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Comparative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656457/late-sampling-for-automated-culture-to-extend-the-platelet-shelf-life-to-5-days-in-germany
#1
Tanja Vollmer, Mareike Dabisch-Ruthe, Melanie Weinstock, Cornelius Knabbe, Jens Dreier
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) is still a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Different methodologic concepts and screening strategies have been developed and investigated concerning their usability. We evaluated the feasibility of BacT/ALERT automated culture (BacT/A, bioMérieux) with late sampling after 3 days at the earliest. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-four bacterial strains isolated from PCs and six relevant strains from reference stocks were spiked into apheresis-derived PCs (10-60 colony-forming units [CFU]/bag)...
April 15, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656433/antifibrinolytics-for-heavy-menstrual-bleeding
#2
REVIEW
Alison C Bryant-Smith, Anne Lethaby, Cindy Farquhar, Martha Hickey
BACKGROUND: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important physical and social problem for women. Oral treatment for HMB includes antifibrinolytic drugs, which are designed to reduce bleeding by inhibiting clot-dissolving enzymes in the endometrium.Historically, there has been some concern that using the antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TXA) for HMB may increase the risk of venous thromboembolic disease. This is an umbrella term for deep venous thrombosis (blood clots in the blood vessels in the legs) and pulmonary emboli (blood clots in the blood vessels in the lungs)...
April 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656410/combination-of-artemisinin-based-natural-compounds-from-artemisia-annua-l-for-the-treatment-of-malaria-pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-studies
#3
Jing Li, Chao Zhang, Muxin Gong, Manyuan Wang
Currently, the most effective antimalarial is artemisinin, which is extracted from the leaves of medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua). Previous studies showed that the complex chemical matrix of A. annua could enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of artemisinin. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties of a combination therapy based on artemisinin and 3 components from A. annua with high content (arteannuin B, arteannuic acid, and scopoletin). In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed following a 4-day treatment in murine malaria models (Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei)...
April 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656390/documenting-the-growth-of-ultrasound-research-in-emergency-medicine-through-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-accepted-academic-conference-abstracts
#4
Michael I Prats, David P Bahner, Ashish R Panchal, Andrew M King, David P Way, Stephen Lin, J Christian Fox, Creagh T Boulger
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound (US) has become an indispensable skill for emergency physicians. Growth in the use of US in emergency medicine (EM) has been characterized by practice guidelines, education requirements, and the number of EM US practitioners. Our purpose was to further document the growth of EM US by profiling the breadth, depth, and quality of US-related research presented at EM's most prominent annual research conference: the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Annual Meeting...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655958/a-second-derivate-fitting-algorithm-for-the-quantification-of-free-hemoglobin-in-human-plasma
#5
Michael Paal, Alexander Lang, Georg Hennig, Marie-Luise Buchholtz, Ronald Sroka, Michael Vogeser
BACKGROUND: Assessment of hemolysis in vivo is becoming increasingly relevant in critical care. Current methods (Harboe, 1959) for quantifying the free hemoglobin (fHb) content produce unsatisfactory results in case of hyperbilirubinemia, a frequent condition in patients at risk for intravascular hemolysis. METHODS: A novel evaluation method based on second-derivative fitting to quantify fHb content was developed. The method uses spectrophotometric data from 350 to 650 nm recorded with standard instruments as input...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655952/population-level-incidence-and-outcomes-of-myocardial-infarction-with-non-obstructive-coronary-arteries-minoca-insights-from-the-alberta-contemporary-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-invasive-treatment-strategies-coapt-study
#6
Kevin R Bainey, Robert C Welsh, Wendimagegn Alemayehu, Cynthia M Westerhout, Dean Traboulsi, Todd Anderson, Neil Brass, Paul W Armstrong, Padma Kaul
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a known clinical conundrum with limited investigation. Using a large population-based cohort, we examined the incidence, demographic profile, use of evidence-based medicines (EBM) and clinical outcomes of MINOCA patients. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of MI who underwent coronary angiography between 01/04/2002 and 31/03/2014 in Alberta, Canada, were included in the study...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655919/endocannabinoid-system-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-first-evidence-for-a-deranged-2-arachidonoylglycerol-metabolism
#7
Luca Navarini, Tiziana Bisogno, Pamela Mozetic, Fabiana Piscitelli, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Fabio Basta, Antonella Afeltra, Mauro Maccarrone
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in many physiological and pathological conditions and its dysregulation has been described in several rheumatological and autoimmune diseases. Yet, its possible alteration in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has never been investigated. Here, we aimed filling this gap in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with SLE and age- and sex- matched healthy subjects (HS). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitation of eCB levels highlighted that plasma levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were significantly increased in SLE patients compared to HS (p = 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655852/aidi-injection-plus-platinum-based-chemotherapy-for-stage-iiib-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-42-rcts-following-the-prisma-guidelines
#8
Jue Wang, Guochun Li, Lili Yu, Tingting Mo, Qibiao Wu, Zhou Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aidi injection is one of the most commonly used Chinese patent medicines for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is made from an extraction of Mylabris Phalerata, Radix Astragalus, Radix Ginseng, and Acanthopanax Senticosus. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Aidi injection in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy for stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed following the PRISMA (the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655701/apoptosis-and-pro-death-autophagy-induced-by-a-spirostanol-saponin-isolated-from-rohdea-chinensis-baker-n-tanaka-synonym-tupistra-chinensis-baker-on-hl-60-cells
#9
Xiaomin Yi, Limin Xiang, Yuying Huang, Yihai Wang, Xiangjiu He
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655685/polygonum-aviculare-l-extract-reduces-fatigue-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-in-restraint-stressed-mice
#10
Sun Haeng Park, Seol Jang, Eunjung Son, Si Woo Lee, Sun Dong Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue patients experience various neuropsychological symptoms, including fatigue behaviors, chronic pain, and depression. They also display immune system dysregulation. Polygonum aviculare L. extract (PAE) is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory diseases by reportedly decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of PAE would attenuate fatigue symptoms in a mouse model of restraint stress...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655683/bronchodilator-effects-of-lignosus-rhinocerotis-extract-on-rat-isolated-airways-is-linked-to-the-blockage-of-calcium-entry
#11
Mei-Kee Lee, Kuan-Hon Lim, Paul Millns, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar, Szu-Ting Ng, Chon-Seng Tan, Sue-Mian Then, Yvonne Mbaki, Kang-Nee Ting
BACKGROUND: Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden is a popular medicinal mushroom used for centuries in Southeast Asia to treat asthma and chronic cough. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of this mushroom on airways patency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of L. rhinocerotis TM02 cultivar was analyzed. Organ bath experiment was employed to study the bronchodilator effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis cold water extract (CWE) on rat isolated airways...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655678/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-activities-of-naringin-isolated-from-carissa-carandas-l-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evidence
#12
Ahmed H El-Desoky, Rehab F Abdel-Rahman, Osama K Ahmed, Hossam S El-Beltagi, Masao Hattori
BACKGROUND: Carissa carandas L. is known in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Meanwhile it is an evergreen shrub that constitutes a continuous source of leaves throughout the year. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The leaves of Carissa carandas L. may be rich in compounds that can be used as safe anti-inflammatory and antioxidant remedies. The combined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities provoked the study of the hepatoprotective effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655676/protective-effect-of-juglans-regia-l-against-ultraviolet-b-radiation-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#13
Umar Muzaffer, V I Paul, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad, Ramasamy Karthikeyan, Balupillai Agilan
BACKGROUND: Juglans regia L. has a history of traditional medicinal use for the treatment of various maladies and have been documented with significant antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Although all parts of the plant are medicinally important, but male the flower of the plant has not been yet investigated against the photo-damage. PURPOSE: The present study, we sought to determine the photoprotective effect of the male flower of J. regia L. against ultraviolet-B radiation-induced inflammatory responses in human skin cells...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652750/a-needs-assessment-of-brain-death-education-in-pediatric-critical-care-medicine-fellowships
#14
Andrew M Ausmus, Pippa M Simpson, Liyun Zhang, Tara L Petersen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the current training in brain death examination provided during pediatric critical care medicine fellowship. DESIGN: Internet-based survey. SETTING: United States pediatric critical care medicine fellowship programs. SUBJECTS: Sixty-four pediatric critical care medicine fellowship program directors and 230 current pediatric critical care medicine fellows/recent graduates were invited to participate...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652669/endophytic-bacillus-spp-from-medicinal-plants-inhibit-mycelial-growth-of-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-and-promote-plant-growth
#15
Waheda Rahman Ansary, Ferdous Rezwan Khan Prince, Effi Haque, Farzana Sultana, Helen M West, Mahbubur Rahman, Abdul Mojid Mondol, Abdul Mannan Akanda, Mahfuz Rahman, Michele L Clarke, Tofazzal Islam
Plant growth-promoting bacteria that are also capable of suppressing plant pathogenic fungi play an important role in sustainable agriculture. There is a critical need for conducting research to discover, characterize and evaluate the efficacy of new strains of such bacteria in controlling highly aggressive plant pathogens. In this study, we isolated endophytic bacteria from medicinal plants of Bangladesh and evaluated their antagonistic capacity against an important phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum...
April 11, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651962/phase-iv-studies-some-insights-clarifications-and-issues
#16
Elia Mario Biganzoli, Bruno Mario Cesana
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to face regulatory aspects as well as ethics and scientific ones in the pharmaceutical research phase after the authorization of a drug. Traditionally, the Phase IV studies, after the authorization for a drug to be marketed by the Competent Authority like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (in Europe, European Medicine Agency -EMA- through National Procedures or Community Procedures) have been considered mainly aimed to the assessment of the new drug safety profile...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651961/the-benefit-of-prescribing-vitamin-d-as-add-on-therapy-on-the-electrocardiographic-changes-in-epileptic-patients
#17
Marwan S M Al-Nimer
BACKGROUND: Epileptic children and adolescent have a significantly low serum level of vitamin D due to the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin D metabolism. Those patients are at risk of cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to show that epileptic patients who treated with antiepileptic drugs supplemented with vitamin D are free from the electrocardiograph changes compared with those treated with antiepileptic drugs. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included, 121 epileptic patients aged < 18 years of both genders with a history of idiopathic generalized tonic clonic seizure...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651878/in-vivo-hypoglycemic-effect-of-kigelia-africana-lam-studies-with-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice
#18
Stephen M Njogu, Wycliffe M Arika, Alex K Machocho, Joseph J N Ngeranwa, Eliud N M Njagi
The claims by the traditional herbal medicine practitioners that Kigelia africana has bioactivity against several diseases, including diabetes mellitus, were investigated in this study. Type I diabetes mellitus was induced in mice by intraperitoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate followed by treatment with the therapeutic doses of the aqueous and ethyl acetate leaf extract of K africana to the experimentally diabetic mice. The treatment effects were compared with the normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control rats treated with a standard antidiabetic drugs (insulin administered intraperitoneally at 1 IU/kg body weight in 0...
January 2018: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651793/mirat%C3%A3-lebdan-fi-te%C3%A5-rih-i-aza%C3%A3-l-%C3%A4-nsan-first-printed-illustrated-anatomy-book-in-ottoman-turkish-medicine
#19
Gursel Ortug, Alpen Ortug, Namik Kemal Kurt
BACKGROUND: Medical education in Ottoman-Turkish medicine was shaped by the influence of Claudius Galenus (c.130-c.210) and Ibn-i Sina (c.980-c.1037). These teachings were performed in madrasahs until the beginning of the 19th century period. Within the scope of master-apprentice relationship, medical training was also given in private clinics. As a result of religious and social pressures on scientific studies human cadavers were never used because they were considered sacred. For centuries, all books were handwritten during the Ottoman Empire until the first printing press was established in Istanbul during 1726...
April 13, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651758/the-role-of-emergency-medicine-clerkship-e-portfolio-to-monitor-the-learning-experience-of-students-in-different-settings-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Arif Alper Cevik, Sami Shaban, Margret El Zubeir, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
BACKGROUND: Although emergency departments provide acute care learning opportunities for medical students, student exposure to recommended curriculum presentations and procedures are limited. In this perspective, clinical environments providing learning opportunities for students should be monitored as part of an ongoing quality improvement process. This study aims to analyze student exposures and their involvement levels in two different hospitals (Tawam and Al Ain) so as to improve the teaching and learning activities...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
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