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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#1
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032115/toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-impairs-nitric-oxide-contributing-to-angiotensin-ii-induced-cavernosal-dysfunction
#2
Kenia P Nunes, Gisele F Bomfim, Haroldo A Toque, Theodora Szasz, R Clinton Webb
AIM: Angiotensin II (AngII), a corpus cavernosum (CC) constrictor peptide, modulates Toll like receptor (TLR) expression, a key element of the innate immune system, contributing to impaired vascular function in pathological conditions. However, it is unknown whether TLR4 is involved in AngII-induced erectile dysfunction. In this study, we investigated whether TLR4 plays a role in cavernosal dysfunction caused by AngII upregulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cavernosal smooth muscle cells (CSMC) from C57/BL6 mice were treated with AngII (0...
October 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031986/endovascular-interventions-for-femoropopliteal-peripheral-artery-disease-a-network-meta-analysis-of-current-technologies
#3
REVIEW
Michael R Jaff, Teresa Nelson, Nicole Ferko, Melissa Martinson, Louise H Anderson, Sarah Hollmann
PURPOSE: To use network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine the optimal endovascular strategy for management of femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease (PAD) given the lack of multiple prospective randomized trials to guide treatment decisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NMA is a new meta-analytic method that permits comparisons among any 2 therapies by combining results of a collection of clinical trials conducted in the same or similar patient population. NMA was used to analyze data from 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 prospective, multicenter, single-arm trials (combined evidence [CE] NMA) that evaluated target lesion revascularization (TLR) for 5 endovascular strategies: bare metal stent (BMS), polymer-covered metal stent (CMS), drug-eluting stent (DES), drug-coated balloon (DCB) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031816/designing-immunostimulatory-double-stranded-messenger-rna-with-maintained-translational-activity-through-hybridization-with-poly-a-sequences-for-effective-vaccination
#4
Satoshi Uchida, Naoto Yoshinaga, Kayoko Yanagihara, Eiji Yuba, Kazunori Kataoka, Keiji Itaka
Messenger (m)RNA vaccines require a safe and potent immunostimulatory adjuvant. In this study, we introduced immunostimulatory properties directly into mRNA molecules by hybridizing them with complementary RNA to create highly immunogenic double stranded (ds)RNAs. These dsRNA formulations, comprised entirely of RNA, are expected to be safe and highly efficient due to antigen expression and immunostimulation occurring simultaneously in the same antigen presenting cells. In this strategy, design of dsRNA is important...
September 27, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#5
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024452/two-year-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-treated-with-overlapping-absorb-scaffolds-an-analysis-of-the-absorb-extend-single-arm-study
#6
J Ribamar Costa, Alexandre Abizaid, Antonio L Bartorelli, Robert Whitbourn, Patrick W Serruys, Pieter C Smits
BACKGROUND: Preclinical data showed that overlapping (OVP) scaffolds might result in delayed healing and strut coverage compared to nonOVP scaffold segments. Furthermore, OVP in patients could result in increased periprocedure myocardial infarction (MI) rate secondary to side branch occlusion; however, little is known whether this may have an impact on long-term clinical outcomes. METHODS: ABSORB EXTEND is a prospective, single-arm, open-label clinical study in which 812 patients were enrolled at 56 sites...
October 10, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017949/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-3-from-anodonta-woodiana-is-an-important-factor-in-bivalve-immune-response-to-pathogen-infection
#7
Fufa Qu, Zhiming Xiang, Yingli Zhou, Yanping Qin, Ziniu Yu
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a multifunctional adaptor protein in innate and acquired immune system that plays a key role in the regulation of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway in mammals. However, the immune function of TRAF3 homologs in freshwater mollusks is not well understood. In this study, we identified a bivalve TRAF3 gene (AwTRAF3) from Anodonta woodiana and investigated its potential roles during immune challenges. The present AwTRAF3 encoded a polypeptide of 562 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 64...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017604/il-17-differentiated-macrophages-secrete-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-response-to-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein
#8
María de la Paz Sánchez-Martínez, Francisco Blanco-Favela, Mónica Daniela Mora-Ruiz, Adriana Karina Chávez-Rueda, Mariela Bernabe-García, Luis Chávez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Cytokines and macrophages play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis. Interleukin (IL)-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with differential effects on innate immune cells. We investigated the effects of IL-17 on macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation and activation in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). METHODS: Human monocytes were treated with IL-17 to induce macrophage differentiation. As controls, human monocytes were differentiated into M1 macrophages (M1) or M2 macrophages (M2)...
October 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993635/response-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-to-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tlr-agonists
#9
Oleh Andrukhov, Johanna Sang-A Hong, Olena Andrukhova, Alice Blufstein, Andreas Moritz, Xiaohui Rausch-Fan
Periodontal ligament stem cells similarly to the mesenchymal stem cells of other tissues possess immunomodulatory properties, which are regulated by different cytokines, particularly by interferon-γ (IFN-γ). In contrast, less information is provided about the effect of toll-like receptors ligand on immunomodulatory properties of these cells. In the present study we investigated the response of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in response to simultaneous stimulation with IFN-γ and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993550/mechanism-of-m-cell-differentiation-accelerated-by-proliferation-of-indigenous-bacteria-in-rat-peyer-s-patches
#10
Hideto Yuasa, Youhei Mantani, Natsumi Masuda, Miho Nishida, Masaya Arai, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Hiroki Tsuruta, Junichi Kawano, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The mechanism by which indigenous bacteria on the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of lymphatic follicles (LFs) accelerate the differentiation of microvillous columnar epithelial cells (MV) into M-cells was immunohistochemically investigated in rat Peyer's patches. The results showed that the number of Toll-like receptor (TLR) -4(+) M-cells was greater in the FAE with expansion of bacterial colonies (LFs with bacterial colonies on the FAE: b-LF) than the FAE without expansion of bacterial colonies (nb-LF)...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992999/provisional-versus-elective-two-stent-strategy-for-unprotected-true-left-main-bifurcation-lesions-insights-from-a-fails-2-sub-study
#11
Hiroyoshi Kawamoto, Alaide Chieffo, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Richard J Jabbour, Toru Naganuma, Enrico Cerrato, Fabrizio Ugo, Marco Pavani, Ferdinando Varbella, Giacomo Boccuzzi, Mauro Pennone, Roberto Garbo, Federico Conrotto, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Maurizio D'Amico, Claudio Moretti, Javier Escaned, Fiorenzo Gaita, Sunao Nakamura, Antonio Colombo
BACKGROUND: This study sought to investigate the optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy for true unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) bifurcations. METHODS: The FAILS-2 was a retrospective multi-center study including patients with ULMCA disease treated with second-generation drug-eluting stents. Of these, we compared clinical outcomes of a provisional strategy (PS; n=216) versus an elective two-stent strategy (E2S; n=161) for true ULMCA bifurcations...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987803/long-acting-%C3%AE-2-adrenoreceptor-agonists-suppress-type-1-interferon-expression-in-human-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-via-epigenetic-regulation
#12
Chang-Hung Kuo, San-Nan Yang, Yi-Giien Tsai, Chong-Chao Hsieh, Wei-Ting Liao, Li-Chen Chen, Min-Sheng Lee, Hsuan-Fu Kuo, Ching-Hsiung Lin, Chih-Hsing Hung
The combination of inhaled long-acting β2-adrenoreceptor (LABA) and inhaled glucocorticoid (ICS) is a major therapy for asthma. However, the increased risk of infection is still a concern. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the predominant cells producing type 1 interferon (IFN) against infection. The effect of LABA/ICS on type 1 IFN expression in human pDCs is unknown. Circulating pDCs were isolated from healthy human subjects and were pretreated with glucocorticoid (GCS), LABA or a cAMP analog, and were stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist CpG (TLR9) or imiquimod (TLR7) in the presence of IL-3...
October 4, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985996/tlr-induced-secretion-of-novel-cytokine-il-27-is-defective-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetic-subjects
#13
Haridoss Madhumitha, Viswanathan Mohan, Subash Babu, Vivekanandhan Aravindhan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the innate immune receptors, act as sentinels bridging both innate and adaptive arms of immunity. In the present study, we estimated TLR-induced secretion of IL-27, IL-12, IL-23, IL-8, IP-10, IL-17, IL-6 and TNF-α (by ELISA) and expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen- (Human Leukocyte Antigen - antigen D Related (HLA-DR), CD69, CD80 (also known asB7-1) (by flowcytometry) and Activating Transcription Factor 3(ATF3) (by qRT-PCR) in whole blood cultures of control and type-2 diabetic (both newly diagnosed/NDD and known/KDM) subjects...
October 3, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980386/fractional-flow-reserve-versus-angiography-guided-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-an-updated-systematic-review
#14
Tariq Enezate, Jad Omran, Ashraf S Al-Dadah, Martin Alpert, Christopher J White, Mazen Abu-Fadel, Herbert Aronow, Mauricio Cohen, Frank Aguirre, Mitul Patel, Ehtisham Mahmud
OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes of fractional flow reserve (FFR) to angiography (ANGIO) guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: The results of a recent randomized controlled trial reported unfavorable effects of routine measurement of FFR, thereby questioning its validity in improving clinical outcomes. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were queried from January, 2000 through December, 2016 and studies comparing FFR and ANGIO guided PCI were included...
October 5, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978818/second-generation-vs-first-generation-drug-eluting-stents-in-patients-with-calcified-coronary-lesions%C3%A3-pooled-analysis-from-the-reset-and-next-trials
#15
Koji Nishida, Kenji Nakatsuma, Hiroki Shiomi, Masahiro Natsuaki, Kazuya Kawai, Takeshi Morimoto, Ken Kozuma, Keiichi Igarashi, Kazushige Kadota, Kengo Tanabe, Yoshihiro Morino, Kiyoshi Hibi, Takashi Akasaka, Mitsuru Abe, Satoru Suwa, Toshiya Muramatsu, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kazuoki Dai, Koichi Nakao, Yasuhiro Tarutani, Kenshi Fujii, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: The comparative efficacy of second-generation (G2) vs. first-generation (G1) drug-eluting stents (DES) for calcified coronary lesions is unknown.Methods and Results:We compared the 3-year clinical outcomes of patients with G1- or G2-DES according to the presence or absence of calcified coronary lesions as assessed in an angiographic core laboratory using data from 2 large-scale prospective multicenter randomized trials, RESET and NEXT. G1-DES and G2-DES were implanted in 299 and 1,033 patients, respectively, in the Calc stratum (≥1 lesion with moderate/severe calcification), and 1,208 and 3,550 patients, respectively, in the Non-calc stratum (no/mild calcification)...
October 5, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974092/poly-i-c-encapsulating-nanoparticles-enhance-innate-immune-responses-to-the-tuberculosis-vaccine-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-via-synergistic-activation-of-innate-immune-receptors
#16
Martin T Speth, Urska Repnik, Elisabeth Müller, Julia Spanier, Ulrich Kalinke, Alexandre Corthay, Gareth Griffiths
The attenuated live vaccine strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but is largely ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, the most common disease form. This is in part due to BCG's ability to interfere with the host innate immune response, a feature that might be targeted to enhance the potency of this vaccine. Here, we investigated the ability of chitosan-based nanoparticles (pIC-NPs) containing polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), an inducer of innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to enhance the immunogenicity of BCG in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) in vitro...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972610/fat-1-mice-prevent-high-fat-plus-high-sugar-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Xiao-Fei Guo, Jin-Long Gao, Jiao-Mei Li, Duo Li
High-fat and high-sugar (HFS) diets have been suggested to play a causal role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to investigate whether fat-1 transgenic mice with a higher tissue content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could prevent HFS diet-induced NAFLD, compared with wild-type mice. The fat-1 and wild-type littermates had free access to a 15% fructose solution plus high-fat diet, a 15% glucose solution plus high-fat diet, or a 15% sucrose solution plus high-fat diet, respectively...
October 3, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971586/dietary-n-glycans-from-bovine-lactoferrin-and-tlr-modulation
#18
Susana Figueroa-Lozano, Rivca L Valk-Weeber, Sander S van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is an ingredient of food supplements and infant formulas given its antimicrobial and antiviral properties. We modified bLF enzymatically to alter its N-glycosylation and to isolate the glycan chains. The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate whether such derivates induce responses via Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) namely Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and 2) to relate those responses to their different glycosylation profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: The unmodified and modified bLF fractions were incubated with reporter cell lines expressing PRRs...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970827/btp-proteins-from-brucella-abortus-modulate-the-lung-innate-immune-response-to-infection-by-the-respiratory-route
#19
Maria Soledad Hielpos, Mariana C Ferrero, Andrea G Fernández, Juliana Falivene, Silvia Vanzulli, Diego J Comerci, Pablo C Baldi
Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 10(6) CFU of B. abortus, the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966674/tlr4-antagonist-suppresses-airway-remodeling-in-asthma-by-inhibiting-the-t-helper-2-response
#20
Ming Li, Zhao-Ni Wang, Li-Fen Yang, Yan Yan, Liang-Ming Cai, Ya-Ting Li, Yong-Kang Qiao, Zhuang-Gui Chen
Airway remodeling is a hallmark of bronchial asthma. Our group has previously reported that the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an airway epithelial-derived cytokine, has a central role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling, and that toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling in epithelial cells may trigger T-helper 2 (Th2) immune responses by overexpression of TSLP. However, it is currently unclear whether TLR4 is a target in the treatment of airway remodeling in asthma. The present study established a house dust mite (HDM)-induced chronic asthmatic model in female BALB/c mice and treated the HDM-exposed mice with 3 mg/kg TAK242, as a TLR4 antagonist, 30 min prior to HDM challenge for up to 2 weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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