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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#1
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329218/molecular-and-physiological-effects-on-the-small-intestine-of-weaner-pigs-following-feeding-with-deoxynivalenol-contaminated-feed
#2
J Alex Pasternak, Vaishnavi Iyer Aka Aiyer, Glenn Hamonic, A Denise Beaulieu, Daniel A Columbus, Heather L Wilson
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20-0.40 ppm DON (referred to as the Control group) and treatment group receiving much higher level of DON-contaminated wheat (3.30-3.80 ppm; referred to as DON-contaminated group). Feeding a DON-contaminated diet had no impact on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p < 0...
January 12, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313272/tenascin-c-a-biomarker-of-disease-activity-in-early-ankylosing-spondylitis
#3
Latika Gupta, Shruti Bhattacharya, Amita Aggarwal
Monocytes of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) over-express toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Tenascin-C (TNC) is an endogenous TLR4 ligand. Thus, we studied the serum and synovial fluid levels of TNC in AS. TNC was measured in serum of 36 AS patients (ASAS 2010 criteria) and 39 healthy controls by ELISA. Twenty-two patients were followed up after 3 months of standard treatment. Five paired serum-synovial fluid samples were also analyzed. Disease activity was assessed by BASDAI, ASDAS, swollen joint count, ESR, and CRP...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312832/lipid-raft-localization-of-tlr2-and-its-co-receptors-is-independent-of-membrane-lipid-composition
#4
Christine Hellwing, Axel Schoeniger, Claudia Roessler, Anja Leimert, Julia Schumann
Background: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306151/enhancement-of-immune-response-of-piglets-to-pcv-2-vaccine-by-porcine-il-2-and-fusion-il-4-6-gene-entrapped-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#5
Yi Chen, Tingyu Song, Yong-Le Xiao, Xiaoping Wan, Luyi Yang, Jinghai Li, Guangzhi Zeng, Pengfei Fang, Ze-Zhou Wang, Rong Gao
In order to develop a novel effective immunomodulator to enhance pig resistance against post-weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a recombinant plasmid co-expressing pig interleukin-2 (IL-2) and fusion interleukin-4/6 (IL-4/6) genes, designated VRIL4/6-2, was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan (CS) nanoparticles prepared by the ionotropic gelation method. Then 21-day old piglets were divided into two groups and intramuscularly injected respectively with VPIL4/6-2-CS and saline along with the porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) vaccine...
December 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286109/the-protective-effects-of-magnolol-on-acute-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid%C3%A2-induced-colitis-in-rats
#6
Yong Zhang, Li-Tang Fu, Fang Tang
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of magnolol on acute 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)‑induced colitis, and its underlying mechanisms. Experimental colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of TNBS/ethanol into rats. The model rats were randomly assigned into groups: TNBS, magnolol (high, medium and low doses), and salazosulfapyridine (positive control). All intervention regimens were administered by oral gavage, once a day for 7 consecutive days, 24 h after colitis induction...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285955/novel-nitinol-stent-for-lesions-up-to-24-cm-in-the-superficial-femoral-and-proximal-popliteal-arteries-24-month-results-from-the-tigris-randomized-trial
#7
John R Laird, Thomas Zeller, Christian Loewe, Jack Chamberlin, Richard Begg, Peter A Schneider, Aravinda Nanjundappa, Frank Bunch, Scott Schultz, Stuart Harlin, Alexandra Lansky, Michael R Jaff
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the TIGRIS stent for lesions up to 24 cm in the superficial femoral and proximal popliteal arteries (SFA/PPA). METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, randomized study enrolled 274 subjects at 36 sites in the United States and Europe. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to treatment with the TIGRIS stent (n=197; mean age 66.7±9.28 years; 141 men) or LifeStent (n=70; mean age 67.9±8.87 years; 49 men)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242168/akt1-distinctively-suppresses-myd88-depenedent-and-trif-dependent-toll-like-receptor-signaling-in-a-kinase-activity-independent-manner
#8
Kosuke Zenke, Masashi Muroi, Ken-Ichi Tanamoto
We found that AKT1, a primary effector molecule of PI3K-AKT signaling, distinctively suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated MyD88-dependent and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-dependent signaling by inhibiting NF-κB activation and IRF3 activity independently of its kinase activity. In AKT1 knockout RAW264.7 cells, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transcription and protein production of cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α (regulated by the MyD88-dependent pathway), as well as IFN-β and RANTES (C-C motif chemokine ligand 5: CCL-5; regulated by the TRIF-dependent pathways) was enhanced compared to wild type cells...
December 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240962/long-term-outcomes-after-percutaneous-revascularization-of-complex-coronary-bifurcation-lesions-using-a-dedicated-self-expanding-biolimus-eluting-stent-system
#9
Andreas S Triantafyllis, Johan Bennett, Efstathios Pagourelias, Keir McCutcheon, Tom Adriaenssens, Peter R Sinnaeve, Walter Desmet, Christophe Dubois
BACKGROUND: To evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after treatment of complex bifurcation lesions with the AXXESS dedicated self-expanding biolimus A9-eluting bifurcation stent. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2013, 123 patients with complex bifurcation lesions were treated in a single center with the AXXESS stent in the proximal main vessel (MV) and additional drug-eluting stents in branches when required. Median follow-up was 5 years. Primary endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE)...
December 14, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220492/hbv-derived-synthetic-long-peptide-can-boost-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-chronic-hbv-patients-ex-vivo
#10
Yingying Dou, Nadine van Montfoort, Aniek van den Bosch, Robert A de Man, Gijs G Zom, Willem-Jan Krebber, Cornelis J M Melief, Sonja I Buschow, Andrea M Woltman
Background: Vaccination with Synthetic Long Peptides (SLP ®) is a promising new treatment strategy for chronic HBV (CHB). SLP can induce broad T cell responses for all HLA types. Here we investigated the ability of a prototype HBV-core (HBc)-sequence-derived SLP to boost HBV-specific T cells in CHB patients ex vivo. Methods: HBc-SLP was used to assess cross-presentation by monocyte-derived DC(moDC) and BDCA1+ blood myeloid DC (mDC) to engineered HBV-specific CD8+ T cells...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214713/stent-graft-treatment-for-infra-inguinal-arterial-disease-for-either-instent-restenosis-and-denovo-lesions-associated-with-very-high-rates-of-failure
#11
Maheswara S Golla, Subasit Acharji, Timir K Paul, Praveena Madapathi, Lawrence A Garcia
BACKGROUND: FDA approved the Gore Viabahn (WL Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) stent for both femoro-popliteal arterial denovo and instent restenosis (ISRS) lesions. To date there is little data on Viabahn stent graft outcomes in ISRS arterial disease. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2014 we identified 734 patients who underwent 1573 endovascular interventions in our institution for infra-inguinal revascularization. Among these, 48 patients had 143 Viabahn stents placed. Of these, 26 patients had 94 stents placed for ISRS and 22 patients had 49 stents placed for denovo lesions...
December 7, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205492/9-month-results-of-polymer-free-sirolimus-eluting-stents-in-young-patients-compared-to-a-septuagenarian-and-octogenarian-all-comer-population
#12
Behrouz Kherad, Matthias Waliszewski, Matthias Leschke, Muhammad Ali Kader, Liew Houng Bang, Fernando Lozano Ruiz-Poveda, Burkert Pieske, Florian Krackhardt
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the 9-month safety and efficacy of polymer-free sirolimus eluting drug eluting stents in septuagenarians and octogenarians. METHODS: An all-comer, worldwide single armed trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02629575) was conducted to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of an ultra-thin strut, polymer-free sirolimus eluting stent (PF-SES). The primary endpoint was the 9-month target revascularization rate (TLR). Secondary endpoints included the rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding (BARC) in septuagenarians (≥70 years, <80 years), and in octogenarians (≥80 years) to be compared to the younger patient group (<70 years)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204451/targeting-of-immune-cells-by-dual-tlr2-7-ligands-suppresses-features-of-allergic-th2-immune-responses-in-mice
#13
Jonathan Laiño, Andrea Wangorsch, Frank Blanco, Sonja Wolfheimer, Maren Krause, Adam Flaczyk, Tobias-Maximilian Möller, Mindy Tsai, Stephen Galli, Stefan Vieths, Masako Toda, Stephan Scheurer, Stefan Schülke
Background: TLR ligands can promote Th1-biased immune responses, mimicking potent stimuli of viruses and bacteria. Aim: To investigate the adjuvant properties of dual TLR2/7 ligands compared to those of the mixture of both single ligands. Methods: Dual TLR2/7 ligands: CL401, CL413, and CL531, including CL264 (TLR7-ligand) and Pam2CysK4 (TLR2-ligand), were used. Immune-modulatory capacity of the dual ligands with the individual ligands alone or as a mixture in mouse BMmDCs, BMmDC:TC cocultures, or BMCMCs was compared and assessed in naïve mice and in a mouse model of OVA-induced intestinal allergy...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201029/virologic-and-immunologic-characteristics-in-mature-ducks-with-acute-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-1-infection
#14
Sai Mao, Mingshu Wang, Xumin Ou, Di Sun, Anchun Cheng, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xinxin Zhao, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck hepatitis A virus 1 (DHAV-1) infection in mature ducks has previously been proposed as a small-animal model for human hepatitis A. However, basic research on the outcome of DHAV-1 infection in mature ducks is limited. Here, we examined the course of viremia, the characteristics of antibody responses, and the profiles of plasma cytokines in mature ducks infected with DHAV-1. During the course of infection, the viremia was detectable soon after infection and persisted for 196 days, however, the ducks presented as clinically asymptomatic...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198126/effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-toll-like-receptor-4-signals-in-mouse-cancer-cells
#15
N Dana, S H Javanmard, G Vaseghi
BACKGROUND: Recent findings showed that activated TLR signals on cancer cells might promote cancer progression. This study was designed to explore the influence of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on mouse melanoma and breast cancer cell proliferation and their TLR4 signalling. METHODS: Mouse melanoma cell line (B16F10) and breast cancer cell line (4T1) were taken as models. They were treated with LPS (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 µg/ml) for 4, 16, 24, 48 h and MTT assay was done...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196206/divergence-of-protein-sensing-tlr-4-5-and-nucleic-acid-sensing-tlr-3-7-within-the-reptilian-lineage
#16
Manisha Priyam, Mamta Tripathy, Umesh Rai, Soma Mondal Ghorai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195133/effects-of-fish-oils-on-ex-vivo-b-cell-responses-of-obese-subjects-upon-bcr-tlr-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#17
William Guesdon, Rasagna Kosaraju, Patricia Brophy, Angela Clark, Steve Dillingham, Shahnaz Aziz, Fiona Moyer, Kate Willson, James R Dick, Shivajirao Prakash Patil, Nicholas Balestrieri, Michael Armstrong, Nichole Reisdroph, Saame Raza Shaikh
The long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fish oil have immunomodulatory properties. B cells are a poorly studied target of EPA/DHA in humans. Therefore, in this pilot study, we tested how n-3 LC-PUFAs influence B-cell responses of obese humans. Obese men and women were assigned to consume four 1-g capsules per day of olive oil (OO, n=12), fish oil (FO, n=12) concentrate or high-DHA-FO concentrate (n=10) for 12 weeks in a parallel design...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180487/toxoplasma-gondii-inactivates-human-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-by-functional-mimicry-of-il-10
#18
Piotr L Pierog, Yanlin Zhao, Sukhwinder Singh, Jihong Dai, George S Yap, Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the major producers of IFN-α, an antiviral cytokine involved in immunomodulation and control of HIV type 1 replication, whereas Toxoplasma gondii is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. During infection with HIV type 1, human pDCs decrease in circulation and remaining pDC produce lower amounts of IFN-α in response to viral stimulation. In this study, we investigated the impact of coinfection with T. gondii on the innate virus-directed responses of human pDCs...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174504/intravesical-immunomodulatory-imiquimod-enhances-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-downregulation-of-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#19
Juliana A Camargo, Gabriela R Passos, Karen L Ferrari, Athanase Billis, Mário J A Saad, Leonardo O Reis
BACKGROUND: The Toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 agonist bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although not failure proof, has been the most efficient immunomodulatory treatment of immunogenic nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) for > 40 years. We investigated the role of the immunomodulatory molecule TLR7 agonist imiquimod through the BCG key receptors TLR2/4 and the main downstream molecules of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in NMIBC treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 Fischer-344 rats, 7 weeks old, received 4 doses of 1...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171715/restenosis-patterns-after-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-implantation-angiographic-substudy-of-the-ghost-eu-registry
#20
Moritz Baquet, Holger Nef, Tomasso Gori, Azeem Latib, Davide Capodanno, Carlo Di Mario, Manel Sabate, Antonio Colombo, Corrado Tamburino, Julinda Mehilli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate pattern of in-BVS-restenosis after bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation. BACKGROUND: In-stent restenosis morphology impacts target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates and clinical outcomes. Although several trials report on outcomes after BVS implantation, information about in-BVS restenosis pattern is still lacking. METHODS: Between November 2011 and January 2014, in 7 of 10 European centers participating in the GHOST-EU registry, 668 patients underwent BVS implantation...
November 24, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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