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Felix Stibany, Stine Nørgaard Schmidt, Andreas Schäffer, Philipp Mayer
The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth inhibition tests with green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata...
October 18, 2016: Chemosphere
Fei Fan, Kui Zhang, Zhao Peng, Jing-Hui Cui, Na Hu, Zhen-Hua Deng
To perform a study to clarify how strong the chronological age relates to ossification of the knee in Chinese on X-rays and the MRI when a similar four-stage grading system was used. 322 individuals with conventional radiographs and MRI were collected from routine medical investigations and evaluated retrospectively. Bland Altman plots were performed to reveal the agreement of grading of MRI and radiograph. Regression analysis was conducted to establish a mathematical model for age estimation. The ossification process of the knee occurs earlier in females than in males for about 1-2 years...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Zishaan Farooqui, Kelly M Bakulski, Melinda C Power, Marc G Weisskopf, David Sparrow, Avron Spiro, Pantel S Vokonas, Linda H Nie, Howard Hu, Sung Kyun Park
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with poorer cognitive function cross-sectionally in aging adults, however the association between cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in cognition is little characterized. METHODS: In a 1993-2007 subcohort of the VA Normative Aging Study (Mini-mental status exam (MMSE) n=741; global cognition summary score n=715), we used linear mixed effects models to test associations between cumulative Pb exposure (patella or tibia bone Pb) and repeated measures of cognition (MMSE, individual cognitive tests, and global cognition summary)...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Bin Wang, Qian Chen, Lixiao Shen, Shasha Zhao, Weiyi Pang, Jun Zhang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are commonly used in industrial applications and consumer products, and their potential health impacts are of concern, especially for vulnerable population like fetuses. However, in utero exposure to PFASs and health implications are far from fully characterized in China. To fill in the gap, we analyzed 10 PFASs in cord plasma samples (N=687) collected in Shanghai between 2011 and 2012, one of the regions widely polluted with PFASs in China. A questionnaire survey on maternal and diet-related factors was conducted...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Philippe Glorennec, Jean-Paul Lucas, Anne-Camille Mercat, Alain-Claude Roudot, Barbara Le Bot
Children are exposed to toxic metals and metalloids via their diet and environment. Our objective was to assess the aggregate chronic exposure of children aged 3-6years, living in France, to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V present in diet, tap water, air, soil and floor dust in the years 2007-2009. Dietary data came from the French Total Diet Study, while concentrations in residential tap water, soil and indoor floor dust came from the 'Plomb-Habitat' nationwide representative survey on children's lead exposure at home...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Campana Raffaella, Luca Casettari, Laura Fagioli, Marco Cespi, Giulia Bonacucina, Wally Baffone
Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Alexandra E Neal, Paul A Moore
Animals living in aquatic habitats regularly encounter anthropogenic chemical pollution. Typically, the toxicity of a chemical toxicant is determined by the median lethal concentration (LC50) through a static exposure test. However, LC50 values and static tests do not provide an accurate representation of exposure to pollutants within natural stream systems. In their native habitats, animals experience exposure as a fluctuating concentration due to turbulent mixing, temporal variations of contamination (seasonal inputs), and contaminant input type (point vs...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Espen Mariussen, Lene Sørlie Heier, Hans Christian Teien, Marit Nandrup Pettersen, Tor Fredrik Holth, Brit Salbu, Bjørn Olav Rosseland
An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtjønn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtjønn the total water concentrations of Pb (14µg/L), Cu (6.1µg/L) and Sb (1.3µg/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitjønn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12µg/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtjønn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
J E Correia, C A Christofoletti, A C C Marcato, J F U Marinho, C S Fontanetti
Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhenyang Yu, Guohua Sun, Yanjun Liu, Daqiang Yin, Jing Zhang
Trans-generational effects are increasingly used to indicate long-term influences of environmental pollutants. However, such studies can be complex and yield inconclusive results. In this study, the trans-generational effects of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on Caenorhabditis elegans on lifespan, reproduction and population growth were tested for 7 consecutive generations, which included gestating generation (F0), embryo-exposed generation (F1), germline-exposed generation (F2), the first non-exposed generation (F3) and the three following generations (F4-F6)...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hans-Uwe Dahms, Eun-Ji Won, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Heum Gi Park, Sami Souissi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Jae-Seong Lee
Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Rory J McCrimmon
Despite the introduction of newer technologies and improved insulin formulations, recurrent hypoglycaemia continues to affect the lives of many people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Developing strategies or therapies designed to prevent or minimize hypoglycaemia risk is of utmost importance to help individuals safely achieve glycaemic targets. Novel, educational or behavioural approaches need to be based on a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning both the detection of hypoglycaemia and why repeated exposure to hypoglycaemia leads to the development of a clinical syndrome referred to as impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Muhammad Imran Rahim, Andreas Weizbauer, Florian Evertz, Andrea Hoffmann, Manfred Rohde, Birgit Glasmacher, Henning Windhagen, Gerhard Gross, Jan-Marten Seitz, Peter P Mueller
Magnesium alloys are presently under investigation as promising biodegradable implant materials with osteoconductive properties. To study the molecular mechanisms involved, the potential contribution of soluble magnesium corrosion products to the stimulation of osteoblastic cell differentiation was examined. However, no evidence for the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation could be obtained when cultured mesenchymal precursor cells were differentiated in the presence of metallic magnesium or in cell culture medium containing elevated magnesium ion levels...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Qiyue Xia, Hongxia Li, Ying Liu, Kai Xiao
Despite the increasing biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), their toxicological effects need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of commercially available AuNPs with varying size (5 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm) were assessed using a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. In the comet assay, 20 nm and 50 nm AuNPs did not induce obvious DNA damage in HepG2 cells at the tested concentrations, whereas 5 nm NPs induced a dose-dependent increment in DNA damage after 24 h exposure...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Dong Liu, Jie-Lu Zhou, Fashui Hong, Yu-Qing Zhang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are used in many fields, such as paints, medicine additives, food additives, sunscreens and agriculture. The aim of this study was to investgate the mechanism behind the formation of inflammation induced by TiO2 NPs. ICR mice were exposed to TiO2 NPs through intragastric administration at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight every day for 90 consecutive days. The experiment suggested that long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in an obvious inflammatory response in mice lung tissues, which led to a thickened alveoli septum, lung hyperaemia, and titanium accumulation...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Adam C Labonte, Sun-Sang J Sung, Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Young S Hahn
: The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jeannine Coburn, Jamie Harris, Alexander D Zakharov, Jennifer Poirier, Naohiko Ikegaki, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Monika Pilichowska, Alexander V Lyubimov, Hiroyuki Shimada, David L Kaplan, Bill Chiu
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial childhood solid tumor. Treatment of high risk tumors require intense multi-cycle chemotherapies, resulting in short- and long-term toxicities. Here we present treatment of an orthotopic neuroblastoma mouse model, with silk fibroin materials loaded with vincristine, doxorubicin, or the combination as a intratumoral, sustained release system. The materials, loaded with vincristine with or without doxorubicin, significantly decreased neuroblastoma tumor growth compared to materials loaded without drug or doxorubicin only as well as intravenous (IV) drug treatment...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
A Forsberg, C E West, S L Prescott, M C Jenmalm
Reduced intensity and diversity of microbial exposure is considered a major factor driving abnormal postnatal immune maturation and increasing allergy prevalence, particularly in more affluent regions. Quantitatively the largest important source of early immune-microbial interaction, the gut microbiota is of particular interest in this context, with variations in composition and diversity in the first months of life associated with subsequent allergy development. Attempting to restore the health consequences of the 'dysbiotic drift' in modern society, interventions modulating gut microbiota for allergy prevention have been evaluated in several randomized placebo controlled trials...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anita Kozyrskyj, Nicole Letourneau, Liane Kang, Mahin Salmani
BACKGROUND: Affecting 19% of women, postpartum depression is a major concern to the immediate health of mothers and infants. In the longterm, it has been linked to the development of early-onset asthma at school entry, but only if the depression persists beyond the postnatal period. No studies have tested whether associations with postpartum depressive symptoms and early-onset asthma phenotypes persist into later school age. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma between the ages of 5-10 by using a nested longitudinal design...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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