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Tlr 8

Simon R Lea, Sophie L Reynolds, Manminder Kaur, Karen D Simpson, Simon R Hall, Edith M Hessel, Dave Singh
Background: COPD is a progressive inflammatory airway disease characterized by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages in the lungs. Bacterial colonization of the lungs is a common feature in COPD and can promote inflammation through continual and repeated Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. We have studied the response of COPD alveolar macrophages to repetitive stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. We investigated the effect of sequential stimulation with different ligands to determine whether this results in tolerance or amplification of the immune response...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
M M Vaezirad, M G Koene, J A Wagenaar, J P M van Putten
In ovo immunization of chicken embryos with live vaccines is an effective strategy to protect chickens against several viral pathogens. We investigated the immune response of chicken embryos to purified recombinant protein. In ovo delivery of Salmonella flagellin to 18-day old embryonated eggs resulted in elevated pro-inflammatory chIL-6 and chIL-8 (CXCL8-CXCLi2) cytokine transcript levels in the intestine but not in the spleen at 24 h post-injection. Analysis of the chicken Toll-like receptor (TLR) repertoire in 19-day old embryos revealed gene transcripts in intestinal and spleen tissue for most chicken TLRs, including TLR5 which recognizes Salmonella flagellin (FliC)...
March 9, 2018: Vaccine
Benoît Merat, Matthias Waliszewski, Guillaume Dillinger, Patrick Henry, Georgios Sideris
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the 12-month clinical outcomes in patients with drug-eluting stent in-stent restenosis (DES-ISR) who were either pre-dilated with non-compliant balloons (NCBA) and with additional scoring balloons (NCBA + SBA) prior to drug coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty. METHODS: This monocentric, retrospective study included patients with DES-ISR who were routinely treated over a 2-year time span. Patients with stable angina and documented ischemia or selected forms of unstable angina due to a culprit DES-ISR lesion were analyzed...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
Preeti Bharaj, Chunting Ye, Sean Petersen, Qianghu Wang, Baoli Hu, N Manjunath, Premlata Shankar, Guohua Yi
We have previously reported that overexpression of Programmed Death -1 Homolog (PD-1H) in human monocytes leads to activation and spontaneous secretion of multiple pro inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluate changes in monocytes gene expression after enforced PD-1H expression by gene array. The results show that there are significant alterations in 51 potential candidate genes that relate to immune response, cell adhesion and metabolism. Genes corresponding to pro-inflammatory cytokines showed the highest upregulation, 7, 3...
February 2018: Heliyon
Damianos G Kokkinidis, Bejan Alvandi, Ryan Cotter, Prio Hossain, T Raymond Foley, Gagan D Singh, Stephen W Waldo, John R Laird, Ehrin J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of re-entry device (RED) use on 1- and 5-year outcomes after endovascular treatment of common iliac artery (CIA) chronic total Occlusions (CTOs). BACKGROUND: There are not enough data regarding the long-term safety and efficacy of RED. METHODS: We performed a two-center retrospective study of 115 patients (140 lesions) undergoing CIA CTO endovascular intervention between 2006 and 2016. Baseline characteristics and long-term outcomes were described...
March 9, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Xue-Na Zheng, Jun Yang, Tao Xie, Bin Guo, Zhi-Qiang Xie, Li-Na Xie, Xue-Fen Wu, Gang-Zhu Hu, Mai-Lan Liu, Zeng-Hui Yue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of herbal cake-separated moxibustion on blood lipid-apoprotein levels and the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2), TLR 4 and nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) mRNAs in atherosclerotic (AS) vulnerable plaques of hyperglycemia rabbits, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Sixty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: control, model, direct moxibustion, herbal-cake-separated moxibustion and medication groups( n =12 rabbits in each group)...
February 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Jaya Talreja, Lobelia Samavati
Post viral infection bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with both seasonal and pandemic influenza virus illness. Despite much efforts put into the discovery of mechanisms of post viral-bacterial infections and their complications in recent years, the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility to bacterial infection remain poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the pathways regulating immune responses in murine macrophages and modeled post viral-bacterial infections through pretreatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with a toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 ligand (R848) and subsequent challenge with TLR2/4 agonists to mimic bacterial infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rajiv Ananthakrishna, William Kristanto, Li Liu, Siew-Pang Chan, Poay Huan Loh, Edgar L Tay, Koo Hui Chan, Mark Y Chan, Chi-Hang Lee, Adrian F Low, Huay Cheem Tan, Joshua P Loh
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the target lesion failure (TLF) rate of the SYNERGY stent in all-comers, multiethnic Asian population. BACKGROUND: Currently, most drug eluting stents deliver anti-proliferative drugs from a durable polymer which is associated with a risk of late stent thrombosis. The novel everolimus-eluting, platinum chromium SYNERGY stent is coated with a bioabsorbable abluminal polymer that resolves within 4 months. METHODS: This was a prospective, single center registry of consecutive patients treated with the SYNERGY stent between December 2012 and April 2015...
March 7, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Cuong Thach Nguyen, Shyam Kishor Sah, Tae-Yoon Kim
Propionibacterium acnes is a well-known commensal bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne and chronic inflammatory skin disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) on P. acnes- or peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that SOD3 suppressed toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) expression in P. acnes- or PGN-treated keratinocytes and sebocytes. Moreover, we found that SOD3 suppressed the expressions of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and p38 in P...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jata Shankar, Gustavo C Cerqueira, Jennifer R Wortman, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens
With the increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts, Aspergillus fumigatus emerges as a lethal opportunistic fungal pathogen. Understanding innate and acquired immunity responses of the host is important for a better therapeutic strategy to deal with aspergillosis patients. To determine the transcriptome in the kidneys in aspergillosis, we employed RNA-Seq to obtain single 76-base reads of whole-genome transcripts of murine kidneys on a temporal basis (days 0; uninfected, 1, 2, 3 and 8) during invasive aspergillosis...
March 2, 2018: Mycopathologia
Qian He, Xueshan Zhao, Siwei Bi, Yu Cao
BACKGROUND Lung ischemia/reperfusion injury (LIRI) is a medical problem featuring pulmonary dysfunction and damage. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of erythropoietin (EPO), which has been reported to be an anti-inflammatory agent, on LIRI through inhibiting the TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS All rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8): a control group, a vehicle+LIRI group, and an EPO+LIRI group. LIRI included 90-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion, while RhEpo was administered (3 kU/kg) intraperitoneally 2 h before the operation...
March 1, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Zhang-Chun Hu, Ya-Lan Tan, Shun-Gen Huang, Peng Pan, Xiao-Bo Liu, Jian Wang, Wan-Liang Guo
We investigated the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the acute phase of intestinal I/R injury during intussusception and evaluated whether anti-TLR4 antibody-conjugated lead sulfide quantum dots (TLR4-PbS QDs) could be used to detect and monitor the injury. We first established a mouse model of I/R injury during intussusception. TLR-PbS QDs were then intravenously administered to intestinal I/R injured mice and visualized using whole-body fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II)...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Jiro Aoki, Ken Kozuma, Masaki Awata, Mamoru Nanasato, Nobuo Shiode, Kengo Tanabe, Junichi Yamaguchi, Hajime Kusano, Hong Nie, Takeshi Kimura
The Cobalt Chromium Everolimus-Eluting Stent (CoCr-EES) Post Marketing Surveillance (PMS) Japan study is a prospective multicenter registry designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of XIENCE V/PROMUS everolimus-eluting stents in routine clinical practice at 47 centers representative of the clinical environment in Japan. We enrolled 2010 consecutive patients (2649 lesions) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using CoCr-EES. Clinical outcomes were evaluated through 5 years. Mean age was 68.8 years, 41...
February 26, 2018: Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics
Hyunjoon Kim, Lin Niu, Peter Larson, Tamara A Kucaba, Katherine A Murphy, Britnie R James, David M Ferguson, Thomas S Griffith, Jayanth Panyam
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a major role in cancer immunotherapy because of their ability to directly kill tumor cells and secrete tumor suppressive cytokines. Anticancer vaccines aim to provoke tumor-specific CTL responses, which require activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs) including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Therefore, a potent immunostimulatory adjuvant capable of activating APCs is an essential component of anticancer vaccines. In this study, we introduce novel TLR 7/8 bi-specific agonists that significantly enhance cytokine secretion compared to TLR7 mono-selective compounds...
February 17, 2018: Biomaterials
Isabel Rada, Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux, Hermann Zbinden-Foncea
BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are disorders that correlate with the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and cytokine production, to which Toll like receptors (TLR) contribute. Exercise may act as an anti-inflammatory modulator, but there is no consensus about the role of the TLR in this tuning. The present styudy aims to systematically review the current evidence on exercise-induced TLR regulation in animals and humans suffering from obesity and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Pubmed and Scopus databases were searched for publications from 1990 to September 2015...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
Clarissa Gillmann, Antony J Lomax, Damien C Weber, Oliver Jäkel, Christian P Karger
PURPOSE: To derive the dose-response curve for temporal lobe reactions (TLRs) after proton therapy and to compare the resulting relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted tolerance doses based on an RBE of 1.1 with published values for carbon ions, which were calculated by the two versions of the local effect model (LEM I or IV). METHODS AND MATERIALS: 62 patients treated with protons for skull base tumors were analyzed for TLRs using magnetic resonance imaging...
February 16, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Kensuke Miyake, Takuma Shibata, Umeharu Ohto, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Ryutaro Fukui, Yusuke Murakami
Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Activation of ligand-bound TLRs is influenced by the functional status of TLRs. Proteolytic cleavage of NA-sensing TLRs enables ligand-dependent TLR dimerization...
February 14, 2018: International Immunology
Siew-Min Ong, Eva Hadadi, Truong-Minh Dang, Wei-Hseun Yeap, Crystal Tze-Ying Tan, Tze-Pin Ng, Anis Larbi, Siew-Cheng Wong
Human primary monocytes comprise a heterogeneous population that can be classified into three subsets based on CD14 and CD16 expression: classical (CD14 high /CD16 - ), intermediate (CD14 high /CD16 + ), and non-classical (CD14 low /CD16 + ). The non-classical monocytes are the most pro-inflammatory in response to TLR stimulation in vitro, yet they express a remarkably high basal level of miR-146a, a microRNA known to negatively regulate the TLR pathway. This concurrence of a pro-inflammatory status and a high miR-146a level has been associated with cellular senescence in other cell types...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Yong Hoon Kim, Ae-Young Her, Byoung Geol Choi, Se Yeon Choi, Jae Kyeong Byun, Yoonji Park, Man Jong Baek, Yang Gi Ryu, Ahmed Mashaly, Won Young Jang, Woohyeun Kim, Eun Jin Park, Jah Yeon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Cheol Ung Choi, Hong Euy Lim, Eung Ju Kim, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Seung-Woon Rha
AIMS: The usefulness of routine angiographic follow-up (RAF) and clinical follow-up (CF) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with diabetes is not well understood. We compare 3-year clinical outcomes of RAF and CF in diabetic patients underwent PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS: A total of 843 patients with diabetes who underwent PCI with DES were enrolled. RAF was performed at 6 to 9 months after PCI (n=426). Rest of patients were medically managed and clinically followed (n=417); symptom-driven events were captured...
February 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Xu Zhao, Xiangsheng Hong, Rui Chen, Lilai Yuan, Jinmiao Zha, Jianhui Qin
In this study, the cDNA fragments of cytokines (il-8) and toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway signaling molecules (myd88, irak-1, irf5, and irf7) in the Chinese rare minnow were cloned and exhibited a high amino-acid sequence identity compared to other cyprinid fish orthologs. The mRNA expressions of these genes in the different tissues (liver, brain, spleen, kidney, and skin) were observed. The highest expression levels of myd88, irak-1, and irf5 were detected in the spleen, whereas il-8 and irf7 were detected in the kidney and liver respectively...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
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