keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

microbiota colon

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#1
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453461/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-induces-specific-shifts-of-the-gut-microbiota-without-altering-the-metabolism-of-bile-acids-in-the-intestinal-lumen
#2
Henri Duboc, Caroline Chong Nguyen, Jean-Baptiste Cavin, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Dominique Rainteau, Lydie Humbert, Benoit Coffin, Maude Le Gall, André Bado, Harry Sokol
Some shifts in the gut microbiota composition and its metabolic fingerprints have been associated to Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). So far, plasma bile acids have been associated with post-operative glucose improvement and weight loss, but nothing is known about their metabolism in the gut lumen. As bile acids are physiologically transformed by the microbiota into various species, the aim of this work was to study how SG and RYGB-associated dysbiosis impact the bioconversion of bile acids in the intestinal lumen...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452951/antibacterial-weapons-targeted-destruction-in-the-microbiota
#3
REVIEW
Benoit Chassaing, Eric Cascales
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in health, particularly in promoting intestinal metabolic capacity and in maturing the immune system. The intestinal microbiota also mediates colonization resistance against pathogenic bacteria, hence protecting the host from infections. In addition, some bacterial pathogens deliver toxins that target phylogenetically related or distinct bacterial species in order to outcompete and establish within the microbiota. The most widely distributed weapons include bacteriocins, as well as contact-dependent growth inhibition and type VI secretion systems...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452199/establishment-of-the-nasal-microbiota-in-the-first-18-months-of-life-correlation-with-early-onset-rhinitis-and-wheezing
#4
Le Duc Huy Ta, Gaik Chin Yap, Carina Jing Xuan Tay, Alicia Shi Min Lim, Chiung Hui Huang, Collins Wenhan Chu, Paola Florez De Sessions, Lynette P Shek, Anne Goh, Hugo P S Van Bever, Oon Hoe Teoh, Jian Yi Soh, Biju Thomas, Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy, Daniel Y T Goh, Christophe Lay, Shu-E Soh, Yiong Huak Chan, Seang-Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Yap-Seng Chong, Keith M Godfrey, Martin Lloyd Hibberd, Bee Wah Lee
BACKGROUND: The dynamic establishment of the nasal microbiota in early life influences local mucosal immune responses and the susceptibility to childhood respiratory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to monitor, evaluate and compare the development of the nasal microbiota of infants who developed rhinitis and wheeze in the first 18 months of life with those of healthy controls. METHODS: Anterior nasal swabs of 122 subjects belonging to the GUSTO birth cohort were collected longitudinally over seven time points in the first 18 months of life...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447696/strain-tracking-reveals-the-determinants-of-bacterial-engraftment-in-the-human-gut-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#5
Christopher S Smillie, Jenny Sauk, Dirk Gevers, Jonathan Friedman, Jaeyun Sung, Ilan Youngster, Elizabeth L Hohmann, Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky, Jessica R Allegretti, Mark B Smith, Ramnik J Xavier, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donor to patient is a treatment for microbiome-associated diseases. Although the success of FMT requires donor bacteria to engraft in the patient's gut, the forces governing engraftment in humans are unknown. Here we use an ongoing clinical experiment, the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, to uncover the rules of engraftment in humans. We built a statistical model that predicts which bacterial species will engraft in a given host, and developed Strain Finder, a method to infer strain genotypes and track them over time...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447695/cervicovaginal-microbiota-and-reproductive-health-the-virtue-of-simplicity
#6
REVIEW
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447210/functional-imaging-of-the-interaction-between-gut-microbiota-and-the-human-host-a-proof-of-concept-clinical-study-evaluating-novel-use-for-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#7
Ben Boursi, Thomas J Werner, Saeid Gholami, Sina Houshmand, Ronac Mamtani, James D Lewis, Gary D Wu, Abass Alavi, Yu-Xiao Yang
Recent data comparing germ-free to conventionally-raised mice demonstrated that energy homeostasis of colonocytes is dependent on gut microbiota through regulation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and glucose utilization. We sought to evaluate 18F-FDG PET-CT as a novel technique for functional imaging of alterations in glucose metabolism as a result of the interaction between the gut microbiota and the human host. We conducted a prospective study in healthy humans that underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT and sampling of the gut microbiota before and after orally administered broad-spectrum antibiotics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445360/the-dynamic-distribution-of-small-tail-han-sheep-microbiota-across-different-intestinal-segments
#8
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445136/goblet-cell-associated-antigen-passages-are-inhibited-during-salmonella-typhimur-cium-infection-to-prevent-pathogen-dissemination-and-limit-responses-to-dietary-antigens
#9
Devesha H Kulkarni, Keely G McDonald, Kathryn A Knoop, Jenny K Gustafsson, Konrad M Kozlowski, David A Hunstad, Mark J Miller, Rodney D Newberry
Dietary antigen acquisition by lamina propria (LP) dendritic cells (DCs) is crucial to induce oral tolerance and maintain homeostasis. However, encountering innocuous antigens during infection can lead to inflammatory responses, suggesting processes may limit steady-state luminal antigen capture during infection. We observed that goblet cell (GC) associated antigen passages (GAPs), a steady-state pathway delivering luminal antigens to LP-DCs, are inhibited during Salmonella infection. GAP inhibition was mediated by IL-1β...
February 14, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442371/good-daphnia-parents-do-not-control-the-offspring-microbiome
#10
Angela E Douglas
In Focus: Mushegian, A. A., Walser, J. -C., Sullam, K. E., & Ebert, D. (2018). The microbiota of diapause: How host-microbe associations are formed after dormancy in an aquatic crustacean. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 400-413. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12709. All animals are colonized by micro-organisms, most of which are benign or beneficial. Where do these micro-organisms come from? Theory predicts that micro-organisms which are transmitted vertically from parent to offspring are especially likely to be beneficial to the host, while horizontally acquired micro-organisms are opportunistic and more variable in their impact on host performance...
March 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440355/the-antimicrobial-peptide-cramp-is-essential-for-colon-homeostasis-by-maintaining-microbiota-balance
#11
Teizo Yoshimura, Mairi H McLean, Amiran K Dzutsev, Xiaohong Yao, Keqiang Chen, Jiaqiang Huang, Wanghua Gong, Jiamin Zhou, Yi Xiang, Jonathan H Badger, Colm O'hUigin, Vishal Thovarai, Lino Tessarollo, Scott K Durum, Giorgio Trinchieri, Xiu-Wu Bian, Ji Ming Wang
Commensal bacteria are critical for physiological functions in the gut, and dysbiosis in the gut may cause diseases. In this article, we report that mice deficient in cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) were defective in the development of colon mucosa and highly sensitive to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-elicited colitis, as well as azoxymethane-mediated carcinogenesis. Pretreatment of CRAMP-/-mice with antibiotics markedly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting CRAMP as a limiting factor on dysbiosis in the colon...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440266/essential-immunologic-orchestrators-of-intestinal-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Lei Zhou, Gregory F Sonnenberg
Over the past 25 years, substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways that are essential to maintain a state of health in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, an organ that is densely colonized by both immune cells and trillions of microbes. Seminal studies in the 1990s identified that several cytokines, antigen-presentation molecules, and components of the T cell receptor were necessary to prevent the development of spontaneous intestinal inflammation in mice...
February 9, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440265/causal-effects-of-the-microbiota-on-immune-mediated-diseases
#13
REVIEW
June L Round, Noah W Palm
The mammalian immune system has evolved in the presence of a complex community of indigenous microorganisms that constitutively colonize all barrier surfaces. This intimate relationship has resulted in the development of a vast array of reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and the host immune system, particularly in the intestine, where the density and diversity of indigenous microbes are greatest. Alterations in the gut microbiota have been correlated with almost every known immunological disease, but in most cases, it remains unclear whether these changes are a cause or effect of the disease or merely a reflection of epidemiological differences between groups...
February 9, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435321/the-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-correlation-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
J Torres, C Palmela, H Brito, X Bao, H Ruiqi, P Moura-Santos, J Pereira da Silva, A Oliveira, C Vieira, K Perez, S H Itzkowitz, J F Colombel, L Humbert, D Rainteau, M Cravo, C M Rodrigues, J Hu
Background: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) have a very high risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Alterations in the gut microbiota and/or gut bile acids could account for the increase in this risk. However, no studies have yet investigated the net result of cholestasis and a potentially altered bile acid pool interacting with a dysbiotic gut flora in the inflamed colon of PSC-IBD. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the gut microbiota and stool bile acid profiles, as well as and their correlation in patients with PSC-IBD and inflammatory bowel disease alone...
February 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435240/gut-microbiota-in-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-provide-colonization-resistance-against-larval-bacterial-pathogens
#15
Yin Wang, Daniel E Rozen
Carrion beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, are reared on decomposing carrion where larvae are exposed to high populations of carcass-derived bacteria. Larvae do not become colonized with these bacteria but instead are colonized with the gut microbiome of their parents, suggesting that bacteria in the beetle microbiome outcompete the carcass-derived species for larval colonization. Here, we test this hypothesis and quantify the fitness consequences of colonization with different bacterial symbionts. First, we show that beetles colonized by their endogenous microbiome produce heavier broods than those colonized with carcass-bacteria...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433221/colonic-fermentation-of-polyphenolics-from-sea-buckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-berries-assessment-of-effects-on-microbial-diversity-by-principal-component-analysis
#16
Sampan Attri, Kavita Sharma, Pinky Raigond, Gunjan Goel
The present study investigates the stability of polyphenolic in Sea buckthorn berries juice (SBJ) during different phases of digestion and its effect on colonic microbial diversity. At each stage, the Total polyphenolic content (TPC), Total antioxidant activity (TAA) and polyphenolic profile was determined. A 1.64 and 2.20 folds increase in TPC with 4.88 and 9.61 folds increase in TAA were observed during gastric and small intestine digestion (p<0.05) with the release of quercetin from food matrix. The digestion resulted in deformation of intact crystalline structure as indicated by scanning electron micrographs...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431777/flammulina-velutipes-polysaccharides-improve-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-mice-by-modulating-gut-microbiota-composition
#17
Anxiang Su, Wenjian Yang, Liyan Zhao, Fei Pei, Biao Yuan, Lei Zhong, Gaoxing Ma, Qiuhui Hu
Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides (FVP) have been proved to be effective in improving learning and memory impairment in mice. However, their underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between memory improvement and gut microbiota regulation of FVP. The results showed a significant decrease in the relative abundances of Clostridia and Bacilli but a significant increase in Bacteroidia, Erysipelotrichia and Actinobacteria in the FVP-treated group versus the control group...
February 12, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430336/influence-of-bile-acids-on-colorectal-cancer-risk-potential-mechanisms-mediated-by-diet-gut-microbiota-interactions
#18
Sören Ocvirk, Stephen Jd O'Keefe
Purpose of review: To review the evidence for the tumorigenic effects of food-stimulated bile acids on the colon and interaction with the gut microbiota. Recent Findings: High-fat diets promote the hepatic synthesis of bile acids and increase their delivery to the colonic lumen. Here, they stimulate the growth and activity of 7α-dehydroxylating bacteria, which convert primary into secondary bile acids that show tumorigenic activity, especially deoxycholic acid (DCA)...
December 2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428498/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#19
REVIEW
Michael Samarkos, Elpida Mastrogianni, Olga Kampouropoulou
Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major health problem. Because it is a spore-forming microorganism, C. difficile is difficult to eradicate and recurrences of the infection are frequent. The strong association of CDI with prior use of antibiotics led to the recognition that disturbances in the gut microbiota apparently plays a central role in CDI. Except for antibiotics, several other risk factors for CDI have been recognised, such as advanced age and use of proton pump inhibitors. The common characteristic of these factors is that they are associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427649/rat-strain-differences-in-peritoneal-immune-cell-response-to-selected-gut-microbiota-a-crossroad-between-tolerance-and-autoimmunity
#20
Veljko Blagojević, Vesna Kovačević-Jovanović, Ivana Ćuruvija, Raisa Petrović, Ivana Vujnović, Vesna Vujić, Stanislava Stanojević
AIMS: Some gut commensals can be protective, whereas others are implicated as necessary for development of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Peritoneal immune cells may play an important role in promoting autoimmunity in response to gut microbiota. This study investigated the phenotype and the function of peritoneal immune cells in the autoimmunity-resistant Albino Oxford (AO), and the autoimmunity-prone Dark Agouti (DA) rat strains upon stimulation with their own colonic E. coli or Enterococcus...
February 7, 2018: Life Sciences
keyword
keyword
6955
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"