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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090349/the-association-between-parental-separation-during-childhood-and-obesity-in-adulthood-a-danish-twin-study
#1
J D Petersen, K O Kyvik, B L Heitmann, M E Vámosi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine if parental separation during childhood is associated with obesity in adulthood. METHODS: A co-twin case-control study of 146 adult same-sexed twin pairs with discordant body mass index (BMI) (i.e. one of the twins should have a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2), and the co-twin's BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was selected from Danish Twin Registry (DTR). In total of 236 eligible twin individuals participated in the study. Childhood parental separation (defined as separation from one of the biological parents, regardless of the reason for separation) for at least one year prior to age 17 was self-reported...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086765/health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-and-its-associated-factors-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-t1dm
#2
Marta Murillo, Joan Bel, Jacobo Pérez, Raquel Corripio, Gemma Carreras, Xavier Herrero, Josep-Maria Mengibar, Dolors Rodriguez-Arjona, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Hein Raat, Luis Rajmil
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and analyze its associated clinical and sociodemographic factors, assessing HRQOL through internet. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of 136 patients with T1DM from 5 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain (72 girls, mean age 13.4 years (range 8-19). Inclusion criteria were more than 6 months from diagnosis, more than 8 years old and without cognitive problems...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068109/not-a-mom-thing-predictors-of-gatekeeping-in-same-sex-and-heterosexual-parent-families
#3
Kristin K Sweeney, Abbie E Goldberg, Randi L Garcia
The current study is the first to examine parental gatekeeping in both same-sex (57 female, 51 male) and heterosexual (n = 82) couples, all of whom became parents via adoption. Aspects of the individual, the couple, and the work context, measured preadoption, were examined as predictors of gatekeeping. Gatekeeping refers to attitudes and behaviors aimed at regulating and limiting the involvement of the other parent in housework and child care and was measured 2 years postadoption. Findings revealed that women in heterosexual relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with all other groups, and men in same-sex relationships reported higher gatekeeping compared with women in same-sex relationships and men in heterosexual relationships...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058636/short-term-and-long-term-educational-mobility-of-families-a-two-sex-approach
#4
Xi Song, Robert D Mare
We use a multigenerational perspective to investigate how families reproduce and pass their educational advantages to succeeding generations. Unlike traditional mobility studies that have typically focused on one-sex influences from fathers to sons, we rely on a two-sex approach that accounts for interactions between males and females-the process in which males and females mate and have children with those of similar educational statuses and jointly determine the educational status attainment of their offspring...
January 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032264/the-effect-of-childhood-family-size-on-fertility-in-adulthood-new-evidence-from-iv-estimation
#5
Sara Cools, Rannveig Kaldager Hart
Although fertility is positively correlated across generations, the causal effect of children's experience with larger sibships on their own fertility in adulthood is poorly understood. With the sex composition of the two firstborn children as an instrumental variable, we estimate the effect of sibship size on adult fertility using high-quality data from Norwegian administrative registers. Our study sample is all firstborns or second-borns during the 1960s in Norwegian families with at least two children (approximately 110,000 men and 104,000 women)...
December 28, 2016: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012508/psychological-status-in-children-with-ear-and-nose-foreign-body-insertion
#6
Mehdi Bakhshaee, Paria Hebrani, Majid Shams, Maryam Salehi, Ataollah Ghaffari, Mohsen Rajati
OBJECTIVE: Children with psychological disorders are prone to various unintentional injuries, one of the most common of which is foreign body inserting. In spite of the high incidence, the association is not studied yet. METHODS: This is a case control study in otorhinolaryngology and psychology departments, at a tertiary referral teaching hospital. One hundred five children (2-12 years old) who were referred for removal of foreign bodies in their ear or nose over a period of one year were selected for the study...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003455/sex-as-a-strategy-against-rapidly-evolving-parasites
#7
Stuart K J R Auld, Shona K Tinkler, Matthew C Tinsley
Why is sex ubiquitous when asexual reproduction is much less costly? Sex disrupts coadapted gene complexes; it also causes costs associated with mate finding and the production of males who do not themselves bear offspring. Theory predicts parasites select for host sex, because genetically variable offspring can escape infection from parasites adapted to infect the previous generations. We examine this using a facultative sexual crustacean, Daphnia magna, and its sterilizing bacterial parasite, Pasteuria ramosa We obtained sexually and asexually produced offspring from wild-caught hosts and exposed them to contemporary parasites or parasites isolated from the same population one year later...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997235/familial-factors-victimization-and-psychological-health-among-sexual-minority-adolescents-in-sweden
#8
Kelly Donahue, Niklas Långström, Sebastian Lundström, Paul Lichtenstein, Mats Forsman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influences of victimization experience and familial factors on the association between sexual minority status and psychological health outcomes among adolescents. METHODS: We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, a prospective, population-based study of all twins born in Sweden since 1992. Cross-sectional analyses included individuals who completed assessments at age 18 years (n = 4898) from 2000 to 2013. We also compared psychological health among sexual minority adolescents and their nonminority co-twins...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973606/evolution-at-sutures-and-centers-recombination-can-aid-adaptation-of-spatially-structured-populations-on-rugged-fitness-landscapes
#9
Jacob D Cooper, Benjamin Kerr
Epistatic interactions among genes can give rise to rugged fitness landscapes, in which multiple "peaks" of high-fitness allele combinations are separated by "valleys" of low-fitness genotypes. How populations traverse rugged fitness landscapes is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. Sexual reproduction may affect how a population moves within a rugged fitness landscape. Sex may generate new high-fitness genotypes by recombination, but it may also destroy high-fitness genotypes by shuffling the genes of a fit parent with a genetically distinct mate, creating low-fitness offspring...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927842/parental-contributions-to-early-embryo-development-influences-of-urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternatives-among-couples-undergoing-ivf-treatment
#10
Haotian Wu, Lisa Ashcraft, Brian W Whitcomb, Tayyab Rahil, Ellen Tougias, Cynthia K Sites, J Richard Pilsner
STUDY QUESTION: Are preconception urinary concentrations of phthalates and phthalate alternatives associated with diminished early stage embryo quality in couples undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Male, but not female, urinary concentrations of select metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with diminished blastocyst quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although phthalates are endocrine disrupting compounds associated with adverse reproductive health, they are in widespread use across the world...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899716/behavioral-and-emotional-problems-in-high-functioning-girls-and-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-parents-reports-and-adolescents-self-reports
#11
Ewa Pisula, Monika Pudło, Monika Słowińska, Rafał Kawa, Magdalena Strząska, Anna Banasiak, Tomasz Wolańczyk
The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder. The results obtained by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder were compared with those of typically developing girls and boys. Correlations between parents' and adolescents' ratings were also analyzed. Participants were 35 girls and 35 boys with autism spectrum disorder, aged 11-18 years, matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ. The control group consisted of 24 typically developing girls and 24 boys of the same age and IQ...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882858/longitudinal-associations-of-parental-and-peer-influences-with-physical-activity-during-adolescence-findings-from-the-compass-study
#12
E Y Lau, G Faulkner, W Qian, S T Leatherdale
INTRODUCTION: To examine temporal variations in parental and peer influences on adolescent physical activity (PA) and whether these variations predicted changes in PA. METHODS: We analyzed data from Years 1, 2 and 3 of the COMPASS study. Participants were 22 909 students in Grades 9 to 12 (mean age [years] = 15.42 ± 1.12, 46% boys, 85% White), who had completed the following survey items on 2 or more consecutive occasions: age, sex, grade, race/ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), parental encouragement and parental instrumental support for PA, and number of active peers...
November 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853561/sex-roles-parental-care-and-offspring-growth-in-two-contrasting-coucal-species
#13
Wolfgang Goymann, Ignas Safari, Christina Muck, Ingrid Schwabl
The decision to provide parental care is often associated with trade-offs, because resources allocated to parental care typically cannot be invested in self-maintenance or mating. In most animals, females provide more parental care than males, but the reason for this pattern is still debated in evolutionary ecology. To better understand sex differences in parental care and its consequences, we need to study closely related species where the sexes differ in offspring care. We investigated parental care in relation to offspring growth in two closely related coucal species that fundamentally differ in sex roles and parental care, but live in the same food-rich habitat with a benign climate and have a similar breeding phenology...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851792/effects-of-divergent-selection-for-fear-of-humans-on-behaviour-in-red-junglefowl
#14
Beatrix Agnvall, Per Jensen
Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845196/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-chronic-widespread-pain-in-adolescence-population-birth-cohort-study
#15
Tom Norris, Kevin Deere, Jon H Tobias, Esther Crawley
: Although many studies have investigated the overlap between pain phenotypes and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adults, little is known about the relationship between these conditions in adolescents. The study's aim was therefore to identify whether a relationship exists between chronic widespread pain (CWP) and CFS in adolescents and investigate whether the two share common associations with a set of covariates. A questionnaire was administered to offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at age 17, asking about site, duration, and pain intensity, from which participants with CWP were identified...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822607/adequacy-of-using-a-three-item-questionnaire-to-determine-zygosity-in-chinese-young-twins
#16
Connie Suk-Han Ho, Mo Zheng, Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow, Simpson W L Wong, Cadmon K P Lim, Mary M Y Waye
The present study examined the adequacy of a three-item parent questionnaire in determining the zygosity of young Chinese twins and whether there was any association between parent response accuracy and some demographic variables. The sample consisted of 334 pairs of same-sex Chinese twins aged from 3 to 11 years. Three scoring methods, namely the summed score, logistic regression, and decision tree, were employed to evaluate parent response accuracy of twin zygosity based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information...
November 7, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820621/association-of-anesthesia-and-surgery-during-childhood-with-long-term-academic-performance
#17
Pia Glatz, Rolf H Sandin, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna-Karin Bonamy, Lars I Eriksson, Fredrik Granath
Importance: The results of preclinical studies suggest that anesthetic drugs administered to neonatal animals cause widespread neuronal apoptosis and later neurocognitive impairment. Adequately powered studies in the pediatric surgical population are scarce, and it is unclear whether such preclinical findings are relevant for the pediatric setting. Objective: To examine the association of anesthesia and surgery before age 4 years with long-term academic and cognitive performance indexed by school grades at age 16 years and IQ test scores at military conscription...
January 2, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777744/bacteria-type-specific-biparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#18
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
The transfer of acquired and specific immunity against previously encountered bacteria from mothers to offspring boosts the immune response of the next generation and supports the development of a successful pathogen defense. While most studies claim that the transfer of immunity is a maternal trait, in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, fathers nurse the embryos over a placenta-like structure, which opens the door for additional paternal immune priming. We examined the potential and persistence of bacteria-type-specific parental immune priming in the pipefish S...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776739/deleterious-effects-in-reproduction-and-developmental-immunity-elicited-by-pulmonary-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#19
Eun-Jung Park, Uiseok Jeong, Younghun Kim, Byoung-Seok Lee, Myung-Haing Cho, You-Seok Go
With the extensive application of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNPs), attention about their potential risks to human health is also rapidly raising, particularly in sensitive subgroups such as pregnant women and babies. In this study, we a single instilled intratracheally FeNPs (1, 2, and 4mg/kg) to the male and female parent mice, mated, then assessed reproductive toxicity according to the modified OECD TG 421. During the pre-mating period (14 days), two female parent mice died at 4mg/kg dose, and the body weight gain dose-dependently decreased in male and female parent mice exposed to FeNPs...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774234/in-vitro-gametogenesis-just-another-way-to-have-a-baby
#20
Sonia M Suter
Advances in science have made possible the derivation of reproductively viable gametes in vitro from mice. The research on human cells suggests that in vitro gametogenesis ("IVG") with reproductive potential may one day be possible with humans. This technology would allow same-sex couples to have children who are biologically related to both of them; allow single individuals to procreate without the genetic contribution of another individual; and facilitate "multiplex" parenting, where groups of more than two individuals procreate together, producing children who are the genetic progeny of them all...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
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