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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993703/zebra-finch-chicks-recognise-parental-scent-and-retain-chemosensory-knowledge-of-their-genetic-mother-even-after-egg-cross-fostering
#1
Barbara A Caspers, Julie C Hagelin, Madeleine Paul, Sandra Bock, Sandra Willeke, E Tobias Krause
Mechanisms underlying parent-offspring recognition in birds have fascinated researchers for centuries. Yet, the possibility that chicks recognise parental odour at hatching has been completely overlooked, despite the fact that olfaction is one of the first sensory modalities to develop, and social chemosignals occur in avian taxa. Here we show that Zebra Finch chicks (Taeniopygia guttata) are capable of identifying parental odours at hatching. In our first experiment, chicks begged significantly longer in response to the odour of their genetic mother or father compared to the odour of a non-relative of the same sex and reproductive status...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993176/comparing-parents-and-overweight-adolescents-reports-on-parent-mealtime-actions
#2
Carolina Bertagnoli Volpe, Maria Luiza Blanques Petty, Altay Alves Lino de Souza, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith Escrivão
This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated...
October 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992103/maternal-programming-of-body-weight-in-syrian-hamsters
#3
Jeremy M Brozek, Jill E Schneider, Erin Rhinehart
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring...
September 14, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981317/an-analysis-of-avoidant-and-approach-coping-as-mediators-of-the-relationship-between-paternal-and-maternal-attachment-security-and-outcomes-in-child-victims-of-sexual-abuse
#4
Martine Hébert, Marie-Ève Daspe, Mireille Cyr
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have documented the potential role of nonoffending parent support in promoting recovery of adult survivors following sexual abuse (SA). However, few studies have distinguished the maternal and paternal role and the mechanisms by which quality of the parent-child relationship might foster more positive outcomes in child victims. The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies as mediators of the link between mother-child and father-child relationship and outcomes following child SA...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971368/sample-errors-call-into-question-conclusions-regarding-same-sex-married-parents-a-comment-on-family-structure-and-child-health-does-the-sex-composition-of-parents-matter
#5
D Paul Sullins
Because of classification errors reported by the National Center for Health Statistics, an estimated 42 % of the same-sex married partners in the sample for this study are misclassified different-sex married partners, thus calling into question findings regarding same-sex married parents. Including biological parentage as a control variable suppresses same-sex/different-sex differences, thus obscuring the data error. Parentage is not appropriate as a control because it correlates nearly perfectly (+.97, gamma) with the same-sex/different-sex distinction and is invariant for the category of joint biological parents...
October 2, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970947/ethnic-variations-in-perception-of-human-papillomavirus-and-its-vaccination-among-young-women-in-nepal
#6
Brijesh Sathian, M G Ramesh Babu, Edwin R van Teijlingen, Indrajit Banerjee, Bedanta Roy, Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Elayedath Rajesh, Suresh Devkota
BACKGROUND: The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with cervical and other cancers. In women, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer. HPV infection can be largely prevented through vaccination of (adolescent) girls. At the same time, Nepal is a low-income country experiencing a cultural change in attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour. However, in the adolescent population knowledge about HPV, factors associated with an increased risk of HPV and the existence of the vaccination is often low...
March 2017: Nepal journal of epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961237/chronic-disease-concordance-within-indian-households-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Shivani A Patel, Preet K Dhillon, Dimple Kondal, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Kashvi Kahol, Sathya Prakash Manimunda, Anil J Purty, Ajit Deshpande, P C Negi, Sulaiman Ladhani, Gurudayal Singh Toteja, Vikram Patel, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND: The household is a potentially important but understudied unit of analysis and intervention in chronic disease research. We sought to estimate the association between living with someone with a chronic condition and one's own chronic condition status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of population-based household- and individual-level data collected in 4 socioculturally and geographically diverse settings across rural and urban India in 2013 and 2014...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956523/transmission-of-alcohol-use-disorder-across-three-generations-a-swedish-national-study
#8
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, J Sundquist, K Sundquist
BACKGROUND: While risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is correlated in twins, siblings and parent-offspring pairs, we know little of how this syndrome is transmitted across three generations. METHOD: We examined 685 172 individuals born in Sweden from 1980 to 1990 with four grandparents, and both parents alive in 1980. AUD was assessed in all these individuals from nationwide medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. RESULTS: AUD was stably transmitted across three generations...
September 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955263/placement-work-experience-may-mitigate-lower-achievement-levels-of-black-and-asian-vs-white-students-at-university
#9
Elisabeth Moores, Gurkiran K Birdi, Helen E Higson
Ethnic minority groups have been shown to obtain poorer final year degree outcomes than their majority group counterparts in countries including the United States, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Obtaining a lower degree classification may limit future employment prospects of graduates as well as opportunities for higher level study. To further investigate this achievement gap, we analyzed performance levels across three academic years of study of 3,051 Black, Asian and White students from a United Kingdom University...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921187/moderation-of-genetic-influences-on-alcohol-involvement-by-rural-residency-among-adolescents-results-from-the-1962-national-merit-twin-study
#10
Christal N Davis, Shanaliz S Natta, Wendy S Slutske
Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. The current study used data from 839 same-sex twin pairs from the 1962 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test to determine whether the G × E interaction would be evident in this earlier time period...
September 18, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915988/learning-to-be-gendered-gender-socialization-in-early-adolescence-among-urban-poor-in-delhi-india-and-shanghai-china
#11
Sharmistha Basu, Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Rajib Acharya, Rebecka Lundgren
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. METHODS: The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912344/parasex-generates-phenotypic-diversity-de-novo-and-impacts-drug-resistance-and-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#12
Matthew P Hirakawa, Darius E Chyou, Denis Huang, Aaron R Slan, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that is a frequent cause of mucosal and systemic infections in humans. This species exhibits an unusual parasexual cycle in which mating produces tetraploid cells that undergo a non-meiotic program of concerted chromosome loss to return to a diploid or aneuploid state. In this work, we used a multipronged approach to examine the capacity of parasex to generate diversity in C. albicans First, we compared the phenotypic properties of 32 genotyped progeny and observed wide-ranging differences in fitness, filamentation, biofilm formation and virulence...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910928/-a-twin-study-of-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-relationship-between-attention-deficit-and-anxiety-depression-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
S S Wang, T J Chen, C Y Ji
Objective: To understand the genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between attention deficit and anxiety/depression in children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 1 062 same-sex twins aged 6-18 years were included in this study. A parent-rated child behavior checklist (CBCL) was used in the assessment. Software Mx was used to fit the univariate model of structural equation. The relationship between attention deficit and anxiety/depression was analyzed through bivariate genetic modeling...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890707/elsa-2016-cohort-alcohol-tobacco-and-marijuana-use-and-their-association-with-age-of-drug-use-onset-risk-perception-and-social-norms-in-argentinean-college-freshmen
#14
Angelina Pilatti, Jennifer P Read, Ricardo M Pautassi
The transition from high school to college is a high-risk stage for the initiation and escalation of substance use. Substance use and its associated risk factors have been thoroughly described in developed countries, such as the United States, but largely neglected in Argentina, a South American country with patterns of a collectivist culture. The present cross-sectional study describes the occurrence of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and the association between these behaviors and the age of onset of substance use and cognitive (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890705/parent-rated-symptoms-of-inattention-in-childhood-predict-high-school-academic-achievement-across-two-culturally-and-diagnostically-diverse-samples
#15
Astri J Lundervold, Jocelyn I Meza, Mari Hysing, Stephen P Hinshaw
Objective: To investigate parent reports of childhood symptoms of inattention as a predictor of adolescent academic achievement, taking into account the impact of the child's intellectual functioning, in two diagnostically and culturally diverse samples. Method: Samples: (a) an all-female sample in the U.S. predominated by youth with ADHD (Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study [BGALS], N = 202), and (b) a mixed-sex sample recruited from a Norwegian population-based sample (the Bergen Child Study [BCS], N = 93)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877219/a-new-approach-to-chromosome-wide-analysis-of-x-linked-markers-identifies-new-associations-in-asian-and-european-case-parent-triads-of-orofacial-clefts
#16
Øivind Skare, Håkon K Gjessing, Miriam Gjerdevik, Øystein A Haaland, Julia Romanowska, Rolv T Lie, Astanand Jugessur
BACKGROUND: GWAS discoveries on the X-chromosome are underrepresented in the literature primarily because the analytical tools that have been applied were originally designed for autosomal markers. Our objective here is to employ a new robust and flexible tool for chromosome-wide analysis of X-linked markers in complex traits. Orofacial clefts are good candidates for such analysis because of the consistently observed excess of females with cleft palate only (CPO) and excess of males with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846002/stressful-family-environments-and-children-s-behavioral-control-a-multimethod-test-and-replication-study-with-twins
#17
Claudia I Vrijhof, Anja van der Voort, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Saskia Euser
Young children's behavioral control predicts a broad range of developmental outcomes in child- and adulthood. It is therefore important to study how individual differences in behavioral control arise. Previous studies suggest that there are both genetic and environmental influences, which were estimated in the current study using a sample of mono- and dizygotic same-sex twins. Furthermore, we examined the associations between indicators of a stressful family environment like household chaos, parenting daily hassles, and parental depressive symptoms and children's behavioral control in 2 samples...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820631/links-between-the-mother-adolescent-and-father-adolescent-relationships-and-adolescent-depression-a-genetically-informed-study
#18
Charlie Brouillard, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Ginette Dionne, Michel Boivin
This study examined the unique roles of support and conflict in the relationship with the mother and the father in predicting changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms over a 1-year period. Potential moderating effects of genetic factors (Gene × Environment interaction) and sex were also investigated. This study utilized a design of twins raised in the same family, based on a sample of 121 monozygotic and 88 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs (418 individuals; 52.2% girls) assessed in Grade 8 (M = 14.09, SD = ...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813274/parenting-in-new-family-forms
#19
REVIEW
Susan Golombok
This paper reviews research on parenting and child development in new family forms including families created by assisted reproductive technologies, same-sex parent families, and families headed by single mothers by choice. The research is examined in the context of the issues and concerns that have been raised regarding these families. The findings not only contest popular assumptions about the psychological consequences for children of being raised in new family forms but also challenge the supremacy of the traditional family...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813273/adoptive-parenting
#20
REVIEW
Harold D Grotevant, Albert Yh Lo
Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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