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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#1
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450541/induction-of-ocular-complement-activation-by-inflammatory-stimuli-and-intraocular-inhibition-of-complement-factor-d-in-animal-models
#2
Maura A Crowley, Omar Delgado, Adrian Will-Orrego, Natasha M Buchanan, Karen Anderson, Bruce D Jaffee, Thaddeus P Dryja, Sha-Mei Liao
Purpose: Genome-wide association studies suggest a role for the complement system in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We characterized ocular complement activation and evaluated a complement factor D (FD) neutralizing antibody. Methods: Mice were treated with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, intravitreal injection (IVT), or corneal debridement. Levels of complement proteins and mRNA were measured. A FD neutralizing antibody was administered IVT into eyes of rabbits that were challenged with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) administered intravenously...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436632/sparstolonin-b-attenuates-spinal-cord-injury%C3%A2-induced-inflammation-in-rats-by-modulating-tlr4%C3%A2-trafficking
#3
Jianjun Yuan, Xueli Zhang, Rusen Zhu, Zijian Cui, Wei Hu
The present study used a spinal cord injury (SCI) model to evaluate whether sparstolonin B was able to prevent SCI, and to investigate the underlying signaling mechanism. Sparstolonin B attenuated the SCI‑induced Batto, Beattie and Bresnahan score and water content in rats. Sparstolonin B attenuated the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)‑18, IL‑6, IL‑1β, and IL‑23, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interferon‑γ, and decreased caspase‑3 activity and apoptosis regulator Bax protein expression in SCI rats...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434596/insight-into-phosphatidylinositol-dependent-membrane-localization-of-the-innate-immune-adaptor-protein-toll-interleukin-1-receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-protein
#4
Mahesh Chandra Patra, Sangdun Choi
The toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) plays an important role in the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling pathways. TIRAP anchors to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) on the plasma membrane and PI (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) on the endosomal membrane and assists in recruitment of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein to activated TLRs. To date, the structure and mechanism of TIRAP's membrane association are only partially understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432400/treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-with-a-new-generation-drug-coated-balloon-final-results-of-the-italian-elutax-sv-registry-dcb-rise
#5
Bernardo Cortese, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Raffaela Fetiveau, Vruyr Balian, Simonetta Blengino, Massimo Fineschi, Renata Rogacka, Corrado Lettieri, Andrea Pavei, Maurizio D'Amico, Arnaldo Poli, Gaetano Di Palma, Roberto A Latini, Pedro S Orrego, Romano Seregni
AIMS: Drug-coated balloons (DCBs) are a recognized alternative to stents for the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR), and there is some initial clinical evidence about their efficacy for the treatment of small coronary vessels. Newer-generation DCBs were developed to overcome the reduced deliverability of the previous generation, also warranting a more effective drug delivery to vessel wall. However, the vast majority of new-generation DCBs still lack of reliability due to paucity of clinical data...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430761/nod-like-receptor-pyrin-domain-containing-3-nlrp3-regulates-inflammation-induced-pro-labor-mediators-in-human-myometrial-cells
#6
Ratana Lim, Martha Lappas
PROBLEM: Inflammation plays a major role in preterm birth. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) plays a role in inflammatory diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of term labor on the expression of NLRP3 in human myometrium and the effect of NLRP3 silencing on pro-labor mediators in myometrial cells. METHOD OF STUDY: NLRP3 expression was assessed in myometrium from non-laboring and laboring women by qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428458/routine-angiographic-follow-up-versus-clinical-follow-up-in-patients-with-diabetes-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-with-drug-eluting-stents-in-korean-population
#7
Yong Hoon Kim, Ae-Young Her, Byoung Geol Choi, Se Yeon Choi, Jae Kyeong Byun, Yoonji Park, Man Jong Baek, Yang Gi Ryu, Ahmed Mashaly, Won Young Jang, Woohyeun Kim, Eun Jin Park, Jah Yeon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Cheol Ung Choi, Hong Euy Lim, Eung Ju Kim, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Seung-Woon Rha
AIMS: The usefulness of routine angiographic follow-up (RAF) and clinical follow-up (CF) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with diabetes is not well understood. We compare 3-year clinical outcomes of RAF and CF in diabetic patients underwent PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS: A total of 843 patients with diabetes who underwent PCI with DES were enrolled. RAF was performed at 6 to 9 months after PCI (n=426). Rest of patients were medically managed and clinically followed (n=417); symptom-driven events were captured...
February 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427596/structural-and-functional-modeling-of-viral-protein-5-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#8
Bhaskar Ganguly, Sunil Kumar Rastogi
Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease of young chicken. The causative virus (IBDV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus. The virus encodes five major proteins, viral protein (VP) 1-5. VPs 1-4 have been characterized crystallographically. Albeit a rise in the number of studies reporting successful heterologous expression of VP5 in recent times, challenging the notion that rapid death of host cells overexpressing VP5 disallows obtaining sufficiently pure preparations of the protein for crystallographic studies, the structure of VP5 remains unknown and its function controversial...
February 7, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423064/melatonin-attenuated-brain-death-tissue-extract-induced-cardiac-damage-by-suppressing-damp-signaling
#9
Pei-Hsun Sung, Fan-Yen Lee, Ling-Chun Lin, Kuan-Hung Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Pei-Lin Shao, Yi-Chen Li, Yi-Ling Chen, Kun-Chen Lin, Chun-Man Yuen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
We tested the hypothesis that melatonin prevents brain death (BD) tissue extract (BDEX)-induced cardiac damage by suppressing inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in rats. Six hours after BD induction, levels of a DAMP component (HMGB1) and inflammatory markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, MYD88, IκB, NF-κB, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were higher in brain tissue from BD animals than controls. Levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were higher in BDEX-treated H9C2 cardiac myoblasts than in cells treated with healthy brain tissue extract...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422316/histological-and-immunological-description-of-the-leishmanin-skin-test-in-ibizan-hounds
#10
L Ordeix, J E Dos S Silva, J Llull, P Quirola, S Montserrat-Sangrà, P Martínez-Orellana, L Solano-Gallego
The leishmanin skin test (LST), a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to Leishmania infantum, can specifically identify dogs that have made a cell-mediated immune response to L. infantum infection. The Ibizan hound appears to be more resistant to L. infantum infection than other breeds of dog. The aim of this study was to describe the histological and immunohistochemical changes induced by the LST in Ibizan hounds living in an area highly endemic for leishmaniosis. The majority of dogs were apparently healthy, lacked serum antibody to L...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416536/trichinella-spiralis-excretory-secretory-products-induce-tolerogenic-properties-in-human-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#11
Nataša Ilic, Alisa Gruden-Movsesijan, Jelena Cvetkovic, Sergej Tomic, Dragana Bozidar Vucevic, Carmen Aranzamendi, Miodrag Colic, Elena Pinelli, Ljiljana Sofronic-Milosavljevic
Trichinella spiralis, as well as its muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1), given either alone or via dendritic cells (DCs), induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment in inbred rodents and successfully ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ES L1 directs the immunological balance away from T helper (Th)1, toward Th2 and regulatory responses by modulating DCs phenotype. The ultimate goal of our work is to find out if it is possible to translate knowledge obtained in animal model to humans and to generate human tolerogenic DCs suitable for therapy of autoimmune diseases through stimulation with ES L1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415982/combination-therapy-with-proteasome-inhibitors-and-tlr-agonists-enhances-tumour-cell-death-and-il-1%C3%AE-production
#12
Anthony C Tang, Seyed M Rahavi, Shan-Yu Fung, Henry Y Lu, Hong Yang, Chinten J Lim, Gregor S Reid, Stuart E Turvey
Proteasome inhibitors have emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of haematological malignancies; however, their efficacy can be limited by the development of tumour resistance mechanisms. Novel combination strategies including the addition of TLR adjuvants to increase cell death and augment immune responses may help enhance their effectiveness. Although generally thought to inhibit inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation, we found that under specific conditions proteasome inhibitors can promote inflammatory responses by mediating IL-1β maturation and secretion after TLR stimulation...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414031/unfolded-protein-response-and-associated-alterations-in-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-interaction-in-the-hippocampus-of-restraint-rats
#13
Matthew Timberlake, Kevin Prall, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Recent evidence suggests that the cellular response to stress often elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), which has an active role in major depression in emotionally relevant regions of the brain, such as the hippocampus. Much of the UPR activity has been found to be coalesced with the pro-inflammatory environment of the depressed brain. Specifically, downstream transcriptions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased regulation of candidate inflammatory mediators, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), are promoted by the UPR...
January 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413846/tnip1-reduction-sensitizes-keratinocytes-to-post-receptor-signalling-following-exposure-to-tlr-agonists
#14
Swetha Rudraiah, Rambon Shamilov, Brian J Aneskievich
Cell level inflammatory signalling is a combination of initiation at cell membrane receptors and modulation by cytoplasmic regulatory proteins. For keratinocytes, the predominant cell type in the epidermis, this would include toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasmic proteins that propagate or dampen post-receptor signalling. We previously reported that increased levels of tumor necrosis factor α induced protein 3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) in HaCaT keratinocytes leads to decreased expression of stress response and inflammation-associated genes...
February 5, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410095/loss-of-toll-like-receptor-3-aggravates-hepatic-inflammation-but-ameliorates-steatosis-in-mice
#15
Young-Sun Lee, Doyeon Kim, Tae-Jun Kim, So Yeon Kim, Jae-Kwang Jung, Jae-Kap Choi, Hyon-Seung Yi, Jin-Seok Byun
The importance of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 has been well documented in pathogenesis of steatohepatitis, however, little is known about the role of TLR3. In this study, we investigated whether the depletion of TLR3 modulate the hepatic injury in mice, and further try to provide mechanistic insight of TLR3-mediated modulation from diet-induced hepatic inflammation and fat accumulation. Hepatic steatosis and inflammatory response were developed by feeding wild type (WT) or TLR3 knockout mice with high-fat diet for 8 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408034/insights-into-leghorn-male-hepatocellular-cells-response-to-fowl-adenovirus-serotype-4-infection-by-transcriptome-analysis
#16
Junqin Zhang, Zhong Zou, Kun Huang, Xian Lin, Huanchun Chen, Meilin Jin
Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), a member of the Aviadenovirus genus of the Adenoviridae family, causes hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) in chickens. It causes mortality of up to 80% in 3-6-week-old broilers, posing a substantial threat to the poultry industry. However, the specific host responses to the virus are not well understood. To better understand the interactions between the host and FAdV-4 and to explore the pathogenesis of this virus, a high-throughput RNA-seq technology was utilized with leghorn male hepatocellular (LMH) cells at 12, 24, and 48 h after FAdV-4 infection...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407132/comparison-of-mid-term-clinical-outcomes-after-treatment-of-ostial-right-coronary-artery-lesions-with-early-and-new-generation-drug-eluting-stents-insights-from-an-international-multicenter-registry
#17
Satoru Mitomo, Richard J Jabbour, Yusuke Watanabe, Antonio Mangieri, Marco Ancona, Damiano Regazzoli, Akihito Tanaka, Akihiro Nakajima, Toru Naganuma, Francesco Giannini, Azeem Latib, Sunao Nakamura, Antonio Colombo
BACKGROUND: There are only a limited number of studies comparing clinical outcomes after treatment of right coronary artery (RCA) aorto-ostial (AO) lesions with early (E-) and new (N-) generation drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2013, 334 de novo RCA AO lesions treated with DES (E-:142 lesions, N-:192 lesions) at 2 high-volume centers (Italy and Japan) were included in this study. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF) defined as composite of cardiac mortality, target vessel myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization (TLR)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405769/thymoquinone-alleviates-the-experimentally-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-inflammation-by-modulation-of-tlrs-signaling
#18
Y S Abulfadl, N N El-Maraghy, Aa Eissa Ahmed, S Nofal, Y Abdel-Mottaleb, O A Badary
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a robust inflammatory response elicited by the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) within the brain. Aβ induces detrimental inflammatory responses through toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathway. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main active constituent of Nigella sativa oil, has been reported by several previous studies for its potent anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of TQ in improving learning and memory, using a rat model of AD induced by a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) and d-galactose (d-Gal)...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403489/mycobacterial-phenolic-glycolipids-selectively-disable-trif-dependent-tlr4-signaling-in-macrophages
#19
Reid Oldenburg, Veronique Mayau, Jacques Prandi, Ainhoa Arbues, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker, Christophe Guilhot, Catherine Werts, Nathalie Winter, Caroline Demangel
Phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) are cell wall components of a subset of pathogenic mycobacteria, with immunomodulatory properties. Here, we show that in addition, PGLs exert antibactericidal activity by limiting the production of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. PGL-mediated downregulation of iNOS was complement receptor 3-dependent and comparably induced by bacterial and purified PGLs. Using Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 as a model, we found that PGLs dampen the toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling pathway, with macrophage exposure to PGLs leading to significant reduction in TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) protein level...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402391/ifn-%C3%AE-and-tumor-gangliosides-implications-for-the-tumor-microenvironment
#20
Barbara Dillinger, Sarah Ahmadi-Erber, Manuel Lau, Markus A Hoelzl, Friedrich Erhart, Birgit Juergens, Dietmar Fuchs, Andreas Heitger, Stephan Ladisch, Alexander M Dohnal
Gangliosides shed by tumors into their microenvironment (TME) are immunoinhibitory. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) may boost antitumor immune responses. Thus we wondered whether IFN-γ would counteract tumor ganglioside-mediated immune suppression. To test this hypothesis, we exposed human monocyte-derived LPS-activated dendritic cells (DC) to IFN-γ and to a highly purified ganglioside, GD1a. DC ganglioside exposure decreased TLR-dependent p38 signaling, explaining the previously observed ganglioside-induced down-modulation of pro-inflammatory surface markers and cytokines...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
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