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Comparative anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749375/towards-fast-online-intrafraction-replanning-for-free-breathing-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-with-the-mr-linac
#1
Charis Kontaxis, Gijsbert H Bol, Bjorn Stemkens, Markus Glitzner, Fieke M Prins, Linda G W Kerkmeijer, Jan J W Lagendijk, Bas W Raaymakers
The hybrid MRI-radiotherapy machines, like the MR-linac (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) installed at the UMC Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands), will be able to provide real-time patient imaging during treatment. In order to take advantage of the system's capabilities and enable online adaptive treatments, a new generation of software should be developed, ranging from motion estimation to treatment plan adaptation. In this work we present a proof of principle adaptive pipeline designed for high precision Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) suitable for sites affected by respiratory motion, like Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)...
July 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744658/characteristics-of-retinal-vessels-in-surgically-closed-macular-hole-an-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-study
#2
Cheolmin Yun, Jaemoon Ahn, Mingue Kim, Jee Taek Kim, Soon-Young Hwang, Seong-Woo Kim, Jaeryung Oh
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to investigate characteristics of retinal vessels in eyes with surgically closed macular holes (MH). METHODS: We included patients who underwent surgery for idiopathic MH and a follow-up examination using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and retinal vascular densities of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were calculated on the postoperative OCTA images and compared with those of age-matched normal controls...
July 25, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744076/mr-fistulography-with-percutaneous-instillation-of-aqueous-jelly-a-cost-effective-technique-innovation
#3
Rohit Aggarwal, Brijesh K Soni, Joish U Kumar, Raju A George, Rajeev Sivasankar
BACKGROUND: Perianal fistula is a commonly encountered condition in routine surgical practice. Accurate presurgical mapping of these tracts is vital to prevent recurrence. We have assessed the effectiveness of percutaneous instillation of aqueous jelly prior to magnetic resonance (MR) fistulography. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the role of percutaneous instillation of aqueous jelly in fistulous tracts prior to MR fistulography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with active discharge, referred for MR fistulography between January 2014 and April 2016, were included in this study...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743430/evaluation-of-the-root-canal-anatomy-of-maxillary-and-mandibular-premolars-in-a-selected-german-population-using-cone-beam-computed-tomographic-data
#4
Sebastian Bürklein, Ricarda Heck, Edgar Schäfer
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the number of roots and the morphology of the root canals of maxillary and mandibular premolars in a selected German population. METHODS: Randomly selected full-size cone-beam computed tomographic images were collected from 700 patients (45% men and 55% women, average age = 50.21 years). This resulted in a total of 644 first and 512 second maxillary premolars as well as 1044 first and 871 second mandibular premolars...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743156/components-of-mesophyll-resistance-and-their-environmental-responses-a-theoretical-modeling-analysis
#5
Yi Xiao, Xin-Guang Zhu
Mesophyll resistance (rm ), together with stomatal resistance and biochemical limitations, are recognized as three critical factors limiting leaf photosynthesis. Contrary to the expectation of being a constant, rm not only varies with light and CO2 conditions but also shows different responses among species. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of these responses, we derived an analytical model of rm , which incorporates various anatomical and biochemical factors including permeabilities of cell wall and chloroplast envelope to CO2 and HCO3(-) , carbonic anhydrase activities in cytosol and stroma, Rubisco activities, and relative location of mitochondria and chloroplast...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740912/effect-of-variations-in-atelectasis-on-tumor-displacement-during-radiation-therapy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer
#6
Nathan Tennyson, Elisabeth Weiss, William Sleeman, Mihaela Rosu, Nuzhat Jan, Geoffrey D Hugo
PURPOSE: Atelectasis (AT), or collapsed lung, is frequently associated with central lung tumors. We investigated the variation of atelectasis volumes during radiation therapy and analyzed the effect of AT volume changes on the reproducibility of the primary tumor (PT) position. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twelve patients with lung cancer who had AT and 10 patients without AT underwent repeated 4-dimensional fan beam computed tomography (CT) scans during radiation therapy per protocols that were approved by the institutional review board...
January 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740664/development-of-a-novel-ex-vivo-porcine-laparoscopic-heller-myotomy-and-nissen-fundoplication-training-model-toronto-lap-nissen-simulator
#7
Hideki Ujiie, Tatsuya Kato, Hsin-Pei Hu, Patrycja Bauer, Priya Patel, Hironobu Wada, Daiyoon Lee, Kosuke Fujino, Colin Schieman, Andrew Pierre, Thomas K Waddell, Shaf Keshavjee, Gail E Darling, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: Surgical trainees are required to develop competency in a variety of laparoscopic operations. Developing laparoscopic technical skills can be difficult as there has been a decrease in the number of procedures performed. This study aims to develop an inexpensive and anatomically relevant model for training in laparoscopic foregut procedures. METHODS: An ex vivo, anatomic model of the human upper abdomen was developed using intact porcine esophagus, stomach, diaphragm and spleen...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740398/focusing-on-a-complete-blood-cell-parameter-mean-platelet-volume-levels-may-be-a-predictor-of-coronary-slow-flow
#8
Mücahid Yılmaz, Mustafa Necati Dağlı, Ökkeş Uku, Mehmet Nail Bilen, Hasan Korkmaz, Kenan Erdem, Ertuğrul Kurtoğlu
BACKGROUND: The relationship between increased mean platelet volume (MPV) and atherosclerosis is well known. In the present study, MPV in patients with coronary slow flow (CSF) and in cases with normal coronary anatomy (NCA) was investigated and compared with the aim of identifying the relationship between CSF and MPV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 40 patients previously determined via coronary angiography as having NCA and 40 patients with CSF in the coronary blood stream, as identified by thrombolysis in myocardial infarction square...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739165/quantitative-models-of-feline-lumbosacral-dorsal-root-ganglia-neuronal-cell-density
#9
Anastasia K Ostrowski, Zachariah J Sperry, Grant Kulik, Tim M Bruns
BACKGROUND: Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are spinal root components that contain the cell bodies of converging primary sensory neurons. DRG are becoming a therapeutic target for electrical neural interfaces. Our purpose was to establish methods for quantifying the non-random nature and distribution of neuronal cell bodies within DRG. NEW METHOD: We identified neuronal cell body locations in 26 feline lumbosacral DRG cross-section histological images and used computational tools to quantify spatial trends...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738371/robotic-obstructive-sleep-apnea-surgery
#10
Song Tar Toh, Pon Poh Hsu
Since the first report of the use of the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in transoral robotic tongue base reduction for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was published in 2010, this surgical tool and technique has been used worldwide for the resection of tongue base tissue in the multilevel surgical treatment of OSA. The combined knowledge of the published literature on its use has enlightened sleep surgeons worldwide on this new yet evolving surgical tool. Here we will discuss the use of the da Vinci robotic system in the treatment of OSA, the pertinent surgical anatomy for a safe surgical procedure, the primary and secondary outcomes to expect in the multilevel and primary use of this technology in treating the tongue base, the predictors for success or failure, and the complications associated with this technique...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735789/xp-shaper-a-novel-adaptive-core-rotary-instrument-micro-computed-tomographic-analysis-of-its-shaping-abilities
#11
Adham A Azim, Lucila Piasecki, Ulisses Xavier da Silva Neto, Alessandra Timponi Goes Cruz, Katharina A Azim
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the shaping abilities of the XP Shaper (FKG, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and compare the findings with Vortex Blue (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) using micro-computed tomographic imaging. METHODS: Twenty matched, extracted, mandibular, central incisors with a single, oval canal were scanned preoperatively at 25-μm resolution and postoperatively after instrumentation with either Vortex Blue in a crown-down manner up to size 30...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734652/worldwide-prevalence-of-mandibular-second%C3%A2-molar%C3%A2-c-shaped-morphologies-evaluated-by-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#12
Murilo von Zuben, Jorge N R Martins, Luiza Berti, Imran Cassim, Daniel Flynn, Jose Antonio Gonzalez, Yongchun Gu, Jojo Kottoor, Adam Monroe, Rubén Rosas Aguilar, Miguel Seruca Marques, António Ginjeira
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the C-shaped mandibular second molar prevalence in different regions around the world with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography technology. METHODS: Nine field observers from 9 different geographic regions were calibrated. A total of 400 samples were collected in each region. The prevalence of C-shaped anatomy was calculated. The number of roots and the configuration of the C-shaped canals at 3 different axial levels were also evaluated...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734644/postmastectomy-radiation-therapy-technique-and-cardiopulmonary-sparing-a-dosimetric-comparative-analysis-between-photons-and-protons-with-free-breathing-versus-deep-inspiration-breath-hold
#13
Sagar A Patel, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Jacqueline A Nyamwanda, Rachel B Jimenez, Alphonse G Taghian, Shannon M MacDonald, Nicolas Depauw
PURPOSE: Dosimetric studies have suggested greater cardiopulmonary sparing with protons over photons for left-sided postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Modern techniques such as deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) can help spare the heart. This analysis compares photon and proton delivery with and without DIBH. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten women with left breast cancer referred for PMRT on a prospective clinical trial with unfavorable cardiac anatomy underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography simulation...
June 21, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733783/perianth-organs-in-nymphaeaceae-comparative-study-on-epidermal-and-structural-characters
#14
Lucía Melisa Zini, Beatriz Gloria Galati, María Silvia Ferrucci
The perianth organs of six species of Nymphaeaceae, representing Euryale, Nymphaea and Victoria, were studied on the basis of macroscopical, micromorphological, and anatomical characters. The aims were to determine whether perianth is differentiated among tepal whorls considering the presence of sepaloid and petaloid characters, and to evaluate the occurrence of both features in individual tepals. Selected perianth series were examined macroscopically, with light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733774/a-study-of-anatomy-of-distal-femur-pertaining-to-total-knee-replacement-an-analysis-conclusions-and-recommendations
#15
K Kumar, D Sharma
BACKGROUND: Multiple landmarks including the transepicondylar axis (TEA), posterior condylar axis (PCA) and anterior trochlear line (TL) have been used to set up the femoral component rotation, but each is faced with its own practical obstacle that limits its usage. Also a common practice is to set the femoral component rotation at 3° external rotation to PCA and valgus resection angle at 5°-7° to anatomical axis of femur. For the reason that the anatomy of each knee is different, it may not be justified to practice such a set protocol in all cases...
July 21, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732521/retroclavicular-approach-vs-infraclavicular-approach-for-plexic-bloc-anesthesia-of-the-upper-limb-study-protocol-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
P L Langlois, A F Gil-Blanco, D Jessop, Y Sansoucy, F D'Aragon, N Albert, P Echave
BACKGROUND: The coracoid approach is recognized as the simplest approach to perform brachial plexus anaesthesia, but needle visualization needs to be improved. With a different needle entry point, the retroclavicular approach confers a perpendicular angle between the ultrasound and the needle, which theoretically enhances needle visualization. This trial compares these two techniques. The leading hypothesis is that the retroclavicular approach is comparable to the infraclavicular coracoid approach in general aspects, but needle visualization is better with this novel approach...
July 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732208/longitudinal-investigation-of-the-parietal-lobe-anatomy-in-bipolar-disorder-and-its-association-with-general-functioning
#17
Adele Ferro, Carolina Bonivento, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Nicola Dusi, Veronica Marinelli, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Paolo Brambilla
The parietal lobe (PL) supports cognitive domains, including attention and memory, which are impaired in bipolar disorder (BD). Although cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies found reduced PL grey matter (GM) in BD, none has longitudinally focused on PL anatomy in BD, relating it to patients' functioning. Thirty-eight right-handed BD patients and 42 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan at baseline. Seventeen BD patients and 16 matched HS underwent a follow-up MRI...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731896/freehand-versus-guided-surgery-factors-influencing-accuracy-of-dental-implant-placement
#18
William Choi, Bao-Chau Nguyen, Andrew Doan, Sabine Girod, Brice Gaudilliere, Dyani Gaudilliere
INTRODUCTION: Patient anatomy, practitioner experience, and surgical approach are all factors that influence implant accuracy. However, the relative importance of each factor is poorly understood. The present study aimed to identify which factors most critically determine implant accuracy to aid the practitioner in case selection for guided versus freehand surgery. METHODS: One practitioner's ideal implant angulation and position was compared with his achieved position radiographically for 450 implants placed using a conventional freehand method...
August 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731779/arthroscopic-labral-base-repair-in-the-hip-5-year-minimum-clinical-outcomes
#19
Benjamin G Domb, Leslie C Yuen, Victor Ortiz-Declet, Jody Litrenta, Itay Perets, Austin W Chen
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic labral base repair (LBR) in the hip is a previously described technique designed to restore the native functional anatomy of the labrum by reproducing its seal against the femoral head. LBR has been shown to have good short-term outcomes. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to evaluate clinical outcomes of an LBR cohort with a minimum 5-year follow-up. It was hypothesized that patients who underwent LBR would continue to have significant improvement from their preoperative scores and maintain scores similar to their 2-year outcomes...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730682/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-i-segmental-architecture-compartmentalization-and-lineage-anatomy
#20
Volker Hartenstein, Jaison J Omoto, Kathy T Ngo, Darren Wong, Philipp A Kuert, Heinrich Reichert, Jennifer K Lovick, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain houses the circuitry underlying feeding behavior and is involved in many other aspects of sensory processing and locomotor control. Formed by the merging of four neuromeres, the internal architecture of the SEZ can be best understood by identifying segmentally reiterated landmarks emerging in the embryo and larva, and following the gradual changes by which these landmarks become integrated into the mature SEZ during metamorphosis. In previous works, the system of longitudinal fibers (connectives) and transverse axons (commissures) has been utilized as a scaffold that provides internal landmarks for the neuromeres of the larval ventral nerve cord...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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