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Sympathetic microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#1
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799253/hypertension-linked-pathophysiological-alterations-in-the-gut
#2
Monica M Santisteban, Yanfei Qi, Jasenka Zubcevic, Seungbum Kim, Tao Yang, Vinayak Shenoy, Colleen T Cole-Jeffrey, Gilberto O Lobaton, Daniel C Stewart, Andres Rubiano, Chelsey S Simmons, Fernando Garcia-Pereira, Richard D Johnson, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
RATIONALE: Sympathetic nervous system control of inflammation plays a central role in hypertension. The gut receives significant sympathetic innervation, is densely populated with a diverse microbial ecosystem, and contains immune cells that greatly impact overall inflammatory homeostasis. Despite this uniqueness, little is known about the involvement of the gut in hypertension. OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis that increased sympathetic drive to the gut is associated with increased gut wall permeability, increased inflammatory status, and microbial dysbiosis and that these gut pathological changes are linked to hypertension...
October 31, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681875/neuropeptide-y-overexpressing-female-and-male-mice-show-divergent-metabolic-but-not-gut-microbial-responses-to-prenatal-metformin-exposure
#3
Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Laura H Vähätalo, Liisa Ailanen, Sami Pietilä, Asta Laiho, Arno Hänninen, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Eveliina Munukka, Anniina Rintala, Eriika Savontaus, Ullamari Pesonen, Markku Koulu
BACKGROUND: Prenatal metformin exposure has been shown to improve the metabolic outcome in the offspring of high fat diet fed dams. However, if this is evident also in a genetic model of obesity and whether gut microbiota has a role, is not known. METHODS: The metabolic effects of prenatal metformin exposure were investigated in a genetic model of obesity, mice overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the sympathetic nervous system and in brain noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPYDβH)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647198/gut-microbiota-brain-axis
#4
REVIEW
Hong-Xing Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437032/visceral-adiposity-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Heno F Lopes, Maria Lúcia Corrêa-Giannella, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Brent M Egan
The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25637492/expression-of-the-short-chain-fatty-acid-receptor-gpr41-ffar3-in-autonomic-and-somatic-sensory-ganglia
#6
M K Nøhr, K L Egerod, S H Christiansen, A Gille, S Offermanns, T W Schwartz, M Møller
G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) also called free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3) is a Gαi-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mainly produced from dietary complex carbohydrate fibers in the large intestine as products of fermentation by microbiota. FFAR3 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells, but has recently also been shown to be present in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the FFAR3 is present in other autonomic and sensory ganglia possibly influencing gut physiology...
April 2, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25513335/free-fatty-acid-receptor-3-is-a-key-target-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-what-is-the-impact-on-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#7
Eduardo Javier López Soto, Luisina Ongaro Gambino, Emilio Román Mustafá
Nervous system (NS) activity participates in metabolic homeostasis by detecting peripheral signal molecules derived from food intake and energy balance. High quality diets are thought to include fiber-rich foods like whole grain rice, breads, cereals, and grains. Several studies have associated high consumption of fiber-enriched diets with a reduced risk of diabetes, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. In the lower intestine, anaerobic fermentation of soluble fibers by microbiota produces short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key energy molecules that have a recent identified leading role in the intestinal gluconeogenesis, promoting beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance...
2014: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25274213/-host-energy-regulation-via-scfas-receptors-as-dietary-nutrition-sensors-by-gut-microbiota
#8
REVIEW
Ikuo Kimura
Food intake regulates energy balance, and its dysregulation leads to metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Free fatty acids are not only essential nutrients but also act as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Recent studies have shown that the receptors GPR40, GPR41, GPR43, and GPR120 are new drug targets for treating metabolic disorders because they are activated by free fatty acids. Two of these receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs: acetate, propionate, and butyrate), which are important energy sources for the host...
2014: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24997035/neuropeptides-and-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#9
REVIEW
Peter Holzer, Aitak Farzi
Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex)...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24762451/free-fatty-acid-receptor-3-is-a-key-target-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-what-is-the-impact-on-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#10
Eduardo Javier López Soto, Luisina Ongaro Gambino, Emilio Román Mustafá
Nervous system (NS) activity participates in metabolic homeostasis by detecting peripheral signal molecules derived from food intake and energy balance. High quality diets are thought to include fiber-rich foods like whole grain rice, breads, cereals, and grains. Several studies have associated high consumption of fiber-enriched diets with a reduced risk of diabetes, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. In the lower intestine, anaerobic fermentation of soluble fibers by microbiota produces short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key energy molecules that have a recent identified leading role in the intestinal gluconeogenesis, promoting beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance...
2014: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23867945/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-a-dysfunction-of-brain-gut-interactions
#11
REVIEW
B Bonaz
The gut has the capacity to function as an autonomous organ. However, in normal conditions, the gut and the central nervous system talk to each other through the autonomic nervous system (ANS), represented by the sympathetic (i.e. the splanchnic nerves) and the parasympathetic nervous system (i.e. the vagus nerve and the sacral parasympathetic pelvic nerves). The brain is able to integrate inputs coming from the digestive tract inside a central autonomic network organized around the hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex and in return to modify the ANS and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis)...
September 2013: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23747781/abdominal-contributions-to-cardiorenal-dysfunction-in-congestive-heart-failure
#12
REVIEW
Frederik H Verbrugge, Matthias Dupont, Paul Steels, Lars Grieten, Manu Malbrain, W H Wilson Tang, Wilfried Mullens
Current pathophysiological models of congestive heart failure unsatisfactorily explain the detrimental link between congestion and cardiorenal function. Abdominal congestion (i.e., splanchnic venous and interstitial congestion) manifests in a substantial number of patients with advanced congestive heart failure, yet is poorly defined. Compromised capacitance function of the splanchnic vasculature and deficient abdominal lymph flow resulting in interstitial edema might both be implied in the occurrence of increased cardiac filling pressures and renal dysfunction...
August 6, 2013: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22979996/neuropeptide-y-peptide-yy-and-pancreatic-polypeptide-in-the-gut-brain-axis
#13
REVIEW
Peter Holzer, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi
The gut-brain axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Four information carriers (vagal and spinal afferent neurons, immune mediators such as cytokines, gut hormones and gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) transmit information from the gut to the brain, while autonomic neurons and neuroendocrine factors carry outputs from the brain to the gut. The members of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of biologically active peptides, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are expressed by cell systems at distinct levels of the gut-brain axis...
December 2012: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21683077/the-intestinal-microbiota-affect-central-levels-of-brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-and-behavior-in-mice
#14
Premysl Bercik, Emmanuel Denou, Josh Collins, Wendy Jackson, Jun Lu, Jennifer Jury, Yikang Deng, Patricia Blennerhassett, Joseph Macri, Kathy D McCoy, Elena F Verdu, Stephen M Collins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alterations in the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract (dysbiosis) are believed to contribute to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders and psychiatric comorbidities. We examined whether the intestinal microbiota affects behavior and brain biochemistry in mice. METHODS: Specific pathogen-free (SPF) BALB/c mice, with or without subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or chemical sympathectomy, or germ-free BALB/c mice received a mixture of nonabsorbable antimicrobials (neomycin, bacitracin, and pimaricin) in their drinking water for 7 days...
August 2011: Gastroenterology
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