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Comparative anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324328/interspinous-implants-to-treat-spinal-stenosis
#1
REVIEW
Raj J Gala, Glenn S Russo, Peter G Whang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lumbar spinal stenosis has historically been treated with open decompressive surgery which is associated with significant morbidity and may give rise to various complications. Interspinous spacers (ISS) have been developed as a less invasive strategy which may serve to avoid many of these risks. The two current spacers that are FDA approved and commercially available are the Coflex and Superion devices. The goal is to review these two implants, their indications, and patient selection...
March 21, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323767/how-to-get-to-the-distal-posterior-tibial-malleolus-a-cadaveric-anatomic-study-defining-the-access-corridors-through-3-different-approaches
#2
Mathieu Assal, Miki Dalmau-Pastor, Adrien Ray, Richard Stern
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to review the anatomy and exposure of the posterior column and posterior tibial malleolus (the posterior tibial plafond) by defining the access corridors through 3 different approaches-posteromedial, posterolateral, and modified posteromedial. METHODS: Cadaveric dissection with percentage of posterior tibial malleolus exposed, and strain gauge measurements to evaluate traction on the neurovascular bundle. RESULTS: The 3 different approaches are applicable for exposure of different portions of the distal posterior tibial malleolus...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323442/an-investigation-of-human-body-model-morphing-for-the-assessment-of-abdomen-responses-to-impact-against-a-population-of-test-subjects
#3
Philippe Beillas, Fabien Berthet
OBJECTIVE: Human Body Models have the potential to better describe the human anatomy and variability than dummies. However, datasets available to verify the human response to impact are typically limited in numbers, and they are not size or gender specific. The objective of the study was to investigate the use of model morphing methodologies within that context. METHODS: In the current study, a simple human model scaling methodology was developed to morph two detailed human models (Global Human Body Model Consortium models 50(th) male, M50 and 5(th) female F05) to the dimensions of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) used in published literature...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319535/validation-of-therapeutic-anatomy-oriented-classification-in-endosseous-dental-implant-treatment-a-pilot-study
#4
Marius Kubilius, Yagmur Deniz Ilarslan, Tolga F Tözüm, Hom-Lay Wang, Ričardas Kubilius, Gintaras Juodzbalys
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to validate a newly proposed therapeutic anatomically based clinical and radiological classification for dental implant treatment. METHODS: Eighty-one patients with at least 1 edentulous jaw segment (EJS) from 2 dental clinics were included in this study. Both clinical and radiological parameters were assessed in aesthetic and nonaesthetic zones. The data were then compared at preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative (subdivided into early and late stage) study stages...
April 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318922/surgical-rehabilitation-for-anophthalmic-sockets-devoid-of-orbital-implant
#5
Doo-Ri Eo, Yoon-Duck Kim, Kyung In Woo
PURPOSE: To determine the necessity of rehabilitative surgical procedures for no implant anophthalmic sockets, and predictive factors of corrective operations after secondary orbital implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen unilateral anophthalmic patients without orbital implant were included. The distance of eyebrow, upper eyelid margin, and lower eyelid margin from the horizontal medial canthal line (BM, UM, and LM, respectively) was measured using photographs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317945/identification-and-comparative-profiling-of-mirnas-in-herbaceous-peony-paeonia-lactiflora-pall-with-red-yellow-bicoloured-flowers
#6
Daqiu Zhao, Mengran Wei, Min Shi, Zhaojun Hao, Jun Tao
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is popular worldwide because of its gorgeous flower colour, and the yellow flower is the rarest. However, its mechanism of yellow formation is still unexplored from the post-translational level. In this study, the anatomy of the petal, cell sap pH and metal elements were investigated in bicoloured flower cultivar 'Jinhui' with red outer-petal and yellow inner-petal, and the yellow formation was influenced by the anatomy of petal, while not by the cell sap pH and metal elements...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317556/skull-5-from-dmanisi-descriptive-anatomy-comparative-studies-and-evolutionary-significance
#7
G Philip Rightmire, Marcia S Ponce de León, David Lordkipanidze, Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer
A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317554/chimpanzee-and-human-midfoot-motion-during-bipedal-walking-and-the-evolution-of-the-longitudinal-arch-of-the-foot
#8
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317283/radiological-and-microsurgical-anatomy-for-variation-of-the-mandible-comparative-study-of-human-and-macaca-fascicularis
#9
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Yoko Tabira, Eishi Hirasaki, Christian Fisahn, R Shane Tubbs, Jingo Kusukawa, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
Recent studies using cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) have added to our understanding of anatomical variation in the mandible of humans. However, the distribution of nerves cannot be revealed by CBCT. There have been investigations of the distribution of nerves relating to the mandible, but some proposed causes of these variations remain controversial. In this study, we observed a total of 10 sides from five mandibles of Macaca fascicularis of unknown age and sex using CBCT and dissection under stereomicroscopy...
March 20, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317176/periorbital-melasma-hierarchical-cluster-analysis-of-clinical-features-in-asian-patients
#10
Y S Jung, J M Bae, B J Kim, J-S Kang, S B Cho
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown melasma lesions to be distributed across the face in centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns. Meanwhile, however, melasma lesions of the periorbital area have yet to be thoroughly described. METHODS: We analyzed normal and ultraviolet light-exposed photographs of patients with melasma. The periorbital melasma lesions were measured according to anatomical reference points and a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. RESULTS: The periorbital melasma lesions showed clinical features of fine and homogenous melasma pigmentation, involving both the upper and lower eyelids that extended to other anatomical sites with a darker and coarser appearance...
March 19, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317122/an-anthropomorphic-abdominal-phantom-for-deformable-image-registration-accuracy-validation-in-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#11
Yuliang Liao, Linjing Wang, Xiangdong Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiawei Chen, Guoqian Zhang, Huaiyu Lei, Ruihao Wang, Shuxu Zhang, Xuejun Gu, Xin Zhen, Linghong Zhou
PURPOSE: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). METHOD: Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316884/three-dimensional-visualisation-of-the-internal-anatomy-of-the-sparrowhawk-accipiter-nisus-forelimb-using-contrast-enhanced-micro-computed-tomography
#12
Fernanda Bribiesca-Contreras, William I Sellers
BACKGROUND: Gross dissection is a widespread method for studying animal anatomy, despite being highly destructive and time-consuming. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a non-destructive alternative for studying anatomical structures. However, in the past it has been limited to only being able to visualise mineralised tissues. In recent years, morphologists have started to use traditional X-ray contrast agents to allow the visualisation of soft tissue elements in the CT context...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316309/high-resolution-ct-angiogram-for-lower-extremity-vein-mapping
#13
Mark P Wright, Matthew R Smeds, Lonnie Wright, Ahsan T Ali
High-resolution CT angiogram (CTA) has replaced traditional diagnostic angiography as the main preoperative imaging modality for vascular surgery patients. Although the use of CTA is increasing for arterial imaging, it has not been used routinely for vein mapping. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of CTA for venous anatomy and compare it to a standard venous duplex ultrasound (DUS). When the vein was used for bypass, the quality and size of the vein were evaluated in the operating room. As part of a preoperative workup before lower extremity revascularization, 16 patients underwent a CTA followed by a DUS...
March 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314818/allometric-analysis-detects-brain-size-independent-effects-of-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-on-human-cerebellar-organization
#14
Catherine Mankiw, Min Tae M Park, P K Reardon, Ari M Fish, Liv S Clasen, Deanna Greenstein, Jay N Giedd, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty, Armin Raznahan
The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex-biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences - including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation - lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (i) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (ii) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare X-/Y-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (iii) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach which considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304076/sexual-dimorphism-in-laryngeal-muscle-fibers-and-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-the-adult-rat
#15
Charles Lenell, Aaron M Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The human voice is sexually dimorphic in obvious ways, such as differences in fundamental frequency and gross laryngeal anatomy, but also in less apparent ways, such as in the prevalence and types of voice disorders and the manifestation of voice changes in advanced age. Differences between males and females are rarely explored, however, in mechanistic animal studies. The goal of this study was to explore sexual dimorphism in laryngeal function and structure in adult rats by examining ultrasonic vocalization acoustics and muscle fiber size and type in the thyroarytenoid muscle...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304001/students-perceptions-of-usefulness-of-anatomy-demonstrations-in-traditional-and-hybrid-undergraduate-medical-education-curricula
#16
Ayesha Saba Naz, Rehana Rehman, Zehra Jamil, Khalid Ahmed, Ambreen Surti
A cross-sectional study was carried out to study students' perceptions on the usefulness of Anatomy demonstrations (AD) in the undergraduate medical education by comparing the Conventional Medical College (CMC) and problem-based learning as hybrid curriculum (HMC). Purposive sampling technique was used and all students were included. The completed questionnaire responses were returned by 92 CMC and 87 HMC students. CMC cohort understood the structural relationship more than HMC (p=0.03). AD helped 50 students (54%) of CMC to get through the theory examination, however 73 (84%) students of HMC found them useful in preparation for theory examinations (p<0...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303634/novel-integrated-3d-multidetector-computed-tomography-and-fluoroscopy-fusion-for-left-atrial-appendage-occlusion-procedures
#17
A K Roy, J Horvilleur, B Cormier, M Cazalas, L Fernandez, M Patane, A Neylon, M Spaziano, F J Sawaya, T Arai, E Bouvier, T Hovasse, T Lefèvre, B Chevalier, P Garot
OBJECTIVES: This report demonstrates the application and feasibility of novel 3D-MDCT real-time fusion technology with fluoroscopy, for left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion procedures. BACKGROUND: A successful LAA occlusion procedure relies on multiple imaging modalities, including TEE or 3D-MDCT, and fluoroscopy. Effectively integrating these imaging modalities may improve implantation safety and success. To our knowledge this technique has not been previously described for LAA occlusions...
March 17, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303211/real-time-three-dimensional-echocardiography-characterization-of-cardiac-anatomy-and-function-current-clinical-applications-and-literature-review-update
#18
REVIEW
Omar Velasco, Morgan Q Beckett, Aaron W James, Megan N Loehr, Taylor G Lewis, Tahmin Hassan, Rajesh Janardhanan
Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV) function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303098/ielectrodes-a-comprehensive-open-source-toolbox-for-depth-and-subdural-grid-electrode-localization
#19
Alejandro O Blenkmann, Holly N Phillips, Juan P Princich, James B Rowe, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Carlos H Muravchik, Silvia Kochen
The localization of intracranial electrodes is a fundamental step in the analysis of invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in research and clinical practice. The conclusions reached from the analysis of these recordings rely on the accuracy of electrode localization in relationship to brain anatomy. However, currently available techniques for localizing electrodes from magnetic resonance (MR) and/or computerized tomography (CT) images are time consuming and/or limited to particular electrode types or shapes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302462/the-impact-of-mechanical-and-restricted-kinematic-alignment-on-knee-anatomy-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#20
Abdulaziz M Almaawi, Jonathan R B Hutt, Vincent Masse, Martin Lavigne, Pascal-Andre Vendittoli
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA), aiming at neutral mechanical alignment (MA), inevitably modifies the patient's native knee anatomy. Another option is kinematic alignment (KA), which aims to restore the original anatomy of the knee. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations in lower limb anatomy of a patient population scheduled for TKA, and to assess the use of a restricted KA TKA protocol and compare the resulting anatomic modifications with the standard MA technique...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
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