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Anesthetic toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339643/effect-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-on-systemic-toxicity-and-ototoxicity-induced-by-cisplatin-in-rats-role-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-nitric-oxide
#1
Marcos Jullian Barreto Martins, Avner Marcos Alves Batista, Yuri Neyson Ferreira Brito, Pedro Marcos Gomes Soares, Conceição da Silva Martins, Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Marcos Rabelo de Freitas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent. The use of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was proposed after the observation that ischemic preconditioning of a cardiac vascular area could protect another completely distinctly. METHODS: This is an experimental study. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and they underwent a hearing evaluation via measurement of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BSAEP). Then, cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days to group 1, whereas saline solution was administered IP to group 2...
January 17, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338097/synthesis-of-multifunctional-spirocyclic-azetidines-and-their-application-in-drug-discovery
#2
Alexander Kirichok, Irina Shton, Irina Pishel, Sergey Zozulya, Petro Borysko, Vladimir Kubyshkin, Olha Zaporozhets, Andrei Tolmachev, Pavel Mykhailiuk
Spirocyclic polyfunctional azetidines have been synthesized and validated in drug discovery. Spirocyclic analogue of the anesthetic drug Bupivacaine with 5-times smaller toxicity was developed.
January 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326848/the-knowledge-of-eye-physicians-on-local-anesthetic-toxicity-and-intravenous-lipid-treatment-questionnaire-study
#3
Aykut Urfalıoğlu, Selma Urfalıoğlu, Gözen Öksüz
Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of ophthalmologists regarding local anesthesia toxicity syndrome (LATS) and intravenous lipid emulsion used in treatment, and to raise awareness of this issue. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire comprising 14 questions about demographics, local anesthesia (LA) use, toxicity, and treatment methods was administered to ophthalmologists at different hospitals. Results: The study included 104 ophthalmologists (25% residents, 67...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309770/a-sub-set-of-psychoactive-effects-may-be-critical-to-the-behavioral-impact-of-ketamine-on-cocaine-use-disorder-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-laboratory-study
#4
REVIEW
E Dakwar, E V Nunes, C L Hart, M C Hu, R W Foltin, F R Levin
Efforts to translate sub-anesthetic ketamine infusions into widespread clinical use have centered around developing medications with comparable neurobiological activity, but with attenuated psychoactive effects so as to minimize the risk of behavioral toxicity and abuse liability. Converging lines of research, however, suggest that some of the psychoactive effects of sub-anesthetic ketamine may have therapeutic potential. Here, we assess whether a subset of these effects - the so-called mystical-type experience - mediates the effect of ketamine on craving and cocaine use in cocaine dependent research volunteers...
January 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303925/local-anesthetic-systemic-toxicity-a-review-of-recent-case-reports-and-registries
#5
Marina Gitman, Michael J Barrington
This review summarizes presenting features, management, and outcomes of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) from published cases and those submitted to online registries capturing use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy. The results of single-center and multicenter registries and epidemiologic studies complement this information. Between March 2014 and November 2016, 47 separate cases of LAST were described in 35 peer-reviewed articles. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity events occurred as a result of penile blocks (23%), local infiltration (17%), and upper/lower extremity, torso, and neuraxial blockade...
January 5, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295799/profound-prolonged-bradycardia-and-hypotension-after-interscalene-brachial-plexus-block-with-bupivacaine
#6
Mathew Nelson, Alexandra Reens, Lara Reda, David Lee
BACKGROUND: Interscalene brachial plexus blocks have been a routinely performed method of anesthesia for shoulder surgery that decreases the need for general anesthesia, length of stay, and recovery time. We describe a case of bupivacaine toxicity after an interscalene block. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 66-year-old man who presented to our Emergency Department by emergency medical services from an ambulatory surgery center where he had undergone rotator cuff surgery, with bradycardia and hypotension...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285288/synthetic-nickel-containing-superoxide-dismutase-attenuates-para-phenylenediamine-induced-bladder-dysfunction-in-rats
#7
Bing-Juin Chiang, Tien-Wen Chen, Shiu-Dong Chung, Way-Zen Lee, Chiang-Ting Chien
Para (p)-phenylenediamine and its toxic metabolites induce excess reactive oxygen species formation that results in bladder voiding dysfunction. We determined the effects of synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics and the role of oxidative stress in p-phenylenediamine-induced urinary bladder dysfunction. P-phenylenediamine (60 μg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered for 4 weeks to induce bladder injury in female Wistar rats. Synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics, WCT003 (1.5 mg/kg) and WCT006 (1...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284860/effect-of-locally-administered-dexmedetomidine-as-adjuvant-to-levobupivacaine-in-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-double-blind-controlled-study
#8
Bikash Bisui, Swastika Samanta, Sumanta Ghoshmaulik, Amit Banerjee, Tirtha R Ghosh, Suman Sarkar
Context: Brachial plexus block is effective with good postoperative analgesia in upper limb surgery has gained importance as it safe, low cost, and maintains stable hemodynamics intraoperatively. To decrease the onset time and prolong the duration of nerve block bicarbonate, opioids (morphine, fentanyl, etc.), sympathomimetic agents (epinephrine, phenylephrine, etc.), α-2 agonists (clonidine and dexmedetomidine), calcium channel blocker (verapamil), magnesium sulfate, etc., were studied with local anesthetics and their isomers...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282001/nitrous-oxide-induced-subacute-combined-degeneration-with-longitudinally-extensive-myelopathy-with-inverted-v-sign-on-spinal-mri-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Jun Liang Yuan, Shuang Kun Wang, Tao Jiang, Wen Li Hu
BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is also neurotoxic by interfering with the bioavailability of vitamin B12 if abused. A few case studies have reported the neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we reported a patient of N2O induced subacute combined degeneration (SCD) with longitudinally extensive myelopathy with inverted V-sign exhibiting progressive limb paresthesia and unsteady gait. CONCLUSIONS: This case raises the awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity of N2O, and clinical physicians should be well recognized this in the field of substance-related disorders...
December 28, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280923/local-anesthetic-systemic-toxicity-in-total-joint-arthroplasty-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-the-united-states-from-the-national-inpatient-sample-1998-2013
#10
Daniel S Rubin, Monica M Matsumoto, Guy Weinberg, Steven Roth
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) is a rare and potentially devastating complication of regional anesthesia. Single-institution registries have reported a decreasing incidence, but these results have limited broad applicability. A recent study using a US database found a relatively high incidence of LAST. We used the National Inpatient Sample, a US database of inpatient admissions, to identify the national incidence and associated risk factors for LAST in total joint arthroplasties...
December 26, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279652/evaluation-of-topical-lignocaine-jelly-2-for-recurrent-pterygium-surgery-with-glue-free-autologous-conjunctival-graft
#11
Rajesh Subhash Joshi
AIM: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of lignocaine 2% jelly as a topical anesthesia in recurrent pterygium surgery with glue-free conjunctival limbal autograft. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, nonrandomized, observational study, comprising of 51 patients (51 eyes) having recurrent pterygium, was conducted at a tertiary eye care center in central India. Pterygium excision with glue-free autologous conjunctival grafting was done under 2% lignocaine jelly...
July 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251003/the-physiology-and-toxicology-of-acute-inhalation-phosphine-poisoning-in-conscious-male-rats
#12
Benjamin Wong, Rebecca Lewandowski, Justin Tressler, Katherine Sherman, Jaclynn Andres, Jennifer Devorak, Cristin Rothwell, Tracey Hamilton, Heidi Hoard-Fruchey, Alfred M Sciuto
Phosphine (PH3) is a toxidrome-spanning chemical that is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. Exposure to PH3 causes a host of target organ and systemic effects, including oxidative stress, cardiopulmonary toxicity, seizure-like activity and overall metabolic disturbance. A custom dynamic inhalation gas exposure system was designed for the whole-body exposure of conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) to PH3. An integrated plethysmography system was used to collect respiratory parameters in real-time before, during and after PH3 exposure...
December 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249988/stemodia-maritima-l-extract-decreases-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-alveolar-bone-loss-in-an-experimental-periodontitis-rat-model
#13
Alrieta H Teixeira, Jordânia M de Oliveira Freire, Luzia H T de Sousa, Antônia T Parente, Nayara A de Sousa, Angela M C Arriaga, Francisca R Lopes da Silva, Iracema M Melo, Igor I Castro da Silva, Karuza M A Pereira, Paula Goes, José J do Nascimento Costa, Gerardo Cristino-Filho, Vicente de Paulo T Pinto, Hellíada V Chaves, Mirna M Bezerra
Periodontitis is very prevalent worldwide and is one of the major causes of tooth loss in adults. About 80% of the worldwide population use medicinal plants for their health care. Stemodia maritima L. (S. maritima) antioxidant and antimicrobial effects in vitro as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, the potential therapeutic effect of S. maritima was assessed in rats subjected to experimental periodontitis (EP). EP was induced in female Wistar rats by nylon thread ligature around 2nd upper left molars for 11 days...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239940/prolonged-duration-local-anesthesia-using-liposomal-bupivacaine-combined-with-liposomal-dexamethasone-and-dexmedetomidine
#14
Alina Y Rwei, Robert T Sherburne, David Zurakowski, Bruce Wang, Daniel S Kohane
BACKGROUND: The relatively short duration of effect of local anesthetics has been addressed by encapsulation in drug delivery systems. Codelivery with a single compound that produces an adjuvant effect on nerve block but without intrinsic local anesthetic properties can further prolong the nerve block effect. Here, we investigated whether codelivery of more than 1 encapsulated adjuvant compound can further enhance nerve blockade. METHODS: Liposomes loaded with bupivacaine (Bup), dexamethasone phosphate (DexP), or dexmedetomidine (DMED) were synthesized and its in vitro drug release profiles were determined...
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232029/the-effects-of-subconjunctival-bupivacaine-lidocaine-and-mepivacaine-on-corneal-sensitivity-in-healthy-horses
#15
Maggie R Jinks, Robin L Fontenot, Robert W Wills, Caroline M Betbeze
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and duration of effect of three local anesthetics on corneal sensitivity when administered subconjunctivally in horses. ANIMALS STUDIED: Eight healthy adult horses. PROCEDURE: A randomized, masked, crossover study design was used, with a two-week washout period between trials. The subconjunctival space of the randomly selected eye was injected with 0.2 mLs of bupivacaine (0.5%), lidocaine (2%), mepivacaine (2%), or saline...
December 12, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227106/hollow-silica-nanoparticles-penetrate-the-peripheral-nerve-and-enhance-the-nerve-blockade-from-tetrodotoxin
#16
Qian Liu, Claudia M Santamaria, Tuo Wei, Chao Zhao, Tianjiao Ji, Tianshe Yang, Andre Shomorony, Bruce Y Wang, Daniel S Kohane
The efficacy of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a very potent local anesthetic, is limited by its poor penetration through barriers to axonal surfaces. To address this issue, we encapsulated TTX in hollow silica nanoparticles (TTX-HSN) and injected them at the sciatic nerve in rats. TTX-HSN achieved an increased frequency of successful blocks, prolonged the duration of the block, and decreased the toxicity compared to free TTX. In animals injected with fluorescently labeled HSN, the imaging of frozen sections of nerve demonstrated that HSN could penetrate into nerve and that the penetrating ability of silica nanoparticles was highly size-dependent...
December 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226148/transition-from-deep-regional-blocks-toward-deep-nerve-hydrodissection-in-the-upper-body-and-torso-method-description-and-results-from-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-the-analgesic-effect-of-5-dextrose-water-as-the-primary-hydrodissection-injectate-to-enhance
#17
Stanley K H Lam, Kenneth Dean Reeves, An-Lin Cheng
Deep nerve hydrodissection uses fluid injection under pressure to purposely separate nerves from areas of suspected fascial compression, which are increasingly viewed as potential perpetuating factors in recalcitrant neuropathic pain/complex regional pain. The usage of 5% dextrose water (D5W) as a primary injectate for hydrodissection, with or without low dose anesthetic, could limit anesthetic-related toxicity. An analgesic effect of 5% dextrose water (D5W) upon perineural injection in patients with chronic neuropathic pain has recently been described...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225006/mechanistic-studies-on-ketamine-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#18
Bonnie L Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative, is an antagonist of the Ca2+-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors. It is a pediatric anesthetic and has been implicated in developmental neurotoxicity. Ketamine has also been shown to deplete ATP in mammalian cells. Our previous studies showed that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) prevented ketamine-induced cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Based on our finding that ALCAR's protective effect was blunted by oligomycin A, an inhibitor of ATP synthase, we further investigated the effects of ketamine and ALCAR on ATP levels, mitochondria and ATP synthase in zebrafish embryos...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219188/toxicity-trial-of-canine-posterior-cricoarytenoid-intramuscular-vincristine-injections
#19
Randal C Paniello, Neel K Bhatt, Rebecca Chernock
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: In animal studies, intramuscular vincristine injections have been shown to block reinnervation of the denervated target muscle. This application could be used selectively to influence recovery patterns following injury of recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLNs). However, vincristine is currently Food and Drug Administration approved only for intravenous use. A formal toxicity trial of intramuscular injections was performed. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study...
December 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218434/inhibition-of-gsk-3beta-signaling-pathway-rescues-ketamine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-neural-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#20
Jingjing Zhang, Changlei Cui, Yanhui Li, Haiyang Xu
Clinical application of anesthetic reagent, ketamine (Keta), may induce irreversible neurotoxicity in central nervous system. In this work, we utilized an in vitro model of neural stem cells-derived neurons (nSCNs) to evaluate the role of GSK-3 signaling pathway in Keta-induced neurotoxicity. Embryonic mouse-brain neural stem cells were differentiated into neurons in vitro. Keta (50 μM)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured nSCNs was monitored by apoptosis, immunohistochemical and western blot assays, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
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