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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203561/comparative-prospective-case-control-study-of-open-versus-laparoscopic-pyeloplasty-in-children-with-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-long-term-results
#1
Lisandro A Piaggio, Juan P Corbetta, Santiago Weller, Ricardo Augusto Dingevan, Víctor Duran, Javier Ruiz, Juan C Lopez
INTRODUCTION: We compare open pyeloplasty (OP) versus laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in children in a multicenter, prospective, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2007 to March 2009, a program was established at Hospital Garrahan, the reference center, to perform LP with a mentoring surgeon that would attend the institution once a month. Every new case of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) diagnosed in the reference institution was offered to participate in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197994/a-population-based-comparison-of-female-and-male-same-sex-parent-and-different-sex-parent-households
#2
Henny M W Bos, Lisette Kuyper, Nanette K Gartrell
This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old...
February 15, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161474/the-impact-of-parental-modeling-on-child-pain-responses-the-role-of-parent-and-child-sex
#3
Katelynn E Boerner, Christine T Chambers, Patrick J McGrath, Vincent LoLordo, Rudolf Uher
: Social modeling is a process by which pain behaviours are learned, and research has found parents act as models for their children's behaviour. Despite social learning theory predicting that same-sex models have greater impact, no experimental investigation to date has examined the role of sex of the model or observer in social learning of pediatric pain. The present study recruited 168 parent-child dyads (equal father-son, father-daughter, mother-son, and mother-daughter dyads) where children were generally healthy 6- to 8-year-olds...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154476/maltreated-and-comparison-adolescents-recollections-of-lifetime-residences-relationship-to-delinquency-and-marijuana-use
#4
Janet U Schneiderman, Andrea K Kennedy, Sonya Negriff, Jennifer Jones, Penelope K Trickett
Both childhood maltreatment and frequent childhood residence changes are associated with poor behavioral outcomes including drug use and delinquency. It is not clear whether a higher number of residences results in poorer outcomes for maltreated adolescents compared to adolescents living in the same community but without child welfare-documented maltreatment. Our study of child welfare-affiliated maltreated youth (n=216) and comparison youth (n=128) from the same community (age M = 18.21, SD = 1.42) examined: 1...
December 2016: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139832/evolutionary-rescue-in-randomly-mating-selfing-and-clonal-populations
#5
Hildegard Uecker
Severe environmental change can drive a population extinct unless the population adapts in time to the new conditions ("evolutionary rescue"). How does bi-parental sexual reproduction influence the chances of population persistence compared to clonal reproduction or selfing? In this paper, we set up a one-locus two-allele model for adaptation in diploid species, where rescue is contingent on the establishment of the mutant homozygote. Reproduction can occur by random mating, selfing, or clonally. Random mating generates and destroys the rescue mutant; selfing is efficient at generating it but at the same time depletes the heterozygote, which can lead to a low mutant frequency in the standing genetic variation...
January 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122990/using-stem-cell-derived-gametes-for-same-sex-reproduction-an-alternative-scenario
#6
Seppe Segers, Heidi Mertes, Guido Pennings, Guido de Wert, Wybo Dondorp
It has been suggested that future application of stem-cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes) might lead to the possibility for same-sex couples to have genetically related children. Still, for this to become possible, the technique of gamete derivation and techniques of reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state (directly or via somatic cell nuclear transfer) would have to be perfected. Moreover, egg cells would have to be derived from male cells and sperm cells from female cells, which is believed to be particularly difficult, if not impossible...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108667/effects-on-circulating-steroid-hormones-and-gene-expression-along-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-adult-japanese-quail-exposed-to-17%C3%AE-trenbolone-across-multiple-generations
#7
Natalie K Karouna-Renier, Yu Chen, Paula F P Henry, Catherine M Maddox, Daniel T Sprague
We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17ß-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured...
January 20, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090349/the-association-between-parental-separation-during-childhood-and-obesity-in-adulthood-a-danish-twin-study
#8
J D Petersen, K O Kyvik, B L Heitmann, M E Vámosi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine if parental separation during childhood is associated with obesity in adulthood. METHODS: A co-twin case-control study of 146 adult same-sexed twin pairs with discordant body mass index (BMI) (i.e. one of the twins should have a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2), and the co-twin's BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was selected from Danish Twin Registry (DTR). In total of 236 eligible twin individuals participated in the study. Childhood parental separation (defined as separation from one of the biological parents, regardless of the reason for separation) for at least one year prior to age 17 was self-reported...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086765/health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-and-its-associated-factors-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-t1dm
#9
Marta Murillo, Joan Bel, Jacobo Pérez, Raquel Corripio, Gemma Carreras, Xavier Herrero, Josep-Maria Mengibar, Dolors Rodriguez-Arjona, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Hein Raat, Luis Rajmil
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and analyze its associated clinical and sociodemographic factors, assessing HRQOL through internet. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of 136 patients with T1DM from 5 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain (72 girls, mean age 13.4 years (range 8-19). Inclusion criteria were more than 6 months from diagnosis, more than 8 years old and without cognitive problems...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068109/not-a-mom-thing-predictors-of-gatekeeping-in-same-sex-and-heterosexual-parent-families
#10
Kristin K Sweeney, Abbie E Goldberg, Randi L Garcia
The current study is the first to examine parental gatekeeping in both same-sex (57 female, 51 male) and heterosexual (n = 82) couples, all of whom became parents via adoption. Aspects of the individual, the couple, and the work context, measured preadoption, were examined as predictors of gatekeeping. Gatekeeping refers to attitudes and behaviors aimed at regulating and limiting the involvement of the other parent in housework and child care and was measured 2 years postadoption. Findings revealed that women in heterosexual relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with all other groups, and men in same-sex relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with women in same-sex relationships and men in heterosexual relationships...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058636/short-term-and-long-term-educational-mobility-of-families-a-two-sex-approach
#11
Xi Song, Robert D Mare
We use a multigenerational perspective to investigate how families reproduce and pass their educational advantages to succeeding generations. Unlike traditional mobility studies that have typically focused on one-sex influences from fathers to sons, we rely on a two-sex approach that accounts for interactions between males and females-the process in which males and females mate and have children with those of similar educational statuses and jointly determine the educational status attainment of their offspring...
February 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032264/the-effect-of-childhood-family-size-on-fertility-in-adulthood-new-evidence-from-iv-estimation
#12
Sara Cools, Rannveig Kaldager Hart
Although fertility is positively correlated across generations, the causal effect of children's experience with larger sibships on their own fertility in adulthood is poorly understood. With the sex composition of the two firstborn children as an instrumental variable, we estimate the effect of sibship size on adult fertility using high-quality data from Norwegian administrative registers. Our study sample is all firstborns or second-borns during the 1960s in Norwegian families with at least two children (approximately 110,000 men and 104,000 women)...
February 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012508/psychological-status-in-children-with-ear-and-nose-foreign-body-insertion
#13
Mehdi Bakhshaee, Paria Hebrani, Majid Shams, Maryam Salehi, Ataollah Ghaffari, Mohsen Rajati
OBJECTIVE: Children with psychological disorders are prone to various unintentional injuries, one of the most common of which is foreign body inserting. In spite of the high incidence, the association is not studied yet. METHODS: This is a case control study in otorhinolaryngology and psychology departments, at a tertiary referral teaching hospital. One hundred five children (2-12 years old) who were referred for removal of foreign bodies in their ear or nose over a period of one year were selected for the study...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003455/sex-as-a-strategy-against-rapidly-evolving-parasites
#14
Stuart K J R Auld, Shona K Tinkler, Matthew C Tinsley
Why is sex ubiquitous when asexual reproduction is much less costly? Sex disrupts coadapted gene complexes; it also causes costs associated with mate finding and the production of males who do not themselves bear offspring. Theory predicts parasites select for host sex, because genetically variable offspring can escape infection from parasites adapted to infect the previous generations. We examine this using a facultative sexual crustacean, Daphnia magna, and its sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa We obtained sexually and asexually produced offspring from wild-caught hosts and exposed them to contemporary parasites or parasites isolated from the same population one year later...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997235/familial-factors-victimization-and-psychological-health-among-sexual-minority-adolescents-in-sweden
#15
Kelly Donahue, Niklas Långström, Sebastian Lundström, Paul Lichtenstein, Mats Forsman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influences of victimization experience and familial factors on the association between sexual minority status and psychological health outcomes among adolescents. METHODS: We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, a prospective, population-based study of all twins born in Sweden since 1992. Cross-sectional analyses included individuals who completed assessments at age 18 years (n = 4898) from 2000 to 2013. We also compared psychological health among sexual minority adolescents and their nonminority co-twins...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973606/evolution-at-sutures-and-centers-recombination-can-aid-adaptation-of-spatially-structured-populations-on-rugged-fitness-landscapes
#16
Jacob D Cooper, Benjamin Kerr
Epistatic interactions among genes can give rise to rugged fitness landscapes, in which multiple "peaks" of high-fitness allele combinations are separated by "valleys" of low-fitness genotypes. How populations traverse rugged fitness landscapes is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. Sexual reproduction may affect how a population moves within a rugged fitness landscape. Sex may generate new high-fitness genotypes by recombination, but it may also destroy high-fitness genotypes by shuffling the genes of a fit parent with a genetically distinct mate, creating low-fitness offspring...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927842/parental-contributions-to-early-embryo-development-influences-of-urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternatives-among-couples-undergoing-ivf-treatment
#17
Haotian Wu, Lisa Ashcraft, Brian W Whitcomb, Tayyab Rahil, Ellen Tougias, Cynthia K Sites, J Richard Pilsner
STUDY QUESTION: Are preconception urinary concentrations of phthalates and phthalate alternatives associated with diminished early stage embryo quality in couples undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Male, but not female, urinary concentrations of select metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with diminished blastocyst quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although phthalates are endocrine disrupting compounds associated with adverse reproductive health, they are in widespread use across the world...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899716/behavioral-and-emotional-problems-in-high-functioning-girls-and-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-parents-reports-and-adolescents-self-reports
#18
Ewa Pisula, Monika Pudło, Monika Słowińska, Rafał Kawa, Magdalena Strząska, Anna Banasiak, Tomasz Wolańczyk
The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder. The results obtained by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder were compared with those of typically developing girls and boys. Correlations between parents' and adolescents' ratings were also analyzed. Participants were 35 girls and 35 boys with autism spectrum disorder, aged 11-18 years, matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ. The control group consisted of 24 typically developing girls and 24 boys of the same age and IQ...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882858/longitudinal-associations-of-parental-and-peer-influences-with-physical-activity-during-adolescence-findings-from-the-compass-study
#19
E Y Lau, G Faulkner, W Qian, S T Leatherdale
INTRODUCTION: To examine temporal variations in parental and peer influences on adolescent physical activity (PA) and whether these variations predicted changes in PA. METHODS: We analyzed data from Years 1, 2 and 3 of the COMPASS study. Participants were 22 909 students in Grades 9 to 12 (mean age [years] = 15.42 ± 1.12, 46% boys, 85% White), who had completed the following survey items on 2 or more consecutive occasions: age, sex, grade, race/ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), parental encouragement and parental instrumental support for PA, and number of active peers...
November 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853561/sex-roles-parental-care-and-offspring-growth-in-two-contrasting-coucal-species
#20
Wolfgang Goymann, Ignas Safari, Christina Muck, Ingrid Schwabl
The decision to provide parental care is often associated with trade-offs, because resources allocated to parental care typically cannot be invested in self-maintenance or mating. In most animals, females provide more parental care than males, but the reason for this pattern is still debated in evolutionary ecology. To better understand sex differences in parental care and its consequences, we need to study closely related species where the sexes differ in offspring care. We investigated parental care in relation to offspring growth in two closely related coucal species that fundamentally differ in sex roles and parental care, but live in the same food-rich habitat with a benign climate and have a similar breeding phenology...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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