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Anna Wallerstedt, Peter Strom, Henrik Gronberg, Tobias Nordstrom, Martin Eklund
Background: Studies have shown that 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) decrease the risk for low-grade prostate cancer (PC), but results are conflicting concerning high-grade PCs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the association between 5-ARI treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms and the risk for PC. Methods: This is a population-based prospective study on all men age 40 years and older with at least one prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in Stockholm County from January 2007 until December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Angharad E Green, Alejandro Amézquita, Yvan Le-Marc, Matthew J Bull, Thomas R Connor, Eshwar Mahenthiralingam
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common contaminant associated with product recalls in the home and personal care (HPC) industry. Preservation systems are used to prevent spoilage and protect consumers, but greater knowledge is needed of preservative resistance mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa contaminants. We aimed to identify genetic pathways associated with preservative exposure by using an industrial P. aeruginosa strain and implementing RNA-Seq to understand gene expression changes in response to industry relevant conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Theodore Gouliouris, Ben Warne, Edward J P Cartwright, Luke Bedford, Chathika K Weerasuriya, Kathy E Raven, Nick M Brown, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
Background: VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods: A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Shana J Kim, Tomasz Huzarski, Jacek Gronwald, Christian F Singer, Pål Møller, Henry T Lynch, Susan Armel, Beth Y Karlan, William D Foulkes, Susan L Neuhausen, Leigha Senter, Andrea Eisen, Charis Eng, Seema Panchal, Tuya Pal, Olufunmilayo Olopade, Dana Zakalik, Jan Lubinski, Steven A Narod, Joanne Kotsopoulos
Background: Although evidence suggests that larger body size in early life confers lifelong protection from developing breast cancer, few studies have investigated the relationship between body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA mutation carriers. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of body size and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Methods: Current height and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 were determined from baseline questionnaires...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Paula P Schnurr, Joan M Cook
Objective: Available studies on implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for patients attending Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs rely on therapist self-report of EBP delivery. Patient-level data on receipt of EBP are needed both to corroborate therapist self-report and to understand patient factors that predict receipt of EBPs for PTSD. Materials and Methods: We identified 159 therapists from 38 VA residential PTSD programs who responded to a survey about EBP implementation during the 2015 fiscal year (FY15)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Rada M Savic, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Nan Zhang, Moses Were, Abel Kakuru, Mary K Muhindo, Norah Mwebaza, Erika Wallender, Tamara D Clark, Bishop Opira, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Francesca T Aweeka
Background: Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. Methods: HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Luís M Félix, Ana M Vidal, Cindy Serafim, Ana M Valentim, Luís M Antunes, Sandra M Monteiro, Manuela Matos, Ana M Coimbra
Ketamine is a widely used pharmaceutical that has been detected in water sources worldwide. Zebrafish embryos were used in this study to investigate the oxidative stress and apoptotic signals following a 24h exposure to different ketamine concentrations (0, 50, 70 and 90 mg L-1 ). Early blastula embryos (∼2 h post fertilisation-hpf) were exposed for 24 h and analysed at 8 and 26 hpf. Reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cells were identified in vivo, at 26 hpf. Enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)), glutathione levels (oxidised (GSSG) and reduced (GSH)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls (CO)) as well as oxidative stress (gclc, gstp1, sod1 and cat), apoptosis (casp3a, casp6, casp8, casp9, aifm1 and tp53) and cell proliferation (pcna) related-genes were evaluated at 8 and 26 hpf...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Erika Obikane, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Daisuke Takagi, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is associated with adult suicidal behaviors, partially mediated by mental disorders. However, the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders is uncertain because the same risk factors serve as mediators and confounders of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct effect of childhood abuse not mediated by mental disorders on suicidal behaviors using marginal structural models. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of Japanese adults in Tokyo and neighboring prefectures (The Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sohail Ahmed Rajper, Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China...
2018: PloS One
Ya-Chi Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Fang-Chun Liao, Sing-Siang Wang, Hsiu-Chu Chang, Hung-Fu Hsu, Sue-Hsien Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable ventilator systems, and the association between system disconnection and bacterial contamination of ventilator systems. METHODS: The enrolled intubated and mechanically ventilated patients used a conventional reused ventilator system and a disposable closed ventilator-suction system, respectively, for a week; specimens were then collected from the ventilator circuit systems to evaluate human and environmental bacterial contamination...
2018: PloS One
Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Mauro Pettorruso, Chiara Montemitro, Maria Chiara Spano, Marco Lorusso, Massimo di Giannantonio, Arturo G Lerner
Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs. The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies...
March 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
Nikki Kells, Ngaio Beausoleil, Craig Johnson, Mhairi Sutherland
The aim of this research was to evaluate the welfare of pre-weaned piglets euthanised using three different gas treatments: 100% carbon dioxide (CO₂), 100% argon (Ar) or a mixture of 60% Ar/40% carbon dioxide (Ar/CO₂). Two studies (n = 5 piglets/treatment/study) were conducted: (1) behavioural and physiological data were collected from conscious piglets during exposure to test gases via immersion in a pre-filled chamber and (2) electrophysiological data were collected from lightly anaesthetised, intubated and mechanically ventilated piglets exposed to the same test gases...
March 16, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Hideaki Kagaya, Takenori Niioka, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Kazuyuki Numakura, Ryohei Yamamoto, Yumiko Akamine, Tomonori Habuchi, Shigeru Satoh, Masatomo Miura
While tacrolimus and everolimus have common metabolic pathways through CYP3A4/5, tacrolimus is metabolized solely by CYP3A4 in recipients with the CYP3A5*3 / *3 . The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the area under the blood concentration-time curves (AUC) of tacrolimus could be predicted based on CYP3A5 genotype and the AUC of everolimus in renal transplant patients taking both drugs. The dose-adjusted AUC (AUC/D) of tacrolimus and everolimus were calculated at one month and one year after transplantation...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alessia Stornetta, Valeria Guidolin, Silvia Balbo
The authors would like to make a correction to their published paper[...].
March 16, 2018: Cancers
Maartje Dijkstra, Rik H W Van Lunsen, Katherine W Kooij, Udi Davidovich, Rosan A Van Zoest, Ferdinand W M N Wit, Maria Prins, Peter Reiss, Maarten F Schim Van Der Loeff
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) more often experience sexual dysfunctions than the general population. We assessed associations between HIV-1 status and decreased sexual functioning among MSM. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 399 HIV-1-infected MSM mostly on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 366 HIV-1-uninfected MSM aged ≥45 years participating in the AGEhIV Cohort Study. The study questionnaire included questions on erectile function, sexual satisfaction, and sexual desire...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Elona Toska, F Mark Orkin, Rebecca J Hodes, Lorraine Sherr
OBJECTIVE(S): HIV-positive adolescents have low ART-adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART-adherence with adolescent violence victimisation by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
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