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Same sex parenting

Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Risk for criminal behavior (CB), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug abuse (DA) are known to be familial. We know less about their transmission across three generations. We examined 844,109 probands born in Sweden 1980-1990, their parents, aunts/uncles, and grandparents for registration in population-based registers for CB, AUD, and DA. Mean tetrachoric relative-proband correlations (95% CIs) were highest for DA (+0.24, 0.24-0.25), followed by CB (+0.23,0.22-0.23) and AUD (+0.17, 0.16-0.17). AUD and CB were relatively stably transmitted across generations, while DA resemblance among relatives was stronger in the younger generations...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Elizaveta Bourchtein, Julie S Owens, Anne E Dawson, Steven W Evans, Joshua M Langberg, Kate Flory, Elizabeth P Lorch
The goals of this study were to (a) evaluate the presence of the positive bias (PB) in elementary-school-aged children with and without ADHD when PB is defined at the individual level through latent profile analysis and (b) examine the extent to which several correlates (i.e., social functioning, aggression, depression, and anxiety) are associated with the PB. Participants were 233 youth (30% female; 8 to 10 years of age), 51% of whom met criteria for ADHD. During an individual evaluation, children and parents completed a battery of questionnaires to assess child competence, depression, anxiety, and aggression...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Xiaoqing Liu, Zhiqiang Nie, Jimei Chen, Xiaoling Guo, Yanqiu Ou, Guanchun Chen, Jinzhuang Mai, Wei Gong, Yong Wu, Xiangmin Gao, Yanji Qu, Erin M Bell, Shao Lin, Jian Zhuang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a major cause of death in infancy and childhood. Major risk factors for most CHDs, particularly those resulting from the combination of environmental exposures with social determinants and behaviors, are still unknown. This study evaluated the main effect of maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and its interaction with social-demographics and environmental factors on CHDs in China. A population-based, matched case-control study of 9452 live-born infants and stillborn fetuses was conducted using the Guangdong Registry of Congenital Heart Disease data (2004-2014)...
November 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Nikolas Vellnow, Lucas Marie-Orleach, Kira S Zadesenets, Lukas Schärer
All sexually reproducing organisms face the evolutionary optimization problem of how much of their limited resources they should invest into male versus female reproduction, i.e., the problem of sex allocation (Charnov, 1982). Consider, for example, producing the optimal offspring sex ratio in gonochoristic (separate-sexed) animals. Since during sexual reproduction both parents contribute the same amount of nuclear genetic material to the zygote, the total fitness of males and females-on the population level-has to be equal (Düsing, 1884; Fisher, 1930; Houston & McNamara, 2006; Queller, 2006)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tianbing Ding, Lauren A Lambert, David M Aronoff, Kevin G Osteen, Kaylon L Bruner-Tran
Infectious agents are a significant risk factor for preterm birth (PTB); however, the simple presence of bacteria is not sufficient to induce PTB in most women. Human and animal data suggest that environmental toxicant exposures may act in concert with other risk factors to promote PTB. Supporting this "second hit" hypothesis, we previously demonstrated exposure of fetal mice (F1 animals) to the environmental endocrine disruptor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) leads to an increased risk of spontaneous and infection-mediated PTB in adult animals...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Paula Xavier, Isabel Alberto, Francisco Mendes
Although international scientific research and the position of professional associations reiterate that the parents' sexual orientation is not a criterion of parenting quality, the social recognition of same-sex parenting remains difficult in Portugal. Given the importance of forensic issues in this field, this study aims to identify the representations of psychologists, social workers, lawyers/attorneys, and judges regarding same-sex parenting. The study involves five homogeneous focus groups with a total of 19 professionals...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
Corinne Reczek, Russell Spiker, Hui Liu, Robert Crosnoe
As a follow-up to our 2016 study, this article presents new findings examining the relationship between same-sex family structure and child health using the 2008-2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After discussing NIHS data problems, we examine the relationship between family structure and a broad range of child well-being outcomes, including school days lost, behavior, parent-rated health, emotional difficulties, and activity limitations. We find both similarities (school days lost, behavior, parent-rated health) and differences (emotional difficulties and activity limitations) across our two studies using different survey years, but our overall conclusions are robust...
November 10, 2017: Demography
Kimberly J Saudino, Manjie Wang, Megan Flom, Philip Asherson
Cross-lagged biometric models were used to examine genetic and environmental links between actigraph-assessed motor activity level (AL) and parent-rated attention problems (AP) in 314 same-sex twin pairs (MZ = 145, DZ = 169) at ages 2 and 3 years. At both ages, genetic correlations between AL and AP were moderate (ra2 = .35; ra3 = .39) indicating both overlap and specificity in genetic effects across the two domains. Within- and across-age phenotypic associations between AL and AP were entirely due to overlapping genetic influences...
November 8, 2017: Developmental Science
Ken W Knight, Sarah Em Stephenson, Sue West, Martin B Delatycki, Cheryl A Jones, Melissa H Little, George C Patton, Susan M Sawyer, S Rachel Skinner, Michelle M Telfer, Melissa Wake, Kathryn N North, Frank Oberklaid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
Stefan Wiesneth, Gregor Aas, Jörg Heilmann, Guido Jürgenliemk
Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (PAs) and salicylic alcohol derivatives are the main groups of ingredients in Salix needed as defensive tools and signal molecules, but have also pharmaceutical importance. The present study investigated total PA content, complete PA pattern, the oligomeric/total PAs quotient and the contents of catechin and epicatechin during one growing-season for the leaves and this year's sprouts in ten willows (Salix pentandra L. ♂, S. alba L. ♂, S. fragilis L. ♀, S. caprea L. ♂ & ♀, S...
October 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
Katri Maasalo, Jaana Wessman, Eeva T Aronen
BACKGROUND: Not much is known about low mood and its associates in child psychiatric patients. In this study, we examined the prevalence of low mood, how it associates with disruptive behaviour, and affects clinician-rated global functioning in child psychiatric outpatients. METHODS: The study population consisted of 862 5-12 year-old child psychiatric patients. The study sample was a subsample of all 1251 patients attending a child psychiatric outpatient clinic at Helsinki University Hospital in 2013-2015 formed by excluding 4 year-old and 13 year-old patients and those with missing or incomplete data...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Barbara A Caspers, Julie C Hagelin, Madeleine Paul, Sandra Bock, Sandra Willeke, E Tobias Krause
Mechanisms underlying parent-offspring recognition in birds have fascinated researchers for centuries. Yet, the possibility that chicks recognise parental odour at hatching has been completely overlooked, despite the fact that olfaction is one of the first sensory modalities to develop, and social chemosignals occur in avian taxa. Here we show that Zebra Finch chicks (Taeniopygia guttata) are capable of identifying parental odours at hatching. In our first experiment, chicks begged significantly longer in response to the odour of their genetic mother or father compared to the odour of a non-relative of the same sex and reproductive status...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carolina Bertagnoli Volpe, Maria Luiza Blanques Petty, Altay Alves Lino de Souza, Maria Arlete Meil Schimith Escrivão
This study aimed to compare answers given by parents and their adolescent children to the Portuguese version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS) and to assess associations among the reported behaviors. To compare these answers, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 72 patients of the Obesity Clinic of the Division of Nutrology of the Pediatrics Department at the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Brazil. These patients were aged from 10 years to 19 years and 11 months, and their parents or legal guardians also participated...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
Jeremy M Brozek, Jill E Schneider, Erin Rhinehart
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring...
September 14, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Martine Hébert, Marie-Ève Daspe, Mireille Cyr
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have documented the potential role of nonoffending parent support in promoting recovery of adult survivors following sexual abuse (SA). However, few studies have distinguished the maternal and paternal role and the mechanisms by which quality of the parent-child relationship might foster more positive outcomes in child victims. The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies as mediators of the link between mother-child and father-child relationship and outcomes following child SA...
October 5, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
D Paul Sullins
Because of classification errors reported by the National Center for Health Statistics, an estimated 42 % of the same-sex married partners in the sample for this study are misclassified different-sex married partners, thus calling into question findings regarding same-sex married parents. Including biological parentage as a control variable suppresses same-sex/different-sex differences, thus obscuring the data error. Parentage is not appropriate as a control because it correlates nearly perfectly (+.97, gamma) with the same-sex/different-sex distinction and is invariant for the category of joint biological parents...
October 2, 2017: Demography
Brijesh Sathian, M G Ramesh Babu, Edwin R van Teijlingen, Indrajit Banerjee, Bedanta Roy, Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Elayedath Rajesh, Suresh Devkota
BACKGROUND: The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with cervical and other cancers. In women, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer. HPV infection can be largely prevented through vaccination of (adolescent) girls. At the same time, Nepal is a low-income country experiencing a cultural change in attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour. However, in the adolescent population knowledge about HPV, factors associated with an increased risk of HPV and the existence of the vaccination is often low...
March 2017: Nepal Journal of Epidemiology
Shivani A Patel, Preet K Dhillon, Dimple Kondal, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Kashvi Kahol, Sathya Prakash Manimunda, Anil J Purty, Ajit Deshpande, P C Negi, Sulaiman Ladhani, Gurudayal Singh Toteja, Vikram Patel, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND: The household is a potentially important but understudied unit of analysis and intervention in chronic disease research. We sought to estimate the association between living with someone with a chronic condition and one's own chronic condition status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of population-based household- and individual-level data collected in 4 socioculturally and geographically diverse settings across rural and urban India in 2013 and 2014...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, J Sundquist, K Sundquist
BACKGROUND: While risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is correlated in twins, siblings and parent-offspring pairs, we know little of how this syndrome is transmitted across three generations. METHOD: We examined 685 172 individuals born in Sweden from 1980 to 1990 with four grandparents, and both parents alive in 1980. AUD was assessed in all these individuals from nationwide medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. RESULTS: AUD was stably transmitted across three generations...
September 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
Elisabeth Moores, Gurkiran K Birdi, Helen E Higson
Ethnic minority groups have been shown to obtain poorer final year degree outcomes than their majority group counterparts in countries including the United States, the United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Obtaining a lower degree classification may limit future employment prospects of graduates as well as opportunities for higher level study. To further investigate this achievement gap, we analyzed performance levels across three academic years of study of 3,051 Black, Asian and White students from a United Kingdom University...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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