the basis of animal study and human case report data...
July 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685242/an-investigation-of-protective-effects-of-litium-borate-on-blood-and-histopathological-parameters-in-acute-cadmium-induced-rats
#8
Serkan Yildirim, Fatih Caglar Celikezen, Gökhan Oto, Emin Sengul, Mehmet Bulduk, M Tasdemir, D Ali Cinar
This study was carried out to determine the protective effects of lithium borate (LTB) on blood parameters and histopathological findings in experimentally induced acute cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were used, weighing 200-220 g, and they were randomly divided into four groups, including one control and the following three experimental groups: a Cd group (0.025 mmol/kg), a LTB group (15 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days), and a LTB + Cd group (15 mg/kg/day orally for 5 days and Cd 0...
July 7, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682114/effectiveness-of-topical-application-of-ostrich-oil-on-the-healing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infected-wounds
#9
Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Mahsa Vahid, Ahmad Oryan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Management of infected wounds is one of the major challenges that surgeons and nurses face. Several antimicrobial agents have been used, but the toxicity, drug resistance, and their effect on the healing process remain a matter of concern. The present study was designed to analyze the accelerative impact of topical application of ostrich oil on infected wounds in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 BALB/c mice were divided into four main groups of control-sham, mupirocin, and two treatment groups receiving 2% and 4% (w/w) concentrations of ostrich oil, topically...
July 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663643/comparison-between-conventional-and-ultrasound-guided-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-in-upper-limb-surgeries
#10
Kiran Abhayakumar Honnannavar, Mahantesh Shivangouda Mudakanagoudar
INTRODUCTION: Brachial plexus blockade is a time-tested technique for upper limb surgeries. The classical approach using paresthesia technique is a blind technique and may be associated with a higher failure rate and injury to the nerves and surrounding structures. To avoid some of these problems, use of peripheral nerve stimulator and ultrasound techniques were started which allowed better localization of the nerve/plexus. Ultrasound for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has improved the success rate of the block with excellent localization as well as improved safety margin...
April 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652958/lidocaine-induced-systemic-toxicity-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#11
Badar Hasan, Talal Asif, Maryam Hasan
For the past 50 years, local anesthetics such as lidocaine have been commonly used in various clinical settings. Its use is not just limited to anesthesia and surgery but is also frequently utilized in internal medicine and in primary care setting for bedside procedures. Despite its widespread use, most physicians are not familiar with the life-threatening manifestations of lidocaine toxicity and its treatment. Our case demonstrates a successful resuscitation after cardiac arrest in a healthy 33-year-old female with systemic lidocaine toxicity after she received lidocaine as a local anesthetic...
May 25, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630416/hif-1-mediated-suppression-of-mitochondria-electron-transport-chain-function-confers-resistance-to-lidocaine-induced-cell-death
#12
Akihisa Okamoto, Chisato Sumi, Hiromasa Tanaka, Munenori Kusunoki, Teppei Iwai, Kenichiro Nishi, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Hiroshi Harada, Keizo Takenaga, Hidemasa Bono, Kiichi Hirota
The local anesthetic lidocaine induces cell death by altering reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial electron transport chain function. Because hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is involved in determining oxygen metabolism and mitochondria function, we investigated the involvement of HIF-1 activity in lidocaine-induced cell death. We investigated the role of HIF activation on lidocaine-induced caspase activation and cell death in renal cell-derived RCC4 cells lacking functional von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620885/modulatory-effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats-with-different-ages
#13
Mehdi Ahmadian, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan
We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training (AET) would modulate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats of various ages. Wistar male rats (n = 72) were assigned to three groups (young, adult, and elderly) with three subgroups for each age: doxorubicin (DG, n = 8), AET + doxorubicin (AETDG, n = 8), AET + Saline (AETSG, n = 8). Following the AET intervention, rats were anesthetized and killed to collect heart tissues in order to determine heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-10 (IL10), and c-reactive protein (CRP)...
June 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617702/intraperitoneal-instillation-of-local-anesthetics-is-this-a-suitable-alternative-for-postcesarean-pain-relief-without-toxicity-profiling
#14
Nivedita Jha, Ajay Kumar Jha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614779/the-effect-of-the-nitroxide-pirolin-on-oxidative-stress-induced-by-doxorubicin-and-taxanes-in-the-rat-brain
#15
S Tabaczar, J Czepas, A Koceva-Chyla, E Kilanczyk, J Piasecka-Zelga, K Gwozdzinski
The anticancer drugs doxorubicin (DOX), paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DTX) have been proven to induce oxidative stress (OS)-dependent side-effects in non-targeted tissues. In normal conditions, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents these drugs from penetrating into the brain. However, some studies have demonstrated that small amounts of DOX can penetrate the brain via an oxidatively impaired BBB and cause damage, which suggests that including antioxidants in chemotherapy could possibly protect the brain against the toxicity of anticancer drugs...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611004/an-in-situ-forming-phospholipid-based-phase-transition-gel-prolongs-the-duration-of-local-anesthesia-for-ropivacaine-with-minimal-toxicity
#16
Hanmei Li, Tao Liu, Yuxuan Zhu, Qiang Fu, Wanxia Wu, Jie Deng, Li Lan, Sanjun Shi
An injectable, phospholipid-based phase transition gel (PPTG) has been developed for prolonging the release of ropivacaine (RO) for local anesthesia. PPTG was prepared by mixing phospholipids, medium-chain triglyceride and ethanol. Prior to injection, the PPTG is in a sol state with low viscosity. After subcutaneous injection, the PPTG rapidly forms a gel in situ, which acts as a drug release depot as verified by in vitro release profiles and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Administering RO-PPTG to rats led to a significantly smaller initial burst release than administering RO solution or RO base suspension...
June 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602331/ocular-tolerance-in-rabbits-after-intracameral-administration-of-a-fixed-combination-of-tropicamide-phenylephrine-and-lidocaine-with-and-without-rinsing
#17
Rudy M M A Nuijts, Rita Mencucci, Karen Viaud-Quentric, Pierre-Paul Elena, Céline Olmière, Anders Behndig
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of a single intracameral administration of a combined mydriatic (tropicamide and phenylephrine) and anesthetic (lidocaine) formulation (Mydrane) with or without rinsing. SETTING: Iris Pharma, La Gaude, France. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Sixty pigmented rabbits received 100 μL or 200 μL of the combination product or a placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) by intracameral injection...
May 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569378/cyclosporine-exacerbates-ketamine-toxicity-in-zebrafish-mechanistic-studies-on-drug-drug-interaction
#18
Bonnie L Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug commonly used in organ transplant patients to prevent allograft rejections. Ketamine is a pediatric anesthetic that noncompetitively inhibits the calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors. Adverse drug-drug interaction effects between ketamine and CsA have been reported in mammals and humans. However, the mechanism of such drug-drug interaction is unclear. We have previously reported adverse effects of combination drugs, such as verapamil/ketamine and shown the mechanism through intervention by other drugs in zebrafish embryos...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562387/lipid-resuscitation-in-acute-poisoning-after-a-decade-of-publications-what-have-we-really-learned
#19
Lotte C G Hoegberg, Sophie Gosselin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The decision to provide intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as a treatment modality for the reversal of various drug toxicity was discovered in the last decade. Numerous publications, in both humans and animals attest to its clinical use, but current supporting evidence is inconsistent. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent systematic review reported evidence for benefit of ILE in bupivacaine toxicity. Human randomized trials, large observational studies as well as animal models of orogastric poisoning failed to report a clear benefit of ILE for nonlocal anesthetics poisoning...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557058/thoracic-paravertebral-blockade-in-breast-surgery-is-pneumothorax-an-appreciable-concern-a-review-of-over-1000-cases
#20
Michael E Kelly, Daniel Mc Nicholas, James Killen, Joey Coyne, Karl J Sweeney, John McDonnell
There has been a substantial increase in ambulatory day-case breast surgery in recent decades. This has been largely due to improvements in anesthetic procedures and pre-emptive analgesia. Thoracic paravertebral blockade (TPVB) is increasing in popularity, though concerns over iatrogenic injury remain, especially pneumothorax. The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of the incidence of pneumothorax following TPVB prior to breast surgery. Data from of a consecutive series of patients having TPVB prior to breast surgery between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed...
May 30, 2017: Breast Journal
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