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Comparative anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433482/variations-of-target-volume-definition-and-daily-target-volume-localization-in-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-under-abdominal-compression
#1
Chunhui Han, Sagus Sampath, Timothy E Schultheisss, Jeffrey Y C Wong
We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT...
April 19, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433207/correlation-of-frontal-sinus-recess-anatomy-with-ethnicity-gender-and-pathology
#2
Laura K House, Scott P Stringer, Samantha Seals
PURPOSE: Research on frontal sinus cells has been conflicting regarding relationship between frontal sinus cells and frontal sinus disease. There are no published studies regarding gender differences in frontal sinus disease. No comparisons between African Americans and Caucasians and frontal sinus disease have been published. This study attempts to define the above relationships as well as the relationship between number and types of cells and disease. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on sinus CT scans done from 2003 to 2011 at an academic medical center...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431859/mri-based-quantification-of-renal-perfusion-in-mice-improving-sensitivity-and-stability-in-fair-asl
#3
Fabian Tobias Gutjahr, Stephan Michael Günster, Thomas Kampf, Patrick Winter, Volker Herold, Wolfgang Rudolf Bauer, Peter Michael Jakob
PURPOSE: The importance of the orientation of the selective inversion slice in relation to the anatomy in flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery arterial spin labeling (FAIR ASL) kidney perfusion measurements is demonstrated by comparing the standard FAIR scheme to a scheme with an improved slice selective control experiment. METHODS: A FAIR ASL method is used. The selective inversion preparation slice is set perpendicular to the measurement slice to decrease the unintended labeling of arterial spins in the control experiment...
April 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431799/an-mri-investigation-of-the-effects-of-user-anatomy-and-wheelchair-cushion-type-on-tissue-deformation
#4
David Brienza, Jaxon Vallely, Patricia Karg, Jonathan Akins, Amit Gefen
AIM OF THE STUDY: Tissue deformation is recognized as an important risk factor for pressure injuries. This study investigated the effects of anatomy and wheelchair cushion type on tissue deformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct 3-dimensional tissue deformation response was measured for six participants sitting on six different wheelchair cushions using MR imaging. Two participants had a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) within one year of the assessment, two sustained traumatic SCI at least 13 years prior, and two were without SCI...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#5
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429369/variation-in-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-its-possible-bearing-on-their-locomotor-ecology
#6
Adriana S Manzano, Anthony Herrel, Anne-Claire Fabre, Virginia Abdala
Despite the long-standing interest in the evolution of the brain, relatively little is known about variation in brain anatomy in frogs. Yet, frogs are ecologically diverse and, as such, variation in brain anatomy linked to differences in lifestyle or locomotor behavior can be expected. Here we present a comparative morphological study focusing on the macro- and micro-anatomy of the six regions of the brain and its choroid plexus: the olfactory bulbs, the telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the rhombencephalon, and the cerebellum...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427385/differences-between-native-and-prosthetic-knees-in-terms-of-cross-sectional-morphology-of-the-femoral-trochlea-a-study-based-on-three-dimensional-models-and-virtual-total-knee-arthroplasty
#7
Zhe Du, Shichang Chen, Mengning Yan, Bing Yue, You Wang
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional morphology of the prosthetic knee is crucial to understanding patellar motion and quadriceps strength after total knee arthroplasty. However, few comparative evaluations of the cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea have been performed in the native knee and currently available femoral implants, and the relationship between the trochlear anatomy of prosthetic components and post-operative patellofemoral complications remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea between native knees and prosthetic femoral components...
April 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427063/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-diabetic-maculopathy
#8
Gabriel Coscas, Marco Lupidi, Florence Coscas
Fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography have provided information about the normal retinal and choroidal anatomy, nearly comparable to histological findings. These tests have been fundamental in the evaluation of all retinal and choroidal vascular diseases and have allowed clinicians to define and diagnose several pathological conditions. FA became the "gold standard" in retinal imaging due to the capacity to visualize the retinal capillary bed and its changes, both in the macular area and in the periphery...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426251/current-concepts-of-the-anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-anatomy-biomechanics-and-reconstruction
#9
Matthew J Kraeutler, K Linnea Welton, Jorge Chahla, Robert F LaPrade, Eric C McCarty
In 1879, Paul Segond described an avulsion fracture (now known as a Segond fracture) at the anterolateral proximal tibia with the presence of a fibrous band at the location of this fracture. Although references to this ligament were occasionally made in the anatomy literature after Segond's discovery, it was not until 2012 that Vincent et al named this ligament what we know it as today, the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee. The ALL originates near the lateral epicondyle of the distal femur and inserts on the proximal tibia near Gerdy's tubercle...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425658/endoscopic-management-of-acute-cholangitis-as-a-result-of-common-bile-duct-stones
#10
Mohan Ramchandani, Partha Pal, D Nageshwar Reddy
Acute cholangitis is infectious disease of the biliary system and potentially can cause significant morbidity and mortality. With advances in intensive care, antibiotic therapy advances and endoscopic and other modalities of biliary drainage, mortality rates have significantly come down of late. Although most cases respond to antibiotics alone, definitive therapy is required later in most of the patients. Increased biliary pressure leads to biliovenous reflux of bacteria and purulent bile into the circulation leading to systemic inflammation and sepsis with subsequent organ dysfunction...
April 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423129/totally-percutaneous-access-using-perclose-proglide-for-endovascular-treatment-of-aortic-diseases
#11
Eduardo Keller Saadi, Marina Saadi, Rodrigo Saadi, Ana Paula Tagliari, Bernardo Mastella
Objective: To evaluate our experience following the introduction of a percutaneous program for endovascular treatment of aortic diseases using Perclose Proglide® assessing efficacy, complications and identification of potential risk factors that could predict failure or major access site complications. Methods: A retrospective cohort study during a two-year period was performed. All the patients submitted to totally percutaneous endovascular repair (PEVAR) of aortic diseases and transcatheter aortic valve implantation since we started the total percutaneous approach with the preclosure technique from November 2013 to December 2015 were included in the study...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422426/dinosaurs-chameleons-humans-and-evo-devo-path-linking-%C3%A3-tienne-geoffroy-s-teratology-waddington-s-homeorhesis-alberch-s-logic-of-monsters-and-goldschmidt-hopeful-monsters
#12
REVIEW
Rui Diogo, Geoffrey Guinard, Raul E Diaz
Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420926/femto-lasik-the-recent-innovation-in-laser-assisted-refractive-surgery
#13
Zubair Shahid Bashir, Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Ayesha Anwar, Muhammad Hammad Ayub, Nadeem Hafeez Butt
Femtosecond laser has been introduced in refractive surgery to create a thin-hinged corneal flap without using any blade. The current review was planned to analyse and compare femtosecond-assisted laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), the latest refractive procedure, with conventional techniques in refractive surgery. The analysis showed that femtosecond-assisted LASIK yielded more predictable corneal flaps, lesser ocular aberrations, better uncorrected visual acuity, lesser variations in intraocular pressure (IOP) and fewer chances of developing dry eyes...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418575/effects-of-previous-osteotomy-on-outcome-of-hip-resurfacing-arthroplasty
#14
Harlan Cabot Amstutz, Michel Jean Le Duff
The effect of previous conservative surgeries on the outcome of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) has not been studied. This study compared postoperative clinical scores and survivorship results of hips with and without previous osteotomies in a population of patients who underwent HRA. A total of 1101 patients (1375 hips) with a mean age of 51.3 years at the time of surgery underwent HRA at a single center. Sixty-nine patients had undergone prior surgery on the operated hip including 14 osteotomies (1 pelvic, 6 femoral, and 7 combined pelvic and femoral osteotomies)...
April 18, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418157/effect-of-canal-preparation-with-trushape-and-vortex-rotary-instruments-on-three-dimensional-geometry-of-oval-root-canals
#15
Ana Arias, Frank Paqué, Stephanie Shyn, Sarah Murphy, Ove A Peters
The purpose of this study was to assess the geometry of non-round root canals after preparation with TRUShape (a novel instrument with s-shaped longitudinal design) in comparison to conventional rotary instrumentation using micro-computed tomography. Twenty distal root canals of mandibular molars were randomly distributed in two groups to be shaped with either TRUShape or Vortex rotaries. Percentages of unprepared surface and volume of dentin removal for the entire canal and for the apical 4 mm were calculated...
April 18, 2017: Australian Endodontic Journal: the Journal of the Australian Society of Endodontology Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417475/the-role-of-early-gestation-ultrasound-in-the-assessment-of-fetal-anatomy-in-maternal-obesity
#16
Letty Romary, Elena Sinkovskaya, Sabrina Ali, Tina D Cunningham, Shannon Marwitz, Aimee Heeze, Lindsey Herlands, Lea Porche, Jennifer Philips, Alfred Abuhamad
OBJECTIVES: The 2012 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health fetal imaging consensus suggested that fetal anatomy ultrasound in obese pregnancies be performed at 20 to 22 weeks, with follow-up in 2 to 4 weeks if anatomy is incomplete. It was postulated that imaging in early gestation may improve visualization, although no prospective trials had been done to date. METHODS: We performed a prospective longitudinal blinded trial comparing an early gestation ultrasound (13 + 0 to 15 + 6 weeks) with the traditional second-trimester ultrasound for completion of the fetal anatomy survey in obese patients...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416451/diffeomorphic-functional-brain-surface-alignment-functional-demons
#17
Karl-Heinz Nenning, Hesheng Liu, Satrajit Ghosh, Mert Sabuncu, Ernst Schwartz, Georg Langs
Aligning brain structures across individuals is a central prerequisite for comparative neuroimaging studies. Typically, registration approaches assume a strong association between the features used for alignment, such as macro-anatomy, and the variable observed, such as functional activation or connectivity. Here, we propose to use the structure of intrinsic resting state fMRI signal correlation patterns as a basis for alignment of the cortex in functional studies. Rather than assuming the spatial correspondence of functional structures between subjects, we have identified locations with similar connectivity profiles across subjects...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415084/p260right-cardiac-chambers-remodeling-in-marathon-and-ultra-trail-athletes-detected-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#18
K Ujka, R M Bruno, B Catuzzo, L Bastiani, A Tonacci, G D'angelo, S Mrakic-Sposta, A Vezzoli, G Giardini, L Pratali
Background: Strenuous and chronic exercise training can have detrimental effects on cardiac morphology and function. Our aim was to evaluate the cardiac adaptation between 2 different specialties' endurance athletes: marathon runners (M) and ultra-trailers (UT). Methods: 47 M (age 45±7, men 32; training: 18 (9-53) years*days/week), 41 UT (age 42±9, men 38, training: 30 (15-66) years*days/week) were submitted in rest condition to conventional 2D echocardiography and Speckle-Tracking echo (STE) (Beyond Diogenes 2...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413859/meniscus-articular-cartilage-and-nucleus-pulposus-a-comparative-review-of-cartilage-like-tissues-in-anatomy-development-and-function
#19
REVIEW
Song Chen, Peiliang Fu, Haishan Wu, Ming Pei
The degradation of cartilage in the human body is impacted by aging, disease, genetic predisposition and continued insults resulting from daily activity. The burden of cartilage defects (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, intervertebral disc damage, knee replacement surgeries, etc.) is daunting in light of substantial economic and social stresses. This review strives to broaden the scope of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering approaches used for cartilage repair by comparing and contrasting the anatomical and functional nature of the meniscus, articular cartilage (AC) and nucleus pulposus (NP)...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413808/vessel-tree-tracking-in-angiographic-sequences
#20
Dong Zhang, Shanhui Sun, Ziyan Wu, Bor-Jeng Chen, Terrence Chen
We present a method to track vessels in angiography [contrast filled vessels in two-dimensional (2-D) x-ray fluoroscopy]. Finding correspondence of a vessel tree from consecutive angiogram frames provides significant value in computer-aided clinical applications such as fast vessel tree segmentation, three-dimensional (3-D) vessel topology reconstruction from corresponding centerlines, cardiac motion understanding, etc. However, establishing an accurate vessel tree correspondence (vessel tree tracking) is a nontrivial problem due to nonlinear periodic cardiac and breathing motion in 2-D views, foreshortening, false bifurcations due to 3-D to 2-D projection, occlusion from other anatomies, etc...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
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