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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871154/neuroprotection-of-dexmedetomidine-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-involved-in-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inflammation-response
#1
Lijun Wang, Haiyan Liu, Ligong Zhang, Gongming Wang, Mengyuan Zhang, Yonghui Yu
Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist that exhibits a protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart, kidney, and other organs. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective action and potential mechanisms of dexmedetomidine against ischemia-reperfusion induced cerebral injury. Transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion. After the ischemic insult, animals then received intravenous dexmedetomidine of 1 µg/kg load dose, followed by 0...
November 25, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862036/association-of%C3%AE-1-adrenergic%C3%A3-m2-muscarinic-receptor-autoantibody-with-occurrence-and-development-of-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation
#2
Bing Hu, Yanxiang Sun, Sha Li, Jie Sun, Tong Liu, Zidi Wu, L I Feng
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and an independent increased risk of stroke and death. Although the exact mechanisms of AF are not completely elucidated, a large number of evidences demonstrate that autoimmunity may play an important role in the initiation, the progression and the maintenance of AF. In this study, we aimed to compare Anti-β1-Adrenergic Receptor Autoantibody (anti-β1 -R) and Anti- M2-Muscarinic Receptor Autoantibody(anti-M2 -R) levels between non-valvular AF patients and healthy control subjects...
November 10, 2016: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824117/lipoxin-a4-counter-regulates-histamine-stimulated-glycoconjugate-secretion-in-conjunctival-goblet-cells
#3
Robin R Hodges, Dayu Li, Marie A Shatos, Charles N Serhan, Darlene A Dartt
Conjunctival goblet cells synthesize and secrete mucins which play an important role in protecting the ocular surface. Pro-resolution mediators, such as lipoxin A4 (LXA4), are produced during inflammation returning the tissue to homeostasis and are also produced in non-inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine the actions of LXA4 on cultured human conjunctival goblet cell mucin secretion and increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) and on histamine-stimulated responses. LXA4 increased mucin secretion and [Ca(2+)]i, and activated ERK1/2 in human goblet cells...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793651/the-effect-of-inflammation-on-sympathetic-nerve-mediated-contractions-in-rat-isolated-caudal-artery
#4
Jocelyn Fotso Soh, Hilary R Strong, Noriko Daneshtalab, Reza Tabrizchi
Chronic inflammatory process(es) contributes to changes in vascular function in a variety of diseases. Sympathetic nerve-mediated responses in blood vessels play a pivotal role in regular physiological functions. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic neuro-effector function will be altered as consequence of inflammatory state. Sympathetic nerve-mediated contractions and alpha adrenergic receptor expressions were evaluated in isolated caudal arteries of rats treated with saline and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753836/sy-05-2-progression-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-new-therapeutic-approach
#5
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739173/possible-involvements-of-glutamate-and-adrenergic-receptors-on-acute-toxicity-of-methylphenidate-in-isolated-hippocampus-and-cerebral-cortex-of-adult-rats
#6
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Behnaz Shabab
Neurodegeneration induced by methylphenidate (MPH), as a central stimulant with unknown long-term consequences, in adult rats' brain and the possible mechanisms involved were studied. Rats were acutely treated with MPH in presence and absence of some receptor antagonists such as ketamine, topiramate, yohimibine and haloperidol. Motor activity and anxiety level in rats were monitored. Anti-oxidant and inflammatory parameters were also measured in isolated hippocampus and cerebral cortex. MPH treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) demonstrated anxiety-like behavior and increased motor activity...
October 14, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738803/preventive-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-the-development-of-cognitive-dysfunction-following-systemic-inflammation-in-aged-rats
#7
Daiki Yamanaka, Takashi Kawano, Atsushi Nishigaki, Bun Aoyama, Hiroki Tateiwa, Marie Shigematsu-Locatelli, Fabricio M Locatelli, Masataka Yokoyama
PURPOSE: In the present study, we examined whether and by what mechanisms dexmedetomidine (DMED) prevents the development of systemic inflammation (SI)-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either 5.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. LPS-treated rats were further divided into three groups: early DMED, late DMED, or midazolam (MDZ) treatment (n = 12 each). Seven days after LPS injection, cognitive function was evaluated using a novel object recognition task, followed by measurement of hippocampal levels of proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expression...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706016/abnormal-sensory-protein-expression-and-urothelial-dysfunction-in-ketamine-related-cystitis-in-humans
#8
Yao Chou Tsai, Lori Birder, Hann-Chorng Kuo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of sensory protein expression and urothelial dysfunction in ketamine-related cystitis (KC) in humans. METHODS: Biopsies of bladder mucosa were performed in 29 KC patients during cystoscopy. Then specimens were analyzed for tryptase, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) with immunofluorescence staining and quantification. In addition, 10 healthy control bladder specimens were analyzed and compared with the KC specimens...
September 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696085/transcriptomic-effects-of-adenosine-2a-receptor-deletion-in-healthy-and-endotoxemic-murine-myocardium
#9
Kevin J Ashton, Melissa E Reichelt, S Jamal Mustafa, Bunyen Teng, Catherine Ledent, Lea M D Delbridge, Polly A Hofmann, R Ray Morrison, John P Headrick
Influences of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) activity on the cardiac transcriptome and genesis of endotoxemic myocarditis are unclear. We applied transcriptomic profiling (39 K Affymetrix arrays) to identify A2AR-sensitive molecules, revealed by receptor knockout (KO), in healthy and endotoxemic hearts. Baseline cardiac function was unaltered and only 37 A2AR-sensitive genes modified by A2AR KO (≥1.2-fold change, <5 % FDR); the five most induced are Mtr, Ppbp, Chac1, Ctsk and Cnpy2 and the five most repressed are Hp, Yipf4, Acta1, Cidec and Map3k2...
September 30, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695298/patient-considerations-in-cataract-surgery-the-role-of-combined-therapy-using-phenylephrine-and-ketorolac
#10
Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Adriano Guarnieri, María Concepción Guirao Navarro, Manuel Saenz-de-Viteri
Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672060/disruption-of-beta3-adrenergic-receptor-increases-susceptibility-to-dio-in-mouse
#11
Nailliw Z Preite, Bruna P P do Nascimento, Cynthia R Muller, Anna Laura V Américo, Talita S Higa, Fabiana S Evangelista, Carmen L Lancellotti, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista, Antonio C Bianco, Miriam O Ribeiro
The brown adipose tissue (BAT) mediates adaptive changes in metabolic rate by responding to the sympathetic nervous system through β-adrenergic receptors (AR). Here, we wished to define the role played by the ARβ3 isoform in this process. This study focused on the ARβ3 knockout mice (ARβ3KO), including responsiveness to cold exposure, diet-induced obesity, intolerance to glucose, dyslipidaemia and lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT). ARβ3KO mice defend core temperature during cold exposure (4°C for 5 h), with faster BAT thermal response to norepinephrine (NE) infusion when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642889/sy-05-2-progression-of-hypertensive-heart-disease-new-therapeutic-approach
#12
Masatsugu Horiuchi
Hypertensive patients have greater chances of such cardiovascular events as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart or renal failure, peripheral artery disease, and dementia. It is also well recognized that diabetes increases the cardiovascular risks in concert with hypertension. Therefore, main goals for an innovation of anti-hypertensive therapy would be to achieve further risk reduction by targeting the functional, metabolic, and structural alterations associated with hypertension. Professors Dzau and Braunwald et al proposed the concept of "the cardiovascular disease continuum" in 1991, and that hypertension may trigger the chain of events, leading to end-stage heart disease; however, this concept was quite new at that time, and there was some discussion whether "the cardiovascular disease continuum" is true or not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585737/sympathetic-nervous-system-promotes-hepatocarcinogenesis-by-modulating-inflammation-through-activation-of-alpha1-adrenergic-receptors-of-kupffer-cells
#13
Hong-Bo Huan, Xu-Dong Wen, Xue-Jiao Chen, Lin Wu, Li-Li Wu, Liang Zhang, Da-Peng Yang, Xia Zhang, Ping Bie, Cheng Qian, Feng Xia
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is known to play a significant role in tumor initiation and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently occurs in cirrhotic livers after chronic inflammation, and the SNS is hyperactive in advanced liver cirrhosis. However, it remains unclear whether the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating chronic liver inflammation. In this study, a retrospective pathological analysis and quantification of sympathetic nerve fiber densities (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH(+)) in HCC patients, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats were performed...
August 29, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562835/multidisciplinary-consideration-of-potential-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-of-paradoxical-erythema-with-topical-brimonidine-therapy
#14
REVIEW
James R Docherty, Martin Steinhoff, Dianne Lorton, Michael Detmar, Gregor Schäfer, Anna Holmes, Anna Di Nardo
: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease with transient and non-transient redness as key characteristics. Brimonidine is a selective α2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist approved for persistent facial erythema of rosacea based on significant efficacy and good safety data. The majority of patients treated with brimonidine report a benefit; however, there have been sporadic reports of worsening erythema after the initial response. A group of dermatologists, receptor physiology, and neuroimmunology scientists met to explore potential mechanisms contributing to side effects as well as differences in efficacy...
November 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458336/genetic-syndromes-maternal-diseases-and-antenatal-factors-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd
#15
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy, Liza Weinstein-Fudim, Zivanit Ergaz
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437032/visceral-adiposity-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Heno F Lopes, Maria Lúcia Corrêa-Giannella, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Brent M Egan
The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378934/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-cytokine-alarmins-to-treat-allergic-airway-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Chandler B Sy, Mark C Siracusa
Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that results in recurrent attacks of breathlessness, coughing, and wheezing that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the precise causes of asthma are unclear, studies suggest that a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to various allergens and pathogens contribute to its development. Currently, the most common treatment to control asthma is a dual combination of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and corticosteroids. However, studies have shown that some patients do not respond well to these medications, while others experience significant side effects...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375620/molecular-mechanisms-for-camp-mediated-immunoregulation-in-t-cells-role-of-anchored-protein-kinase-a-signaling-units
#18
REVIEW
Vanessa L Wehbi, Kjetil Taskén
The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway is one of the most common and versatile signal pathways in eukaryotic cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) target PKA to specific substrates and distinct subcellular compartments providing spatial and temporal specificity for mediation of biological effects channeled through the cAMP/PKA pathway. In the immune system, cAMP is a potent negative regulator of T cell receptor-mediated activation of effector T cells (Teff) acting through a proximal PKA/Csk/Lck pathway anchored via a scaffold consisting of the AKAP Ezrin holding PKA, the linker protein EBP50, and the anchoring protein phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains holding Csk...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364164/leukocyte-expressed-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-are-essential-for-survival-after-acute-myocardial-injury
#19
Laurel A Grisanti, Anna M Gumpert, Christopher J Traynham, Joshua E Gorsky, Ashley A Repas, Erhe Gao, Rhonda L Carter, Daohai Yu, John W Calvert, Andrés Pun García, Borja Ibáñez, Joseph E Rabinowitz, Walter J Koch, Douglas G Tilley
BACKGROUND: Immune cell-mediated inflammation is an essential process for mounting a repair response after myocardial infarction (MI). The sympathetic nervous system is known to regulate immune system function through β-adrenergic receptors (βARs); however, their role in regulating immune cell responses to acute cardiac injury is unknown. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice were irradiated followed by isoform-specific βAR knockout (βARKO) or WT bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) and after full reconstitution underwent MI surgery...
July 12, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297948/g-protein-coupled-receptor-g-protein-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-subunit-signaling-mediates-renal-dysfunction-and-fibrosis-in-heart-failure
#20
Fadia A Kamal, Joshua G Travers, Allison E Schafer, Qing Ma, Prasad Devarajan, Burns C Blaxall
Development of CKD secondary to chronic heart failure (CHF), known as cardiorenal syndrome type 2 (CRS2), clinically associates with organ failure and reduced survival. Heart and kidney damage in CRS2 results predominantly from chronic stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including adrenergic and endothelin (ET) receptors, after elevated neurohormonal signaling of the sympathetic nervous system and the downstream ET system, respectively. Although we and others have shown that chronic GPCR stimulation and the consequent upregulated interaction between the G-protein βγ-subunit (Gβγ), GPCR-kinase 2, and β-arrestin are central to various cardiovascular diseases, the role of such alterations in kidney diseases remains largely unknown...
June 13, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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