Read by QxMD icon Read

Comparative anatomy

Michael B Wayson, Wesley E Bolch
Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10-year-old, and adult...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Cristina Aurigemma, Francesco Burzotta, Giulio Russo, Leonardo Previ, Carlo Trani
The Completeness of Revascularization in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) remains an unanswered question. Despite 20 years of investigation there are still major doubts in this topic, reaching as far as to the lack of a standardized definition. The employment of different definition and the multiplicity of confounding variables that in general favor patients who receive a complete revascularization (CR) are the reason of difficult comparisons between studies. The complexity of coronary anatomy diseases and the clinical features play important role in the revascularization strategy...
March 15, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Shazia Imran, Maryam Shan, Shazia Muazam
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Shisha smoke on submucosal glands of trachea of mice; and compare it with tracheal glands of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Anatomy, Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad from October 2013 till April 2014. METHODOLOGY: Sample comprised of 40 adult male mice of strain BALB/c...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Wen-Zhao Sun, Dan-Dan Zhang, Ying-Lin Peng, Li Chen, De-Hua Kang, Bin Wang, Xiao-Wu Deng
BACKGROUND: Conventional phantom-based planar dosimetry (2D-PBD) quality assurance (QA) using gamma pass rate (GP (%)) is inadequate to reflect clinically relevant dose error in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), owing to a lack of information regarding patient anatomy and volumetric dose distribution. This study aimed to evaluate the dose distribution accuracy of IMRT delivery for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which passed the 2D-PBD verification, using a measurement-guided 3D dose reconstruction (3D-MGR) method...
March 15, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Laura J Olivieri, David Zurakowski, Karthik Ramakrishnan, Lillian Su, Fahad A Alfares, Matthew R Irwin, Jenna Heichel, Axel Krieger, Dilip S Nath
BACKGROUND: Postoperative care delivered in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) relies on providers' understanding of patients' congenital heart defects (CHDs) and procedure performed. Novel, bedside use of virtual, three-dimensional (3D) heart models creates access to patients' CHD to improve understanding. This study evaluates the impact of patient-specific virtual 3D heart models on CICU provider attitudes and care delivery. METHODS: Virtual 3D heart models were created from standard preoperative cardiac imaging of ten patients with CHD undergoing repair and displayed on a bedside tablet in the CICU...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Alberto Zanatta, Luca Bezzi, Nicola Carrara, Cicero Moraes, Gaetano Thiene, Fabio Zampieri
Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children...
March 14, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Yifei Lin, Deyi Luo, Banghua Liao, Tongxin Yang, Ye Tian, Tao Jin, Guiming Wang, Hongying Zhou, Hong Li, Kunjie Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative outcomes between the perineal inverted-U and the vertical midline incision approaches of the urethroplasty and clarify them via gross anatomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 461 male patients, from Jan. 2006 to Jun. 2014, who underwent the urethroplasty via perineal midline vertical or inverted-U incision approach were recruited retrospectively. By match pairing for etiology and stricture length, 410 patients from two groups (205 for each group) were selected...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Xuan Du, Wen Lu, Zijun Lu, Xinyu Shao, Chunhong Hu, Bimin Shi
Background: To study the effectiveness of exenatide with metformin and sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin and their influence on insulin sensitivity and adipose distribution. Methods: 20 newly diagnosed obese type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, and 2-month washout treatment of metformin, 6-month exenatide treatment, and 6-month glargine treatment were administrated sequentially accompanied with previous metformin. Glucolipid metabolic parameters were compared among groups...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Richard D Rabbitt, Eric G Ekdale, Miguel T Antunes, Rui Castanhinha, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous labyrinth SCs, it can be used as a proxy for animal behavior. The bony labyrinth of dicynodonts, a clade of herbivorous non-mammalian synapsids, has only been described in a handful of individuals and remains particularly obscure. Here we describe the bony labyrinth anatomy of three Endothiodon cf. bathystoma specimens from Mozambique based on digital reconstructions from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
Robin De Roover, Wouter Crijns, Kenneth Poels, Ronald Peeters, Cédric Draulans, Karin Haustermans, Tom Depuydt
PURPOSE: Liquid fiducial markers have shown to be a promising alternative to solid gold markers in terms of imaging artifact reduction, patient comfort and compatibility with different imaging modalities. This study aims to investigate the performance of the novel BioXmark® liquid marker for state-of-the-art multi-modal imaging used in prostate cancer (PCa) radiotherapy, encompassing kV CT/CBCT, multi-parametric MRI and kV X-ray imaging. In addition, automatic detection of the liquid markers in X-ray imaging for prostate motion monitoring during treatment was investigated...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Dylan K Wainwright, Sam Ingersoll, George V Lauder
Tunas of the genus Thunnus possess many morphological and physiological adaptations for their high-performance epipelagic ecology. Although Thunnus anatomy has been studied, there are no quantitative studies on the structure of their scales. We investigated the scales of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) from ten regions of the body using micro computed tomography (µCT)-scanning and histology to quantitatively and qualitatively compare regional scale morphology. We found a diversity of scale sizes and shapes across the body of bigeye tuna and discriminant function analysis on variables derived from µCT-data showed that scales across the body differ quantitatively in shape and size...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Marion Semmler, Michael Döllinger, Rita R Patel, Anke Ziethe, Anne Schützenberger
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Laser-based three-dimensional (3D) imaging allows realistic visualization and absolute measurement of the vocal folds for comprehensive characterization of the oscillation pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Exploratory study with descriptive data analysis in healthy cohort. METHODS: The custom-developed miniaturized measuring device is an endoscopic camera-laser setup for stereo triangulation and suitable for in vivo application...
March 14, 2018: Laryngoscope
Dennis F A E Voeten, Jorge Cubo, Emmanuel de Margerie, Martin Röper, Vincent Beyrand, Stanislav Bureš, Paul Tafforeau, Sophie Sanchez
Archaeopteryx is an iconic fossil taxon with feathered wings from the Late Jurassic of Germany that occupies a crucial position for understanding the early evolution of avian flight. After over 150 years of study, its mosaic anatomy unifying characters of both non-flying dinosaurs and flying birds has remained challenging to interpret in a locomotory context. Here, we compare new data from three Archaeopteryx specimens obtained through phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography to a representative sample of archosaurs employing a diverse array of locomotory strategies...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Konstantinos Natsis, Maria Piagkou, Nikolaos Lazaridis, Trifon Totlis, Nikolaos Anastasopoulos, Jannis Constantinidis
PURPOSE: The current study investigated the incidence, morphology and morphometry of the ossified ligaments expanding between petrous bone and posterior clinoid processes and in between the anterior, middle and posterior clinoid processes. Side symmetry, gender dimorphism and age influence were also studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 123 adult Greek dry skulls were observed. RESULTS: A caroticoclinoid bar (CCB) was found in 60.2%. Partial CCBs appeared more commonly (36...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Andreas Jerrentrup, Tobias Mueller, Ulrich Glowalla, Meike Herder, Nadine Henrichs, Andreas Neubauer, Juergen R Schaefer
TV series such as "House MD", "Grey´s Anatomy" or "Emergency Room" are well perceived by medical students. Seminars featuring medical TV series such as "House MD" might serve as door-opener to attract medical students to learn more about rare diseases. The TV series "House MD" is troublesome for the main character Dr. House is an excellent diagnostician but at the same time a rather misanthropic person. Therefore, lecturing medicine with the help of "House MD" requires constant evaluation...
2018: PloS One
Simon Drouin, D Louis Collins
Direct volume rendering has become an essential tool to explore and analyse 3D medical images. Despite several advances in the field, it remains a challenge to produce an image that highlights the anatomy of interest, avoids occlusion of important structures, provides an intuitive perception of shape and depth while retaining sufficient contextual information. Although the computer graphics community has proposed several solutions to address specific visualization problems, the medical imaging community still lacks a general volume rendering implementation that can address a wide variety of visualization use cases while avoiding complexity...
2018: PloS One
Ehsan Abadi, William P Segars, Gregory M Sturgeon, Justus E Roos, Carl E Ravin, Ehsan Samei
The purpose of this paper was to extend the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) series of computational phantoms to include a detailed lung architecture including airways and pulmonary vasculature. Eleven XCAT phantoms of varying anatomy were used in this paper. The lung lobes and initial branches of the airways, pulmonary arteries, and veins were previously defined in each XCAT model. These models were extended from the initial branches of the airways and vessels to the level of terminal branches using an anatomically-based volume-filling branching algorithm...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Bálint Tordai, Károly Schreindorfer, Edina Lempel, Károly Krajczár
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate the clinical value of two-dimensional radiographs and different radiographic measurement techniques before instrument removal with a microsonic technique. The aim was to find an easy-to-use technique for predicting the success of removal and case evaluation. Additionally the quality of root canal filling after instrument removal was assessed. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This retrospective study analyzed patients' records and preoperative and postoperative periapical radiographs made using the paralleling technique...
2018: Quintessence International
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"