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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811677/the-relationship-between-vegfa-and-tgfb1-polymorphisms-and-target-lesion-revascularization-after-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#1
Tadeusz Osadnik, Andrzej Lekston, Kamil Bujak, Joanna Katarzyna Strzelczyk, Lech Poloński, Mariusz Gąsior
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The specific association between genetic variation and in-stent restenosis is still only partly understood. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between functional polymorphisms in the genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A; rs699947) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1; rs1800470) and target lesion revascularization (TLR) risk. METHODS: A total of 676 patients (805 lesions) with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) who received elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with at least one bare-metal stent implantation were included...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806745/persistent-mycobacteria-evade-an-antibacterial-program-mediated-by-phagolysosomal-tlr7-8-myd88-in-human-primary-macrophages
#2
Alexandre Gidon, Signe Elisabeth Åsberg, Claire Louet, Liv Ryan, Markus Haug, Trude Helen Flo
Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in macrophages where they avoid lysosomal targeting and degradation through poorly understood mechanisms proposed to involve arrest of phagosomal maturation at an early endosomal stage. A clear understanding of how this relates to host defenses elicited from various intracellular compartments is also missing and can only be studied using techniques allowing single cell and subcellular analyses. Using confocal imaging of human primary macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium (Mav) we show evidence that Mav phagosomes are not arrested at an early endosomal stage, but mature to a (LAMP1+/LAMP2+/CD63+) late endosomal/phagolysosomal stage where inflammatory signaling and Mav growth restriction is initiated through a mechanism involving Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8, the adaptor MyD88 and transcription factors NF-κB and IRF-1...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804955/3m-052-as-an-adjuvant-for-a-plga-microparticle-based-leishmania-donovani-recombinant-protein-vaccine
#3
Qian Wang, Meagan A Barry, Christopher A Seid, Elissa M Hudspeth, C Patrick McAtee, Michael J Heffernan
It is believed that an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will require a T helper type 1 (TH 1) immune response. In this study, we investigated the adjuvanticity of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist 3M-052 in combination with the Leishmania donovani 36-kDa nucleoside hydrolase recombinant protein antigen (NH36). NH36 and 3M-052 were encapsulated in separate batches of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs). The loading efficiency for NH36 was 83% and for 3M-052 was above 95%. In vitro stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, measured by IL-12 secretion, demonstrated that 3M-052 (free or MP-formulated) had a concentration-dependent immunostimulatory effect with an optimum concentration of 2 µg/mL...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801370/impact-of-tlr-2-tlr-4-activation-on-the-expression-of-abca1-and-abcg1-in-raw-cells
#4
Kana Suzuki, Yasushi Kawakami, Kazuyoshi Yamauchi
Toll-like receptors (TLR) activation is thought to modulate the macrophage cholesterol efflux and contribute to the atherosclerosis progression; however, the precise pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TLR2- and TLR4-activation on the expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in a mouse macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7. Both TLR2- and TLR4-activation upregulated the expression of ABCA1 mRNA but downregulated that of ABCG1 mRNA. These alterations may be mainly regulated by the following 3 cascades: (1) the TLR/myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88/Liver X receptor pathway, which upregulated the ABCA1 mRNA; (2) NF-κB pathway, which downregulated the ABCG1 mRNA, and (3) the p38 pathway, which upregulated and stabilized ABCA1 mRNA...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795638/short-term-results-of-the-rapid-randomized-trial-of-the-legflow-paclitaxel-eluting-balloon-with-supera-stenting-vs-supera-stenting-alone-for-the-treatment-of-intermediate-and-long-superficial-femoral-artery-lesions
#5
Sanne W de Boer, Daniel A F van den Heuvel, Debbie A B de Vries-Werson, Jan Albert Vos, Bram Fioole, Damnis Vroegindeweij, Otto E Elgersma, Rudolph P Tutein Nolthenius, Jan M M Heyligers, Gerlof P T Bosma, Bernart de Leeuw, Lee H Bouwman, Dittmar Böckler, Dmitriy I Dovzhanskiy, Floris W F Vos, Ted W F Vink, Pieter G A Hooijboer, Rutger J Hissink, Jean-Paul P M de Vries
PURPOSE: To report a randomized trial comparing the Legflow paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) + Supera stenting to Supera stenting alone in patients with intermediate to long superficial femoral artery (SFA) lesions. METHODS: The multicenter RAPID trial ( controlled-trials.com ; identifier ISRCTN47846578) randomized (1:1) 160 patients (mean age 67 years; 102 men) with Rutherford category 2-6 ischemia to treatment with Legflow PEB + Supera stent or Supera stent alone in intermediate to long SFA lesions (mean lesion length 15...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791487/metformin-attenuates-the-tlr4-inflammatory-pathway-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diabetic-rats
#6
Leonardo Gomes Peixoto, Renata Roland Teixeira, Danielle Diniz Vilela, Lara Naves Barbosa, Douglas Carvalho Caixeta, Simone Ramos Deconte, Fernanda de Assis de Araújo, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Foued Salmen Espindola
AIMS: Inflammation induced by hyperglycemia triggers the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway into cells. Our hypothesis was that metformin treatment attenuates the TLR signaling pathways triggered by inflammation in skeletal muscle of hypoinsulinemic/hyperglycemic STZ-induced rats. Thus, we examined TLR signaling under hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia conditions and its correlation with insulin resistance in muscle of diabetic rats treated with metformin. METHODS: Ten-day diabetic rats were submitted to 7 days of saline (D group) or metformin (500 mg/kg once per day) (D + M group)...
August 9, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782620/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-cortex-eucommiae-via-modulation-of-the-toll-like-receptor-4-pathway-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-raw-264-7-macrophages
#7
Wonil Koh, Joon-Shik Shin, Jinho Lee, In-Hee Lee, Sang Kook Lee, In-Hyuk Ha, Hwa-Jin Chung
ETHNOPHARMOCOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cortex Eucommiae (CE), the bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., has been traditionally used for its kidney-tonifying and bone- and tendon-enhancing properties in Korea, China, and Japan. CE has been historically prescribed for inflammatory conditions such as arthritis of the knee and ankle. AIM OF THE STUDY: Although CE has recently been shown to suppress inflammation in scientific studies, whether this effect involves modulation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) pathway is currently unknown...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759049/structural-basis-of-tir-domain-assembly-formation-in-mal-and-myd88-dependent-tlr4-signaling
#8
Thomas Ve, Parimala R Vajjhala, Andrew Hedger, Tristan Croll, Frank DiMaio, Shane Horsefield, Xiong Yu, Peter Lavrencic, Zahid Hassan, Garry P Morgan, Ashley Mansell, Mehdi Mobli, Ailis O'Carroll, Brieuc Chauvin, Yann Gambin, Emma Sierecki, Michael J Landsberg, Katryn J Stacey, Edward H Egelman, Bostjan Kobe
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is a key innate immunity response to pathogens. Recruitment of signaling adapters such as MAL (TIRAP) and MyD88 to the TLRs requires Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain interactions, which remain structurally elusive. Here we show that MAL TIR domains spontaneously and reversibly form filaments in vitro. They also form cofilaments with TLR4 TIR domains and induce formation of MyD88 assemblies. A 7-Å-resolution cryo-EM structure reveals a stable MAL protofilament consisting of two parallel strands of TIR-domain subunits in a BB-loop-mediated head-to-tail arrangement...
July 31, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756925/intervention-effect-and-mechanism-of-curcumin-in-chronic-urinary-tract-infection-in-rats
#9
Wen-Yong Xue, Jin-Chun Qi, Lei Du
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the invention effect of curcumin on chronic urinary tract infection in rats and explore its possible mechanism of action. METHODS: The experimental animals were randomly divided into three groups, normal, model and curcumin group. Chronic urinary tract infection models were built for model group and curcumin group by injecting coliform fluid into the cavity of bladder. From the first day of modeling, rats in the curcumin group were injected with 150 mg/kg curcumin, while rats in normal group and model group were given no other treatment...
June 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754746/tumor-derived-exosomes-modulate-pd-l1-expression-in-monocytes
#10
Franziska Haderk, Ralph Schulz, Murat Iskar, Laura Llaó Cid, Thomas Worst, Karolin V Willmund, Angela Schulz, Uwe Warnken, Jana Seiler, Axel Benner, Michelle Nessling, Thorsten Zenz, Maria Göbel, Jan Dürig, Sven Diederichs, Jérôme Paggetti, Etienne Moussay, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Marc Zapatka, Peter Lichter, Martina Seiffert
In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), monocytes and macrophages are skewed toward protumorigenic phenotypes, including the release of tumor-supportive cytokines and the expression of immunosuppressive molecules such as programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). To understand the mechanism driving protumorigenic skewing in CLL, we evaluated the role of tumor cell-derived exosomes in the cross-talk with monocytes. We carried out RNA sequencing and proteome analyses of CLL-derived exosomes and identified noncoding Y RNA hY4 as a highly abundant RNA species that is enriched in exosomes from plasma of CLL patients compared with healthy donor samples...
July 28, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751890/tlr7-tlr9-and-b-cell-receptor-signaling-crosstalk-promotion-of-potentially-dangerous-b-cells
#11
REVIEW
Amy N Suthers, Stefanie Sarantopoulos
B cells are capable of receptor-mediated responses to foreign antigens. Recognition of microbial-derived nucleic acid (NA) by toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9 in B cells has been substantiated. Endogenous NA released from damaged or dying cells can also be immunogenic in certain contexts and can incite aberrant activation of B cells. When TLR-driven B cell receptor (BCR)-activated B cells are not properly constrained, pathologic autoantibodies are produced. It is also clear that endosomal TLR7/TLR9 can operate in conjunction with BCR...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748131/an-in-vitro-investigation-of-immunomodulatory-properties-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-l-delbrueckii-cells-and-their-extracellular-polysaccharides
#12
Mana Kishimoto, Ryohei Nomoto, Masashi Mizuno, Ro Osawa
Many probiotic lactobacilli and their extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) have beneficial immunological properties. However, it is unclear how they elicit the host immune response. We thus investigated the immunological properties of UV-killed Lactobacillus delbrueckii TU-1 and L. plantarum KM-9 cells as well as their extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). High-performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography analyses showed that their EPSs differ in sugar composition and sugar fractionation...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744851/post-translational-regulation-of-antiviral-innate-signaling
#13
REVIEW
Yilong Zhou, Chenxi He, Wang Lin, Baoxue Ge
The innate immune system initiates immune responses by pattern-recognition receptors (PRR). Virus-derived nucleic acids are sensed by the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family and the toll-like receptor (TLR) family as well as the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). These receptors activate IRF3/7 and NF-κB signaling pathways to induce the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines firing antiviral responses within the cell. However, to achieve a favorable outcome for the host, a balanced production of IFNs and activation of antiviral responses is required...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739827/transcriptional-profiling-of-the-chicken-tracheal-response-to-virulent-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-strain-rlow
#14
J Beaudet, E R Tulman, K Pflaum, X Liao, G F Kutish, S M Szczepanek, L K Silbart, S J Geary
Mycoplasma gallisepticum, the primary etiologic agent of Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) in poultry, leads to prolonged recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells in the respiratory mucosa. This is consistent with the current model of immune dysregulation that ostensibly allows the organism to evade clearance mechanisms and establish chronic infection. To date, studies using qRT-PCR and microarrays have shown a significant transient up-regulation of cytokines and chemokines from tracheal epithelial cells (TECs) in vitro and tracheal tissue ex vivo in response to virulent strain Rlow, that contributes to the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the tracheal mucosa...
July 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729250/stellarex-drug-coated-balloon-for-treatment-of-femoropopliteal-disease-12-month-outcomes-from-the-randomized-illumenate-pivotal-and-pharmacokinetic-studies
#15
Prakash Krishnan, Peter Faries, Khusrow Niazi, Ash Jain, Ravish Sachar, William B Bachinsky, Joseph A Cardenas, Martin Werner, Marianne Brodmann, J A Mustapha, Carlos I Mena-Hurtado, Michael R Jaff, Andrew H Holden, Sean P Lyden
Background -Drug-coated balloons (DCB) are a predominant revascularization therapy for symptomatic femoropopliteal artery disease. Due to differences in excipients, paclitaxel dose and coating morphologies, varying clinical outcomes have been observed with different DCBs. We report the results of two studies investigating the pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical outcomes of a new DCB to treat femoropopliteal disease. Methods -In the ILLUMENATE Pivotal Study, 300 symptomatic patients (Rutherford class 2-4), were randomized to DCB (N=200) or standard angioplasty (PTA) (N=100)...
July 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725012/phycocyanin-attenuates-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-the-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#16
Chengcheng Li, Yan Yu, Wenjun Li, Bo Liu, Xudong Jiao, Xinyu Song, Changjun Lv, Song Qin
Our aim was to investigate the effects of phycocyanin (PC) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). In this study, C57 BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 deficient mice were treated with PC for 28 days following BLM exposure. Serum and lung tissues were collected on days 3, 7 and 28. Data shows PC significantly decreased the levels of hydroxyproline (HYP), vimentin, surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C), fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) but dramatically increased E-cadherin and podoplanin (PDPN) expression on day 28...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715767/non-human-primates-as-a-model-for-understanding-the-mechanism-of-action-of-toll-like-receptor-based-vaccine-adjuvants
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Thompson, Karin Loré
While transgenic mouse models are powerful for understanding how the immune system is manipulated by vaccines, they cannot fully recapitulate the characteristics of the innate immune responses leading to adaptive immunity after vaccination in humans. Outbred non-human primates are far more representative models of human vaccine responses as there is high degree of similarities in immune cell subset distributions, receptor expression (including toll-like receptors; TLRs), and immune cell functions, in addition to modeling doses and injection sites more accurately...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714525/dedicated-bifurcation-stents-or-regular-drug-eluting-stents-in-distal-left-main-stenosis-a-retrospective-study
#18
Adam Kern, Robert J Gil, Krystian Bojko, Bartłomiej Rzeszowski, Krzysztof Bednarski, Jerzy Górny, Jacek Bil
BACKGROUND: Mainly atherosclerosis develops in distal left main (LM) within bifurcation or trifurcation. The aim of this study was to analyze the strategy of distal LM stenosis treatment and associated clinical outcomes in a large hospital in Northern Poland. METHODS: The study population consisted of consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and distal LM stenosis who were hospitalized between June 2012 and June 2013...
July 17, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711715/novel-peptide-motifs-from-lysozyme-suppress-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-macrophages-by-antagonizing-toll-like-receptor-and-lps-scavenging-action
#19
Hisham R Ibrahim, Kosuke Hamasaki, Takeshi Miyata
Lysozyme is commonly found in spots where bacterial infections are most likely to enter the body. Earlier we found that lysozyme possesses five antimicrobial peptide motifs in its N-terminal region which can be generated by newborn pepsin. In this study, we explore the role of these peptides in the anti-inflammatory activity of lysozyme. The five peptides, helix1 (H1), helix2 (H2), H1 and H2 connected with a loop (HLH), H2 extended with either 2 β-strands (H2-S12) or 3 β-strands (H2-S13), were synthesized and examined for anti-inflammatory action...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711708/ezetimibe-and-simvastatin-combination-inhibits-and-reverses-the-pro-inflammatory-and-pro-atherogenic-effects-of-cream-in-obese-patients
#20
Husam Ghanim, Kelly Green, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Reema Patel, Manav Batra, Ajay Chaudhuri, Antoine Makdissi, Nitesh D Kuhadiya, Paresh Dandona
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammation and postprandial lipemia are associated with increased cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether ezetimibe and simvastatin combination, a lipid lowering combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in the fasting state and after dairy cream intake. METHODS: Twenty obese patients were randomized to either ezetimibe and simvastatin combination or placebo treatment for 6 weeks. All patients were asked to ingest 33 ml of dairy cream (300 Calories) at the beginning and at the end of intervention...
June 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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