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Airway innate immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140397/progress-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathology-of-allergic-asthma-and-the-potential-of-fruit-proanthocyanidins-as-modulators-of-airway-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Sara L Coleman, Odette M Shaw
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by sensitization of the airways, and the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies, to benign antigens. The established pathophysiology of asthma includes recurrent lung epithelial inflammation, excessive mucus production, bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity, and chronic lung tissue remodeling, resulting in reversible airflow restriction. Immune cells, including eosinophils and the recently characterized type 2 innate lymphoid cells, infiltrate into the lung tissue as part of the inflammatory response in allergic asthma...
November 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137638/virus-triggered-exacerbation-in-allergic-asthmatic-children-neutrophilic-airway-inflammation-and-alteration-of-virus-sensors-characterize-a-subgroup-of-patients
#2
Antoine Deschildre, Muriel Pichavant, Ilka Engelmann, Carole Langlois, Elodie Drumez, Guillaume Pouessel, Sophie Boileau, David Romero-Cubero, Irina Decleyre-Badiu, Anny Dewilde, Didier Hober, Véronique Néve, Caroline Thumerelle, Stéphanie Lejeune, Clémence Mordacq, Philippe Gosset
BACKGROUND: Viruses are important triggers of asthma exacerbations. They are also detected outside of exacerbation. Alteration of anti-viral response in asthmatic patients has been shown although the mechanisms responsible for this defect remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare in virus-infected and not-infected allergic asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, admitted to hospital for a severe exacerbation, the innate immune response and especially the expression of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and their function...
November 14, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126842/autoimmunity-and-copd-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
Gaetano Caramori, Paolo Ruggeri, Antonino Di Stefano, Sharon Mumby, Giuseppe Girbino, Ian M Adcock, Paul Kirkham
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long term cigarette smoking is the cause of more than 90% of COPD in Westernized countries. However, only a fraction of chronic heavy smokers develop symptomatic COPD by the age of 80 years. COPD is characterized by an abnormal immune response in the lower airways and its progression is associated with infiltration of the lung by innate and adaptive inflammatory immune cells that form lymphoid follicles. There is growing evidence that both cellular- and antibody-mediated autoimmunity has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of stable COPD...
November 7, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122671/temporal-cytokine-and-lymphoid-responses-to-an-inhaled-tlr7-antedrug-agonist-in-the-cynomolgus-monkey-demonstrates-potential-safety-and-tolerability-of-this-approach
#4
John Bell, Mike Dymond, Mark Biffen, Stephen Delaney, David Keeling, Hui Zhang, Ian Robinson
AZD8848 is a TLR7 agonist antedrug developed for administration by inhalation dosing for the treatment of allergic diseases, such as asthma. Allergic asthma is associated with increased levels of Th2 cytokines which are suppressed for extended periods by TLR7 agonists in a number of preclinical models of allergic airway inflammation. However, TLRs form a central part of innate immunity and their activation often results in proinflammatory responses. Whilst AZD8848's antedrug mechanism is designed to restrict its pharmacological action beyond the lung, the effect of chronic, supramaximal dosing to the target tissue has yet to be defined...
November 6, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119707/impaired-expression-of-cxcl5-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-high-susceptibility-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#5
Rubia I Mancuso, Eliane N Miyaji, Cristiane C F Silva, Fernanda V Portaro, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Orlando G Ribeiro, Maria Leonor S Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy individuals establishing a commensal relationship with the host. In some conditions, bacteria invade the lower respiratory tract and innate immune responses are crucial to avoid diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis. METHODS: Here, we compared the susceptibility to pneumococcal respiratory infection of two outbred mouse lines, AIRmin and AIRmax, selected for low or high acute inflammatory responses, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116124/monocytes-from-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-show-enhanced-inflammatory-properties-and-produce-higher-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#6
M Cockx, M Gouwy, P Ruytinx, I Lodewijckx, A Van Hout, S Knoops, N Pörtner, I Ronsse, L Vanbrabant, V Godding, K De Boeck, J Van Damme, M Boon, S Struyf
Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) suffer from recurrent upper and lower airway infections due to defects in the cilia present on the respiratory epithelium. Since chronic inflammatory conditions can cause changes in innate immune responses, we investigated whether monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of pediatric PCD patients respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, compared to monocytes from healthy children and adults. The receptor for C5a (C5aR) was upregulated in PCD, whereas expression levels of the leukocyte chemoattractant receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, BLT1 and FPR1 on PCD monocytes were similar to those on monocytes from healthy individuals...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109963/cytokine-profile-of-patients-with-allergic-rhinitis-caused-by-pollen-mite-and-microbial-allergen-sensitization
#7
Yury A Tyurin, Svetlana A Lissovskaya, Rustem S Fassahov, Ilshat G Mustafin, Anton F Shamsutdinov, Marina A Shilova, Albert A Rizvanov
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is especially prevalent among the population of large cities. Immunologically, the airway epithelium is a region where the population of allergen-presenting cells concentrates. These cells actively express a group of receptors of the innate immune system. A specific cytokine profile is its representation. The study was aimed at evaluating the cytokine profile in patients with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. The cytokine profile of nasal secretion and blood serum of 44 patients with AR was studied...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102290/ion-channels-as-targets-to-treat-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#8
S Lorraine Martin, Vinciane Saint-Criq, Tzyh-Chang Hwang, László Csanády
Lung health relies on effective mucociliary clearance and innate immune defence mechanisms. In cystic fibrosis (CF), an imbalance in ion transport due to an absence of chloride ion secretion, caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and a concomitant sodium hyperabsorption, caused by dyregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), results in mucus stasis which predisposes the lungs to cycles of chronic infection and inflammation leading to lung function decline...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100671/-nettling-the-host-breaking-of-tolerance-in-chronic-inflammation-and-chronic-infection
#9
REVIEW
Sladjana Skopelja-Gardner, Jonathan D Jones, William F C Rigby
How and why we break tolerance to self-proteins still remains a largely unanswered question. Neutrophils have been identified as a rich source of autoantigens in a wide array of autoimmune diseases that arise as a consequence of different environmental and genetic factors, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, vasculitis, cystic fibrosis (CF) etc. Specifically, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation has been identified as a link between innate and adaptive immune responses in autoimmunity. Autoantigens including neutrophil granular proteins (targeted by anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, ANCA) as well as post-translationally modified proteins, i...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093714/toll-like-receptor-4-is-essential-for-the-expression-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-dependent-asthma-like-disease-in-mice
#10
Fiorentina Roviezzo, Rosalinda Sorrentino, Michela Terlizzi, Maria Antonietta Riemma, Valentina Mattera Iacono, Antonietta Rossi, Giuseppe Spaziano, Aldo Pinto, Bruno D'Agostino, Giuseppe Cirino
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels significantly increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of asthmatic patients following segmental allergen challenge and this increase well correlates with pulmonary inflammation. Epidemiological, genetic, clinical, and experimental data indicate a potential for the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to initiate and exacerbate allergic airway diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of TLR4 in S1P-dependent asthma-like disease in mice. BALB/c or TLR4 defective (C3H/HeJ) mice received S1P (10 ng/mouse), LPS (0...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093264/secreted-pla2-group-x-orchestrates-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses-to-inhaled-allergen
#11
James D Nolin, Ying Lai, Herbert Luke Ogden, Anne M Manicone, Ryan C Murphy, Dowon An, Charles W Frevert, Farideh Ghomashchi, Gajendra S Naika, Michael H Gelb, Gail M Gauvreau, Adrian M Piliponsky, William A Altemeier, Teal S Hallstrand
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes regulate the formation of eicosanoids and lysophospholipids that contribute to allergic airway inflammation. Secreted PLA2 group X (sPLA2-X) was recently found to be increased in the airways of asthmatics and is highly expressed in airway epithelial cells and macrophages. In the current study, we show that allergen exposure increases sPLA2-X in humans and in mice, and that global deletion of Pla2g10 results in a marked reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophil and T cell trafficking to the airways, airway occlusion, generation of type-2 cytokines by antigen-stimulated leukocytes, and antigen-specific immunoglobulins...
November 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084017/antialarmins-for-treatment-of-asthma-future-perspectives
#12
Dhuha Al-Sajee, John-Paul Oliveria, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have highlighted the role of alarmins in asthma pathophysiology and tested the roles of these cytokines in asthmatic patients. This review will discuss the recent advances in the role of alarmins in asthma and the potential of future targeted therapies in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Epithelial-derived cytokines can be released upon exposure to external stimuli, causing damage to the epithelial barrier and resulting in tissue inflammation...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082234/alcohol-inhibits-organic-dust-induced-icam-1-expression-on-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#13
Todd A Wyatt, Kerry Canady, Art J Heires, Jill A Poole, Kristina L Bailey, Tara M Nordgren, Debra J Romberger
Aims: Exposure to dusts/bioaerosols in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) results in inflammatory lung diseases in workers. Hog CAFOs dust extract (HDE) increases expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), neutrophil adhesion, and TNFα release in bronchial epithelial cells. Alcohol consumption is increasingly recognized to impair lung immunity. We hypothesized that alcohol impairs HDE-induced TNFα, ICAM-1 expression and neutrophil adhesion by directly inhibiting TNFα converting enzyme (TACE) activity...
March 2017: Safety (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075294/desired-turbulence-gut-lung-axis-immunity-and-lung-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Rea Bingula, Marc Filaire, Nina Radosevic-Robin, Mathieu Bey, Jean-Yves Berthon, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Marie-Paule Vasson, Edith Filaire
The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function...
2017: Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069535/emerging-roles-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-inflammatory-diseases-clinical-implications
#15
REVIEW
Inge Kortekaas Krohn, Medya Mara Shikhagaie, Korneliusz Golebski, Jochem H J Bernink, Christine Breynaert, Brecht Creyns, Zuzana Diamant, Wytske J Fokkens, Philippe Gevaert, Peter Hellings, Rudi W Hendriks, Ludger Klimek, Jenny Mjösberg, Hideaki Morita, Graham Ogg, Liam O'Mahony, Jürgen Schwarze, Sven F Seys, Mohamed H Shamji, Suzanne M Bal
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) represent a group of lymphocytes that lack specific antigen receptors and are relatively rare as compared to adaptive lymphocytes. ILCs play important roles in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory diseases due to their location at barrier surfaces within the airways, gut and skin and they respond to cytokines produced by activated cells in their local environment. ILCs contribute to the immune response by the release of cytokines and other mediators, forming a link between innate and adaptive immunity...
October 25, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061706/nlrp3-is-a-critical-regulator-of-inflammation-and-innate-immune-cell-response-during-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#16
Jesus A Segovia, Te-Hung Chang, Vicki T Winter, Jacqueline J Coalson, Marianna P Cagle, Lavanya Pandranki, Santanu Bose, Joel B Baseman, Thirumalai R Kannan
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterial respiratory pathogen known to cause a range of airway inflammation and lung and extrapulmonary pathologies. We recently reported that an M. pneumoniae-derived ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS) toxin is capable of triggering NLRP3 (NLR-family, leucine-rich repeat protein 3) inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β secretion in macrophages. However, it is unclear whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is important for the immune response during M...
October 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057902/trpv4-activation-triggers-protective-responses-to-bacterial-lipopolysaccharides-in-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Yeranddy A Alpizar, Brett Boonen, Alicia Sanchez, Carole Jung, Alejandro López-Requena, Robbe Naert, Brecht Steelant, Katrien Luyts, Cristina Plata, Vanessa De Vooght, Jeroen A J Vanoirbeek, Victor M Meseguer, Thomas Voets, Julio L Alvarez, Peter W Hellings, Peter H M Hoet, Benoit Nemery, Miguel A Valverde, Karel Talavera
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the major components of the wall of gram-negative bacteria, trigger powerful defensive responses in the airways via mechanisms thought to rely solely on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) immune pathway. Here we show that airway epithelial cells display an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration within seconds of LPS application. This response occurs in a TLR4-independent manner, via activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 cation channel (TRPV4). We found that TRPV4 mediates immediate LPS-induced increases in ciliary beat frequency and the production of bactericidal nitric oxide...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053025/e-cigarette-use-causes-a-unique-innate-immune-response-in-the-lung-involving-increased-neutrophilic-activation-and-altered-mucin-secretion
#18
Boris Reidel, Giorgia Radicioni, Phillip Clapp, Amina A Ford, Sabri Abdelwahab, Meghan E Rebuli, Prashamsha Haridass, Neil E Alexis, Ilona Jaspers, Mehmet Kesimer
RATIONALE: E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular and little is known about their potential adverse health effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of e-cigarette use on the airways. METHODS: Induced sputum samples from cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and non-smokers, were analyzed by quantitative proteomics, and the total and individual concentrations of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B were determined by light scattering/refractometry and labeled mass spectrometry, respectively...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038422/trim29-promotes-dna-virus-infections-by-inhibiting-innate-immune-response
#19
Junji Xing, Ao Zhang, Hua Zhang, Jin Wang, Xian Chang Li, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Zhiqiang Zhang
Many double-stranded DNA viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, can establish persistent infection, but the underlying virus-host interactions remain poorly understood. Here we report that in human airway epithelial cells Epstein-Barr virus induces TRIM29, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, to inhibit innate immune activation. Knockdown of TRIM29 in airway epithelial cells enhances type I interferon production, and in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells results in almost complete Epstein-Barr virus clearance...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036021/the-role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-airway-inflammation-evolving-paradigms
#20
Inge Kortekaas Krohn, Suzanne M Bal, Korneliusz Golebski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) act as early orchestrators of the immune response, tissue repair, and maintenance of barrier homeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings of the role of ILCs in airway disease and highlights ongoing developments in clinical applications and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of the transcription factors required for their development and cytokine profiles, ILCs have been classified into three subsets that resemble those of T-helper subtypes...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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