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Comparative anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792856/comparison-of-the-3-d-patterns-of-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system-in-the-lung-at-late-developmental-stages-between-mouse-and-chicken
#1
Tadayoshi Watanabe, Ryo Nakamura, Yuta Takase, Etsuo A Susaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Ryosuke Tadokoro, Yoshiko Takahashi
Although the basic schema of the body plan is similar among different species of amniotes (mammals, birds, and reptiles), the lung is an exception. Here, anatomy and physiology are considerably different, particularly between mammals and birds. In mammals, inhaled and exhaled airs mix in the airways, whereas in birds the inspired air flows unidirectionally without mixing with the expired air. This bird-specific respiration system is enabled by the complex tubular structures called parabronchi where gas exchange takes place, and also by the bellow-like air sacs appended to the main part of the lung...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792520/changes-in-the-neurovascular-anatomy-of-the-shoulder-after-an-open-latarjet-procedure-defining-a-surgical-safe-zone
#2
Christopher M LaPrade, Andrew S Bernhardson, Zachary S Aman, Gilbert Moatshe, Jorge Chahla, Grant J Dornan, Robert F LaPrade, Matthew T Provencher
BACKGROUND: Although previous literature has described the relevant anatomy for an open anterior Bankart approach of the shoulder, there is little known regarding the anatomic relationship changes in the neurovascular structures after an open Latarjet procedure. PURPOSE: To define the neurovascular anatomy of the native shoulder in relation to the coracoid and to define the anatomy after the Latarjet procedure in relation to the glenoid to determine distances to these neurovascular structures with and without neurolysis of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) from the conjoint tendon...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791720/c-4-photosynthesis-and-transition-of-kranz-anatomy-in-cotyledons-and-leaves-of-tetraena-simplex
#3
Riyadh Muhaidat, Athena D McKown, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Zakariya Bani Domi, Osama Otoum
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Tetraena simplex is an independently evolved C4 species in the Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) and a characteristic forb of saline flats in hot and sandy desert habitats. During early ontogeny, the species had a morphological shift from planar cotyledons (dorsiventral symmetry) to terete, succulent leaves (radial symmetry). We tested whether this shift had a corresponding change in internal Kranz anatomy and tissue patterning. METHODS: For a comprehensive characterization of C4 photosynthesis across early ontogeny in T...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791418/-ercp-success-after-72-hours-of-pre-cut
#4
Arecio Peñaloza-Ramírez, Andrés Murillo-Arias, Jaison Rodríguez-Mongui, Ricardo Carvajal-Flechas, Pedro Aponte-Ordoñez
INTRODUCTION: Despite the advances of bile duct catheterization, its success is still not guaranteed. Few studies have been published regarding a second ERCP attempt, however those reports enhance the catheterization success Objective: To determine whether an ERCP performed 72 hours after a first precut papillotomy enhances the bile duct catheterization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort study was performed including all patients that had ERCP with precut papilotomy without catheterization of the bile duct and 72 hours later were programmed to a new ERCP between September 2015 and September 2016...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789303/-me_who-anatomy-of-scholastic-leadership-and-social-isolation-of-underrepresented-minority-women-in-academic-medicine
#5
Michelle A Albert
In academic medicine, under-represented minority women physician-scientists (URMWP)* are uncommon, particularly in leadership positions. Data from the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC) show that among internal medicine chairs, there are 12 Asian males, 10 African/American (blacks; 9 men), 7 Hispanics (2 females) and 137 whites (21 females). In the top 40 ranked cardiology programs, there are no female cardiology chiefs, whereas there are at least 10, 2, 1 and 24 Asian, black, Hispanic and white males respectively...
May 22, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789151/surgical-algorithm-and-results-for-repair-of-pulmonary-atresia-with-ventricular-septal-defect-and-major-aortopulmonary-collaterals
#6
Richard D Mainwaring, William L Patrick, Stephen J Roth, Komal Kamra, Lisa Wise-Faberowski, Michal Palmon, Frank L Hanley
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries is a complex and heterogeneous form of congenital heart disease. There is a controversy regarding the optimal treatment of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. The purpose of this study was to summarize our algorithm and surgical results for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788188/importance-of-fenestration-size-for-definitive-treatment-of-a-quadrigeminal-arachnoid-cyst-endoscopic-inspection-of-the-cyst-and-surrounding-anatomy-2-dimensional-operative-video
#7
François Lechanoine, Pietro Spennato, Claudio Ruggiero, Giuseppe Cinalli
Arachnoid cysts are fluid-filled sacs, located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane. Their prevalence in children is between 1% and 3%. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts represent 1% to 10% of them and are often associated with hydrocephalus, mostly by an obstructive mechanism, explained by compression of the tectum of the midbrain. When an indication for treatment is retained, 3 surgical options are available: microsurgical excision/fenestration, endoscopic fenestration, and shunt placement...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786153/vasa-previa-screening-strategies-a-decision-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#8
R G Sinkey, A O Odibo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to perform a decision and cost-effectiveness analysis comparing four screening strategies for the antenatal diagnosis of vasa previa among singleton pregnancies. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was constructed comparing vasa previa screening strategies. Published probabilities and costs were applied to four transvaginal screening scenarios which occurred at the time of mid-trimester ultrasound: no screening, ultrasound-indicated screening, screening pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), and universal screening...
May 22, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784594/the-effect-of-increasing-catheter-distance-from-the-deep-junction-on-the-outcomes-of-radiofrequency-vein-ablation
#9
Afsha Aurshina, Yawei Zhang, Fang Wang, Jonathan Cardella, Kristine Orion, Bauer Sumpio, Timur Sarac, Cassius Iyad Ochoa Chaar
OBJECTIVE: Thermal vein ablation (VA) is the recommended treatment modality for superficial venous reflux, with a recommended positioning of the catheter at 2 to 3 cm from the junction of the deep venous system. In contrast, novel sealing technology for saphenous VA involves treatment starting at 3 to 5 cm distal to the deep junction. This study examines the effect of increasing catheter distance from the junction on the outcomes of VA using radiofrequency. METHODS: A retrospective single-center review of patients treated with VA was performed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780864/change-in-retinal-structural-anatomy-during-the-preclinical-stage-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Cláudia Y Santos, Lenworth N Johnson, Stuart E Sinoff, Elena K Festa, William C Heindel, Peter J Snyder
Introduction: We conducted a 27-month longitudinal study of mid-life adults with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), using spectral domain optical coherence tomography to compare changes in volume and thickness in all retinal neuronal layers to those of age-matched healthy control subjects. Methods: Fifty-six older adults (mean age = 65.36 years) with multiple risk factors for AD completed spectral domain optical coherence tomography retinal imaging and cognitive testing at baseline...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780666/chitin-distribution-in-the-oithona-digestive-and-reproductive-systems-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#11
Kevin Sugier, Benoit Vacherie, Astrid Cornils, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Louis Jamet, Mohammed-Amin Madoui
Among copepods, which are the most abundant animals on Earth, the genus Oithona is described as one of the most numerous and plays a major role in the marine food chain and biogeochemical cycles, particularly through the excretion of chitin-coated fecal pellets. Despite the morphology of several Oithona species is well known, knowledge of its internal anatomy and chitin distribution is still limited. To answer this problem, Oithona nana and O. similis individuals were stained by Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (WGA-FITC) and DiAmidino-2-PhenylIndole (DAPI) for fluorescence microscopy observations...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778671/international-study-of-comparative-health-effectiveness-with-medical-and-invasive-approaches-ischemia-trial-rationale-and-design
#12
David J Maron, Judith S Hochman, Sean M O'Brien, Harmony R Reynolds, William E Boden, Gregg W Stone, Sripal Bangalore, John A Spertus, Daniel B Mark, Karen P Alexander, Leslee Shaw, Jeffrey S Berger, T Bruce Ferguson, David O Williams, Robert A Harrington, Yves Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Prior trials comparing a strategy of optimal medical therapy with or without revascularization have not shown that revascularization reduces cardiovascular events in patients with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). However, those trials only included participants in whom coronary anatomy was known prior to randomization and did not include sufficient numbers of participants with significant ischemia. It remains unknown whether a routine invasive approach offers incremental value over a conservative approach with catheterization reserved for failure of medical therapy in patients with moderate or severe ischemia...
April 21, 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778635/a-critical-appraisal-of-11-th-century-treatise-by-ibn-sina-avicenna-on-the-anatomy-of-the-vascular-system-comparison-with-modern-anatomic-descriptions
#13
P Mazengenya, R Bhikha
Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna in the West) was the most famous physician and medical scientist of the medieval era. His book, the Canon of Medicine comprised a vast collection of medical information ranging from basic medical sciences to specialised medical fields. Herein, we present an analysis of the cardiovascular system, particularly giving an in-depth comparison of the structural and functional anatomy of the arteries and veins of the body as described by Avicenna in the Canon of Medicine and comparing them to modern extant anatomical literature...
May 16, 2018: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778596/anterior-vs-posterior-approach-for-thoracic-corpectomy-an-analysis-of-risk-factors-outcomes-and-complications
#14
Ryan G Chiu, Jonathan Hobbs, Darian R Esfahani, Saavan Patel, David Rosenberg, Clayton L Rosinski, Akash S Patel, Anisse N Chaker, Ankit I Mehta
BACKGROUND: Thoracic corpectomies are performed for various reasons including spinal deformity, trauma, neoplasms, and infection. Regardless of indication, both anterior and posterior approaches are surgical options, selected based on pathology, anatomy, patient characteristics, and surgical experience. Risk profiles and outcomes for these procedures are poorly characterized, however, and the choice between the two approaches remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To compare risk factors and complications for adult patients undergoing anterior and posterior thoracic corpectomies...
May 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777422/patellofemoral-cartilage-repair
#15
REVIEW
Alexandre Barbieri Mestriner, Jakob Ackermann, Andreas H Gomoll
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of well-established and newly developed cartilage repair techniques for cartilage defects in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). An algorithm will be presented for approaching cartilage defects considering the distinct anatomy of both the patellar and trochlear articular surfaces. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies on cartilage repair in the PFJ have demonstrated improved outcomes in an attempt to delay or obviate the need for arthroplasty, and improve symptoms in young patients...
May 18, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776740/development-of-a-deformable-phantom-for-experimental-verification-of-4d-monte-carlo-simulations-in-a-deforming-anatomy
#16
Sara Gholampourkashi, Joanna E Cygler, Bernie Lavigne, Emily Heath
PURPOSE: To verify the accuracy of 4D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, using the 4DdefDOSXYZnrc user code, in a deforming anatomy. We developed a tissue-equivalent and reproducible deformable lung phantom and evaluated 4D simulations of delivered dose to the phantom by comparing calculations against measurements. METHODS: A novel deformable phantom consisting of flexible foam, emulating lung tissue, inside a Lucite external body was constructed. A removable plug, containing an elastic tumor that can hold film and other dosimeters, was inserted in the phantom...
May 15, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776472/spherical-versus-elliptical-prosthetic-humeral-heads-a-comparison-of-anatomic-fit
#17
C Scott Humphrey, Andrea L Gale
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of prosthetic humeral head shape, as well as the number of available prosthetic head sizes, on replicating the normal humeral head anatomy during shoulder reconstructive surgery. METHODS: Computer modeling software was used to create virtual sets of both spherical and elliptical prosthetic heads, which were virtually implanted into 3-dimensional computed tomography scan-based models of 79 proximal humeri...
June 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776018/voxel-based-morphometry-in-creative-writers-gray-matter-increase-in-a-prefronto-thalamic-cerebellar-network
#18
Nicola Neumann, Martin Domin, Katharina Erhard, Martin Lotze
Continuous practice modulates those features of brain anatomy specifically associated with requirements of the respective training task. The current study aimed to highlight brain structural changes going along with long-term experience in creative writing. To this end, we investigated the gray-matter volume of 23 expert writers with voxel-based morphometry and compared it to 28 matched non-expert controls. Expert writers had higher gray-matter volume in the right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri (BA 9,10) as well as left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9, 10, 46), the bilateral medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus and left posterior cerebellum...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774184/a-systematic-review-of-clinical-value-of-three-dimensional-printing-in-renal-disease
#19
Zhonghua Sun, Dongting Liu
The aim of this systematic review is to analyse current literature related to the clinical value of three-dimensional (3D) printed models in renal disease. A literature search of PubMed and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies reporting the clinical application and usefulness of 3D printed models in renal disease. Fifteen studies were found to meet the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Eight of them provided quantitative assessments with five studies focusing on dimensional accuracy of 3D printed models in replicating renal anatomy and tumour, and on measuring tumour volume between 3D printed models and original source images and surgical specimens, with mean difference less than 10%...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772057/a-4d-global-respiratory-motion-model-of-the-thorax-based-on-ct-images-a-proof-of-concept
#20
H Fayad, M Gilles, T Pan, D Visvikis
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modelling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalised motion modeling required patient specific four dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
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