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Airway innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769339/differential-responses-by-human-respiratory-epithelial-cell-lines-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-reflect-distinct-patterns-of-infection-control
#1
Philippa Hillyer, Rachel Shepard, Megan Uehling, Mina Krenz, Faruk Sheikh, Kalyn R Thayer, Lei Huang, Lihan Yan, Debasis Panda, Cindy Luongo, Ursula J Buchholz, Peter L Collins, Raymond P Donnelly, Ronald L Rabin
RSV infects small foci of respiratory epithelial cells via infected droplets. Infection induces expression of types I and III interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the balance of which may restrict viral replication and affect disease severity. We explored this balance by infecting two respiratory epithelial cell lines with low doses of recombinant RSV expressing green fluorescent protein (rgRSV). A549 cells were highly permissive whereas BEAS-2B cells restricted infection to individual cells or small foci...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768180/dietary-fiber-confers-protection-against-flu-by-shaping-ly6c-patrolling-monocyte-hematopoiesis-and-cd8-t-cell-metabolism
#2
Aurélien Trompette, Eva S Gollwitzer, Céline Pattaroni, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Erika Riva, Julie Pernot, Niki Ubags, Lluis Fajas, Laurent P Nicod, Benjamin J Marsland
Dietary fiber protects against chronic inflammatory diseases by dampening immune responses through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here we examined the effect of dietary fiber in viral infection, where the anti-inflammatory properties of SCFAs in principle could prevent protective immunity. Instead, we found that fermentable dietary fiber increased survival of influenza-infected mice through two complementary mechanisms. High-fiber diet (HFD)-fed mice exhibited altered bone marrow hematopoiesis, characterized by enhanced generation of Ly6c- patrolling monocytes, which led to increased numbers of alternatively activated macrophages with a limited capacity to produce the chemokine CXCL1 in the airways...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754456/pentraxin-levels-in-noneosinophilic-versus-eosinophilic-asthma
#3
Pengfei Gao, Kun Tang, Meijia Wang, Qun Yang, Yongjian Xu, Jianmiao Wang, Jianping Zhao, Jungang Xie
BACKGROUND: Innate immunity has been thought to be involved in asthma pathogenesis. Pentraxins, acting as soluble pattern recognition molecules, play an important role in humoral innate immunity. Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease of airways and can be classified as eosinophilic or noneosinophilic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pentraxin levels differ in subjects with eosinophilic versus noneosinophilic asthma. Furthermore, to access the predictive performance of pentraxin levels for discriminating asthma inflammatory phenotypes...
May 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748385/activation-of-airway-epithelial-bitter-taste-receptors-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolones-modulates-calcium-cyclic-amp-and-nitric-oxide-signaling
#4
Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), discovered in many tissues outside the tongue, have recently become potential therapeutic targets. We showed previously that airway epithelial cells express several T2Rs that activate innate immune responses that may be important for treatment of airway diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis. It is imperative to more clearly understand what compounds activate airway T2Rs as well as their full range of functions. T2R isoforms in airway motile cilia (T2Rs 4, 14, 16, and 38) produce bactericidal levels of nitric oxide (NO) that also increase ciliary beating, promoting clearance of mucus and trapped pathogens...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744361/the-role-of-the-immune-response-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiectasis
#5
REVIEW
Paul T King
Bronchiectasis is a prevalent respiratory condition characterised by permanent and abnormal dilation of the lung airways (bronchi). There are a large variety of causative factors that have been identified for bronchiectasis; all of these compromise the function of the immune response to fight infection. A triggering factor may lead to the establishment of chronic infection in the lower respiratory tract. The bacteria responsible for the lower respiratory tract infection are usually found as commensals in the upper respiratory tract microbiome...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740449/protective-role-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infections
#6
Teodora Ivanciuc, Elena Sbrana, Antonella Casola, Roberto P Garofalo
The pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections is characterized by lower airway obstruction driven at great extent by the exuberant production of inflammatory cytokines. We have previously shown that RSV infection in vitro and in vivo results in production of reactive oxygen species along with reduction in the expression of antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), which are involved in maintaining the cellular oxidant-antioxidant balance. These events were associated with the concomitant reduction in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor that controls AOE expression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732233/pathogenesis-of-recalcitrant-chronic-rhinosinusitis-the-emerging-role-of-innate-immune-cells
#7
REVIEW
Il Gyu Kong, Dae Woo Kim
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major part of the recalcitrant inflammatory diseases of the upper airway that needs enormous socioeconomic burden. T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses recruiting eosinophils were the most well-known immune players in CRS pathogenesis especially in western countries. By the piling up of a vast amount of researches to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of CRS recently, heterogeneous inflammatory processes were found to be related to the phenotypes of CRS. Recently more cells other than T cells were in the focus of CRS pathogenesis, such as the epithelial cell, macrophage, innate lymphoid cells, and neutrophils...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727727/it-takes-a-village-phagocytes-play-a-central-role-in-fungal-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Michael B Feldman, Jatin M Vyas, Michael K Mansour
Phagocytosis is an essential step in the innate immune response to invasive fungal infections. This process is carried out by a proverbial "village" of professional phagocytic cells, which have evolved efficient machinery to recognize and ingest pathogens, namely macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. These innate immune cells drive early cytokine production, fungicidal activity, antigen presentation and activation of the adaptive immune system. Despite the development of antifungal agents with potent activity, the biological activity of professional phagocytic innate immune cells has proven indispensable in protecting a host from invasive fungal infections...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717993/crystal-structure-of-the-mouse-innate-immunity-factor-bacterial-permeability-increasing-family-member-a1
#9
Michael S Little, Matthew R Redinbo
Bacterial permeability-increasing family member A1 (BPIFA1) is an innate immunity factor and one of the most abundantly secreted proteins in the upper airways. BPIFA1 is multifunctional, with antimicrobial, surfactant and lipopolysaccharide-binding activities, as well as established roles in lung hydration. Here, the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of BPIFA1 from Mus musculus (mBPIFA1) is presented and compared with those of human BPIFA1 (hBPIFA1) and structural homologs. Structural distinctions between mBPIFA1 and hBPIFA1 suggest potential differences in biological function, including the regulation of a key pulmonary ion channel...
May 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717929/specialized-proresolving-mediators-in-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses-in-airway-diseases
#10
Nandini Krishnamoorthy, Raja-Elie E Abdulnour, Katherine H Walker, Braden D Engstrom, Bruce D Levy
Airborne pathogens and environmental stimuli evoke immune responses in the lung. It is critical to health that these responses be controlled to prevent tissue damage and the compromise of organ function. Resolution of inflammation is a dynamic process that is coordinated by biochemical and cellular mechanisms. Recently, specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) have been identified in resolution exudates. These molecules orchestrate anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions that are cell type specific. In this review, we highlight SPM biosynthesis, the influence of SPMs on the innate and adaptive immune responses in the lung, as well as recent insights from SPMs on inflammatory disease pathophysiology...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707206/recent-advances-in-biologic-therapy-of-asthma-and-the-role-in-therapy-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#11
REVIEW
Rohit Divekar, Devyani Lal
Great strides have been made in the last five years in understanding the pathology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). CRS is now accepted to be the end-stage manifestation of inflammation resultant from various pathogenetic mechanisms. This has resulted in increasing recognition of distinct CRS endotypes. Such endotypes encompass a cluster of patients with similar pathogenic mechanisms that may have common therapeutic targets and responsiveness to interventions. The elucidation of mechanisms leading to the development of chronic upper (sino-nasal) airway inflammation has to some extent paralleled investigations of aberrant pathways operant in asthma...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698627/bronchial-mucosal-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-pattern-recognition-receptor-expression-in-experimental-rhinovirus-induced-asthma-exacerbations
#12
Jie Zhu, Simon D Message, Patrick Mallia, Tatiana Kebadze, Marco Contoli, Christine K Ward, Elliot S Barnathan, Mary Ann Mascelli, Onn M Kon, Alberto Papi, Luminita A Stanciu, Michael R Edwards, Peter K Jeffery, Sebastian L Johnston
BACKGROUND: The innate immune system senses viral infection via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to type I interferon (IFN) production: their roles in rhinovirus (RV)-induced asthma exacerbations in vivo are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To compare bronchial mucosal type I IFN and PRR expression at baseline and following RV infection in atopic asthmatic and control subjects. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of IFN-α, IFN-β and the PRRs, toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, melanoma-differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5) and retinoic-acid-inducible protein-I (RIG-I) in bronchial biopsies from 10 atopic asthmatics and 15 non-asthmatic non-atopic controls at baseline and on day four and six weeks following RV infection...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696025/adrenergic-signaling-at-the-interface-of-allergic-asthma-and-viral-infections
#13
Didem Ağaç, Michelle A Gill, J David Farrar
Upper respiratory viral infections are a major etiologic instigator of allergic asthma, and they drive severe exacerbations of allergic inflammation in the lower airways of asthma sufferers. Rhinovirus (RV), in particular, is the main viral instigator of these pathologies. Asthma exacerbations due to RV infections are the most frequent reasons for hospitalization and account for the majority of morbidity and mortality in asthma patients. In both critical care and disease control, long- and short-acting β2-agonists are the first line of therapeutic intervention, which are used to restore airway function by promoting smooth muscle cell relaxation in bronchioles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695841/pulmonary-regnase-1-orchestrates-the-interplay-of-epithelium-and-adaptive-immune-systems-to-protect-against-pneumonia
#14
Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Alexis Vandenbon, Takashi Mino, Masanori Yoshinaga, Takuya Uehata, Xiaotong Cui, Ayuko Sato, Tohru Tsujimura, Yutaka Suzuki, Atsuyasu Sato, Tomohiro Handa, Kazuo Chin, Teiji Sawa, Toyohiro Hirai, Osamu Takeuchi
Inhaled pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa initially encounter airway epithelial cells (AECs), which are poised to evoke cell-intrinsic innate defense, affecting second tier of hematopoietic cell-mediated immune reaction. However, it is largely unknown how pulmonary immune responses mediated by a variety of immune cells are coordinated. Here we show that Regnase-1, an endoribonuclease expressed in AECs and immune cells, plays an essential role in coordinating innate responses and adaptive immunity against P...
April 25, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692778/new-players-in-immunity-to-tuberculosis-the-host-microbiome-lung-epithelium-and-innate-immune-cells
#15
REVIEW
Nancy Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, Babita Agrawal
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689522/differential-effects-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-mouse-sensory-trp-channels
#16
Brett Boonen, Yeranddy A Alpizar, Alicia Sanchez, Alejandro López-Requena, Thomas Voets, Karel Talavera
Acute neurogenic inflammation and pain associated to bacterial infection have been traditionally ascribed to sensitization and activation of sensory nerve afferents secondary to immune cell stimulation. However, we recently showed that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) directly activate the Transient Receptor Potential channels TRPA1 in sensory neurons and TRPV4 in airway epithelial cells. Here we investigated whether LPS activates other sensory TRP channels expressed in sensory neurons. Using intracellular Ca2+ imaging and patch-clamp we determined the effects of LPS on recombinant TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM3 and TRPM8, heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells...
April 14, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671604/neuropilin-2-regulates-airway-inflammatory-responses-to-inhaled-lipopolysaccharide
#17
Robert M Immormino, David C Lauzier, Hideki Nakano, Michelle L Hernandez, Neil E Alexis, Andrew L Ghio, Stephen L Tilley, Claire M Doerschuk, David B Peden, Donald N Cook, Timothy P Moran
Neuropilins are multifunctional receptors that play important roles in immune regulation. Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is expressed in the lungs, but whether it regulates airway immune responses is unknown. Here, we report that Nrp2 is weakly expressed by alveolar macrophages (AM) in the steady-state, but is dramatically up-regulated following in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation. Ex vivo treatment of human AM with LPS also increased NRP2 mRNA expression and cell-surface display of NRP2 protein. LPS-induced Nrp2 expression in AM was dependent upon the MyD88 signaling pathway and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670919/dysregulated-functions-of-lung-macrophage-populations-in-copd
#18
REVIEW
Theodore S Kapellos, Kevin Bassler, Anna C Aschenbrenner, Wataru Fujii, Joachim L Schultze
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670037/expression-and-regulation-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-receptor-heterocomplex-in-the-innate-adaptive-immunity-of-pediatric-asthma
#19
REVIEW
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Fang-Yi Cheng, Jun-Jen Liu, Yi-Ling Ye
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the airway, and it is characterized by a wheezing breathing sound, variable airflow obstruction and the presence of inflammatory cells in the submucosa of the bronchi. Viral infection, pollutants and sensitivity to aeroallergens damage the epithelium from childhood, which causes asthma. The pathogenesis of asthma includes pathways of innate stimulation by environmental microbes and irritant pathogens. Damaged epithelial cells produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and stimulate myeloid dendritic cell maturation through the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) heterocomplex...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650557/sputum-proteomics-and-airway-cell-transcripts-of-current-and-ex-smokers-with-severe-asthma-in-u-biopred-an-exploratory-analysis
#20
Kentaro Takahashi, Stelios Pavlidis, Francois Ng Kee Kwong, Uruj Hoda, Christos Rossios, Kai Sun, Matthew Loza, Fred Baribaud, Pascal Chanez, Steve J Fowler, Ildiko Horvath, Paolo Montuschi, Florian Singer, Jacek Musial, Barbro Dahlen, Sven-Eric Dahlen, N Krug, Thomas Sandstrom, Dominic E Shaw, Rene Lutter, Per Bakke, Louise J Fleming, Peter H Howarth, Massimo Caruso, Ana R Sousa, Julie Corfield, Charles Auffray, Bertrand De Meulder, Diane Lefaudeux, Ratko Djukanovic, Peter J Sterk, Yike Guo, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung
Background: Severe asthma patients with a significant smoking history have airflow obstruction with reported neutrophilia. We hypothesise that multi-omic analysis will enable the definition of smoking and ex-smoking severe asthma molecular phenotypes. Methods: The U-BIOPRED severe asthma patients containing current-smokers (CSA), ex-smokers (ESA), non-smokers (NSA) and healthy non-smokers (NH) was examined. Blood and sputum cell counts, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and spirometry were obtained. Exploratory proteomic analysis of sputum supernatants and transcriptomic analysis of bronchial brushings, biopsies and sputum cells was performed...
April 12, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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