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Comparative medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457840/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-apixaban-in-japanese-adult-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Satoshi Ueshima, Daiki Hira, Yuuma Kimura, Ryo Fujii, Chiho Tomitsuka, Takuya Yamane, Yohei Tabuchi, Tomoya Ozawa, Hideki Itoh, Seiko Ohno, Minoru Horie, Tomohiro Terada, Toshiya Katsura
AIMS: This study aimed to analyse the effects of genetic polymorphisms in drug transporters and metabolising enzymes, and clinical laboratory data on the pharmacokinetic parameters of apixaban. METHODS: Data were collected from 81 Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation. Pharmacogenomic data were stratified by ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A5 polymorphisms. The pharmacokinetic profile of apixaban was described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using non-linear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM™) program...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457415/-preliminary-study-of-intervention-in-effect-of-bushen-huoxue-recipe-on-calcification-of-lumbar-vertebra-cartilage-endplate-of-the-aging-gerbils
#2
Li-Guo Zhu, Ping Zhang, Qing-Hui Song, Wan-Qiang Zhang, Hong-Wei Zhu, Li-Ping Yang, Yan Zhu, Yuan Wang, Ling-Hui Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Bushen Huoxue decoction on calcification of cartilage endplate in lumbar vertebrae. METHODS: Six healthy male gerbils with 2-month-old were selected as normal control group, and 24 7-month-old healthy male gerbils were fed to 12-month-old to establish the aged gerbil model. Thirty gerbils were randomly divided into five groups as follow: the normal control group ( n =6), model group ( n =6, normal saline 4 ml/kg, intragastric 30 d), Bushen Huoxue low dose group( n =6, 1...
October 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456928/behavioural-and-emotional-disorders-in-childhood-a-brief-overview-for-paediatricians
#3
REVIEW
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456676/-cordyceps-sinensis-inhibits-airway-remodeling-in-rats-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Lei Yang, Xingai Jiao, Jinxiang Wu, Jiping Zhao, Tian Liu, Jianfeng Xu, Xiaohui Ma, Liuzao Cao, Lin Liu, Yahui Liu, Jingyu Chi, Minfang Zou, Shuo Li, Jiawei Xu, Liang Dong
Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensi s on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456664/jinwei-tang-modulates-hdac2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-copd
#5
Jianjun Wu, Xin Li, Yang Qin, Juan Cheng, Gaimei Hao, Ruifeng Jin, Chenjun Zhu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM), named Jinwei Tang on histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and its role in the regulation of corticosteroid resistance in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (each n=10): COPD group, established by the intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide and passive smoke exposure, and control, budesonide, theophylline + budesonide and Jinwei Tang + budesonide groups...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456660/the-role-of-mir-766-5p-in-cell-migration-and-invasion-in-colorectal-cancer
#6
Bin Jia, Lei Xia, Fang Cao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops from the colon or rectum and is the fourth highest inducer of cancer mortality. In the present study, cancer tissues and normal tissues were extracted from patients with CRC who were treated in the Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Jinan, China). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the expression level of miR-766-5p was significantly higher (P<0.01) in cancer tissue than that in normal tissue...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456637/effects-of-astrogaloside-on-the-inflammation-and-immunity-of-renal-failure-patients-receiving-maintenance-dialysis
#7
Renlian Sun, Haiwei Ren, Jianxin Wei
Chronic renal failure is a type of clinical syndrome originating from chronic renal diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of astrogaloside on the inflammation and immunity of renal failure patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We randomly selected 92 renal failure patients receiving maintenance dialysis who were admitted to hospital for treatment between May, 2015 and April, 2016. Patients were randomly divided into the control (n=46) and observation (n=46) groups. Patients in the control group received the regular dialysis plus the basic treatment in Western medicine, while in the observation group, patients additionally received astrogaloside via intravenous injection as treatment...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456449/international-comparison-of-five-herbal-medicine-registration-systems-to-inform-regulation-development-united-kingdom-germany-united-states-of-america-united-arab-emirates-and-kingdom-of-bahrain
#8
Azhar H Alostad, Douglas T Steinke, Ellen I Schafheutle
Background: Herbal medicine (HM) regulation is less developed than that of allopathic medicines, with some countries lacking specific regulations. Objective: For the purpose of informing a registration system for HMs in Kuwait, which does not manufacture but imports all HMs, this study compared the similarities and differences between the current HM registration systems of five countries. Methods: The five countries were selected as major source countries of HM in Kuwait (United Kingdom (UK), Germany and United States of America (USA)) or because of geographical proximity or size and approach (United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kingdom of Bahrain)...
2018: Pharmaceutical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456209/assessment-of-prevalence-and-clinical-outcome-of-frailty-in-an-elderly-predialysis-cohort-using-simple-tools
#9
Hatem Ali, Tarek Abdelaziz, Fatima Abdelaal, Jyoti Baharani
The relationship between frailty and chronic kidney disease in elderly population has been recognized; however, studies concentrating on frailty in predialysis patients are limited. For nephrologists, the recognition of frailty is important as it has impact on decisions on the choice of dialysis modality and sometimes on whether dialysis is indeed in the patients' best interests. Many of the tools for routine assessment of frailty are not easily applicable to those clinicians not practicing elderly care medicine...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456149/impact-of-a-universal-medication-schedule-on-rationalising-and-understanding-of-medication-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Eimear McManus, Suzanne McCarthy, Raymond Carson, Laura J Sahm
BACKGROUND: Patients frequently encounter difficulty understanding their prescription drug labels. This problem is more common in patients with limited health literacy (HL). Patients are not always counselled on their medicines by their doctor or pharmacist, therefore this label can be an important source of information. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a Universal Medication Schedule (UMS) on the knowledge and consolidation of a prescription drug regimen compared to standard pharmacy labelling...
February 10, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456027/enhanced-chondrogenesis-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-microrna-140-and-transforming-growth-factor-beta-3-tgf%C3%AE-3
#11
Hossein Mahboudi, Masoud Soleimani, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Mousa Kehtari, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Mohamad Eftekhary, Bahram Kazemi
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) make an attractive source for regenerative medicine. The objective of our study was to establish a new method for differentiation of human iPSCs toward chondrocyte by overexpression of MicroRNA-140 (miR-140) and use of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) in high-cell density culture systems. We prepared vectors and then was used for recombinant Lenti virus production in HEK-293 cell. Transducted cells were selected and cultured in pellet culture system and were harvested after days 7, 14 and 21...
February 15, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455682/characterization-of-interventional-studies-of-the-cholera-epidemic-in-haiti
#12
Jessica Miller, Marvin L Birnbaum
In October 2010, the Haitian Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP; Port au Prince, Haiti) reported a cholera epidemic caused by contamination of the Artibonite River by a United Nation Stabilization Mission camp. Interventional studies of the subsequent responses, including a descriptive Methods section and systematic approach, may be useful in facilitating comparisons and applying lessons learned to future outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to examine publicly available documents relating to the 2010 cholera outbreak to answer: (1) What information is publicly available on interventional studies conducted during the epidemic, and what was/were the impact(s)? and (2) Can the interventions be compared, and what lessons can be learned from their comparison? A PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) search was conducted using the parameters "Haiti" and "cholera...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455553/correlates-of-missed-clinic-visits-among-youth-living-with-hiv
#13
Nicholas Tarantino, Larry K Brown, Laura Whiteley, M Isabel Fernández, Sharon L Nichols, Gary Harper
Youth living with HIV (YLH) have significant problems with attending their medical appointments. Poor attendance, consequently, predicts viral non-suppression and other negative health outcomes. To identity targets of intervention, this cross-sectional study examined correlates of past-year missed clinic visits among YLH (N = 2125) attending HIV clinics in the United States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-six percent of YLH missed two or more visits in the past year. Several factors were associated with missed visits in our regression model...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455337/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-facilitates-the-accumulation-of-glycyrrhizin-and-liquiritin-in-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-under-drought-stress
#14
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454974/proof-of-patient-information-analysis-of-201-judicial-decisions
#15
E Dugleux, H Rached, C Rouge-Maillart
INTRODUCTION: The ruling by the French Court of Cassation dated February 25, 1997 obliged doctors to provide proof of the information given to patients, reversing more than half a century of case law. In October 1997, it was specified that such evidence could be provided by "all means", including presumption. No hierarchy in respect of means of proof has been defined by case law or legislation. The present study analyzed judicial decisions with a view to determining the means of proof liable to carry the most weight in a suit for failure to provide due patient information...
February 15, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454914/substituting-one-paris-for-another-in-vitro-cytotoxic-and-in-vivo-antitumor-activities-of-paris-forrestii-a-substitute-of-paris-polyphylla-var-yunnanensis
#16
Yue-Hu Wang, Min Shi, Hong-Mei Niu, Jun Yang, Meng-Yuan Xia, Ji-Feng Luo, Ying-Jie Chen, Yi-Ping Zhou, Heng Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chong-lou (Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis or P. polyphylla var. chinensis) is traditionally used as an anticancer medicine in China. It is also the material basis of some Chinese patent anticancer medicines, such as Gan-Fu-Le capsules, Bo-Er-Ning capsules, Lou-Lian capsules, Ruan-Jian oral liquid, and Qi-Zhen capsules. P. forrestii, a substitute for Chong-lou, is planted at a large scale in the Yunnan Province of China. AIM OF THE STUDY: To clarify the active chemical constituents of P...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454846/comparison-of-reporting-phase-iii-randomized-controlled-trials-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-common-bacterial-infections-in-clinicaltrials-gov-and-matched-publications
#17
Daniel Shepshelovich, Dana Yelin, Anat Gafter-Gvili, Shira Goldman, Tomer Avni, Dafna Yahav
OBJECTIVES: Discrepancies between ClinicalTrials.gov entries and matching publications were previously described in general medicine. We aimed to evaluate the consistency of reporting in trials addressing systemic antibiotic therapy. METHODS: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov for completed phase III trials comparing antibiotic regimens until 5/2017. Matched publications were identified in PubMed. Two independent reviewers extracted data and identified inconsistencies...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454755/evaluation-of-antidiabetic-potential-of-steroidal-alkaloid-of-sarcococca-saligna
#18
Naeem Ullah Jan, Amjad Ali, Bashir Ahmad, Naveed Iqbal, Achyut Adhikari, Inayat-Ur-Rehman, Abid Ali, Safdar Ali, Azra Jahan, Hamid Ali, Ijaz Ali, Anwar Ullah, Syed Ghulam Musharraf
The demand for natural medicines has increased because of their limited adverse effects. The aim of study is to explore the antidiabetic potential of isolated steroidal alkaloid from Sarcococca saligna in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. To determine the antidiabetic activity of steroidal alkaloids, diabetes was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg. After a week of STZ injection the treatment were started and the 8th day was considered as the 1st day of treatment and up to four weeks the rats were treated with steroidal alkaloids...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454617/antihypertensive-potential-of-linalool-and-linalool-complexed-with-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-effects-of-subchronic-treatment-on-blood-pressure-and-vascular-reactivity
#19
Samuel Barbosa Camargo, Letícia Oliveira Simões, Carla Fiama de Azevedo Medeiros, Anderson de Melo Jesus, Josmara Bartolomei Fregoneze, Afrânio Evangelista, Cristiane Flora Villarreal, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Darizy Flavia Silva
Linalool (LIN) is a monoterpene alcohol present in some aromatic medicinal plants with biological activities that can impact cardiovascular diseases. This chemical class is highly volatile and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of monoterpenes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of LIN free focusing on the antihypertensive properties of this monoterpene and to study whether LIN, complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LIN-βCD) is able to improve the pharmacological activity of LIN...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454341/treatment-of-depression-with-chai-hu-shu-gan-san-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-42-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Yan Sun, Xia Xu, Jinping Zhang, Yuanyuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Depression is a common mental disorder. Chai Hu Shu Gan San, a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat depression empirically. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Chai Hu Shu Gan San in treating depression. METHODS: Several databases, including PubMed, China National Knowledge Internet, Wanfang, Chongqing VIP, and the Cochrane library, were systematically searched from their date of foundation to January 1, 2017...
February 17, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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