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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098630/collapse-of-the-microbiome-emergence-of-the-pathobiome-and-the-immunopathology-of-sepsis
#1
John C Alverdy, Monika A Krezalek
The definition of sepsis has been recently modified to accommodate emerging knowledge in the field, while at the same time being recognized as challenging, if not impossible, to define. Here, we seek to clarify the current understanding of sepsis as one that has been typically framed as a disorder of inflammation to one in which the competing interests of the microbiota, pathobiota, and host immune cells lead to loss of resilience and nonresolving organ dysfunction. Here, we challenge the existence of the idea of noninfectious sepsis given that critically ill humans never exist in a germ-free state...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097632/acquisition-and-adaptation-of-the-airway-microbiota-in-the-early-life-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#2
REVIEW
Sébastien Boutin, Alexander H Dalpke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096373/pathogen-mediated-manipulation-of-arthropod-microbiota-to-promote-infection
#3
Nabil M Abraham, Lei Liu, Brandon Lyon Jutras, Akhilesh K Yadav, Sukanya Narasimhan, Vissagan Gopalakrishnan, Juliana M Ansari, Kimberly K Jefferson, Felipe Cava, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, Erol Fikrig
Arthropods transmit diverse infectious agents; however, the ways microbes influence their vector to enhance colonization are poorly understood. Ixodes scapularis ticks harbor numerous human pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. We now demonstrate that A. phagocytophilum modifies the I. scapularis microbiota to more efficiently infect the tick. A. phagocytophilum induces ticks to express Ixodes scapularis antifreeze glycoprotein (iafgp), which encodes a protein with several properties, including the ability to alter bacterial biofilm formation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095919/ancient-bacteria-of-the-%C3%A3-tzi-s-microbiome-a-genomic-tale-from-the-copper-age
#4
Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Christian Milani, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Sabrina Duranti, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
BACKGROUND: Ancient microbiota information represents an important resource to evaluate bacterial evolution and to explore the biological spread of infectious diseases in history. The soft tissue of frozen mummified humans, such as the Tyrolean Iceman, has been shown to contain bacterial DNA that is suitable for population profiling of the prehistoric bacteria that colonized such ancient human hosts. RESULTS: Here, we performed a microbial cataloging of the distal gut microbiota of the Tyrolean Iceman, which highlights a predominant abundance of Clostridium and Pseudomonas species...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095877/deciphering-composition-and-function-of-the-root-microbiome-of-a-legume-plant
#5
Kyle Hartman, Marcel Ga van der Heijden, Valexia Roussely-Provent, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including agricultural systems. Legumes form a root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia bacteria and thereby account for large, natural nitrogen inputs into soils. Here, we describe the root bacteria microbiome of the legume Trifolium pratense combining culture-dependent and independent methods...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093882/the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-farmed-mink-neovison-vison-maintains-a-diverse-mucosa-associated-microbiota-following-a-3-day-fasting-period
#6
Martin I Bahl, Anne S Hammer, Tove Clausen, Anabelle Jakobsen, Søren Skov, Lars Andresen
Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr...
January 16, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093256/effects-of-gut-microbiota-on-the-microrna-and-mrna-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-mice
#7
Jian-Jun Chen, Ben-Hua Zeng, Wen-Wen Li, Chan-Juan Zhou, Song-Hua Fan, Ke Cheng, Li Zeng, Peng Zheng, Liang Fang, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
BACKGROUNDS: Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as an important environmental factor that could influence the brain function and behaviors through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHOD: Here, we used the germ-free (GF) mice to explore the effect of gut microbiota on hippocampal microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) expression. RESULTS: Behavioral tests showed that, compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, the GF mice displayed more center time, center distance and less latency to familiar food...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091525/a-fibrolytic-potential-in-the-human-ileum-mucosal-microbiota-revealed-by-functional-metagenomic
#8
Orlane Patrascu, Fabienne Béguet-Crespel, Ludovica Marinelli, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Anne-Laure Abraham, Marion Leclerc, Christophe Klopp, Nicolas Terrapon, Bernard Henrissat, Hervé M Blottière, Joël Doré, Christel Béra-Maillet
The digestion of dietary fibers is a major function of the human intestinal microbiota. So far this function has been attributed to the microorganisms inhabiting the colon, and many studies have focused on this distal part of the gastrointestinal tract using easily accessible fecal material. However, microbial fermentations, supported by the presence of short-chain fatty acids, are suspected to occur in the upper small intestine, particularly in the ileum. Using a fosmid library from the human ileal mucosa, we screened 20,000 clones for their activities against carboxymethylcellulose and xylans chosen as models of the major plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides from dietary fibres...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086815/antibiotics-induced-depletion-of-mice-microbiota-induces-changes-in-host-serotonin-biosynthesis-and-intestinal-motility
#9
Xiaolong Ge, Chao Ding, Wei Zhao, Lizhi Xu, Hongliang Tian, Jianfeng Gong, Minsheng Zhu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal motility is affected by gut microbiota and the relationship between them has become a hot topic. However, mechanisms of microbiota in regulating motility have not been well defined. We thus investigated the effect of microbiota depletion by antibiotics on gastrointestinal motility, colonic serotonin levels, and bile acids metabolism. METHODS: After 4 weeks with antibiotics treatments, gastrointestinal and colon transit, defecation frequency, water content, and other fecal parameters were measured and analyzed in both wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice, respectively...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080210/pathogen-control-at-the-intestinal-mucosa-h2o2-to-the-rescue
#10
Ulla G Knaus, Rosanne Hertzberger, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, S Parsa M Yousefi, Filipe Branco Dos Santos
Intestinal infections are a global challenge, connected to malnutrition and inadequate hygiene in developing countries, and to expanding antibiotic resistance in developed countries. In general, a healthy host is capable of fighting off gut pathogens or at least to recover from infections quickly. The underlying protective mechanism, termed colonization resistance, is provided by indigenous commensal communities (microbiota) that are shaped and aided by the host's epithelial and innate immune system. (1) Commensal-pathogen interactions are governed by competition for a suitable niche for replication and stable colonization, nutrient availability, species-specific alterations of the metabolic environment, changes in oxygen tension and release of chemicals and proteinaceous toxins (bacteriocins)...
January 12, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078750/metabolic-adaptation-of-colonic-microbiota-to-galactooligosaccharides-a-proof-of-concept-study
#11
M Mego, C Manichanh, A Accarino, D Campos, M Pozuelo, E Varela, J Vulevic, G Tzortzis, G Gibson, F Guarner, F Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics have been shown to reduce abdominal symptoms in patients with functional gut disorders, despite that they are fermented by colonic bacteria and may induce gas-related symptoms. AIM: To investigate changes in the metabolic activity of gut microbiota induced by a recognised prebiotic. METHODS: Healthy subjects (n = 20) were given a prebiotic (2.8 g/day HOST-G904, HOST Therabiomics, Jersey, Channel Islands) for 3 weeks...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078319/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer
#12
Jun Sun, Ikuko Kato
Although genes contribute to colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota are an important player. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic infection and the ensuing inflammation contributes to tumor initiation and tumor progression. A variety of bacterial species and tumor-promoting virulence mechanisms have been investigated. Significant advances have been made in understanding the composition and functional capabilities of the gut microbiota and its roles in cancer. In the current review, we discuss the novel roles of microbiota in the progression of colon cancer...
June 2016: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077872/structural-basis-for-nutrient-acquisition-by-dominant-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#13
Amy J Glenwright, Karunakar R Pothula, Satya P Bhamidimarri, Dror S Chorev, Arnaud Baslé, Susan J Firbank, Hongjun Zheng, Carol V Robinson, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, David N Bolam, Bert van den Berg
The human large intestine is populated by a high density of microorganisms, collectively termed the colonic microbiota, which has an important role in human health and nutrition. The survival of microbiota members from the dominant Gram-negative phylum Bacteroidetes depends on their ability to degrade dietary glycans that cannot be metabolized by the host. The genes encoding proteins involved in the degradation of specific glycans are organized into co-regulated polysaccharide utilization loci, with the archetypal locus sus (for starch utilisation system) encoding seven proteins, SusA-SusG...
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077427/serum-trimethylamine-n-oxide-carnitine-choline-and-betaine-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-the-alpha-tocopherol-and-beta-carotene-study
#14
Kristin A Guertin, Xinmin S Li, Barry I Graubard, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, James J Goedert, Zeneng Wang, Stanley L Hazen, Rashmi Sinha
BACKGROUND: TMAO, a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#15
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071710/micropattern-a-web-based-tool-for-microbe-set-enrichment-analysis-and-disease-similarity-calculation-based-on-a-list-of-microbes
#16
Wei Ma, Chuanbo Huang, Yuan Zhou, Jianwei Li, Qinghua Cui
The microbiota colonized on human body is renowned as "a forgotten organ" due to its big impacts on human health and disease. Recently, microbiome studies have identified a large number of microbes differentially regulated in a variety of conditions, such as disease and diet. However, methods for discovering biological patterns in the differentially regulated microbes are still limited. For this purpose, here, we developed a web-based tool named MicroPattern to discover biological patterns for a list of microbes...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071699/rye-polyphenols-and-the-metabolism-of-n-3-fatty-acids-in-rats-a-dose-dependent-fatty-fish-like-effect
#17
Fayçal Ounnas, Michel de Lorgeril, Patricia Salen, François Laporte, Luca Calani, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Christine Demeilliers
As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070087/postnatal-changes-in-the-relative-abundance-of-intestinal-lactobacillus-spp-in-newborn-calves
#18
Tadashi Takino, Yuko Kato-Mori, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Tetsuya Iida, Katsuro Hagiwara
The intestinal microbiota of newborn calves changes during the early postnatal period and influences their health and immune function. We studied the compositional changes in the intestinal microbiome of newborn calves during the first week after birth by metagenomic analysis. In feces from newborn calves, we identified 4 bacterial phyla, namely, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae significantly increased from day 1 to day 7. We evaluated Lactobacillus spp...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069180/investigation-of-the-microbiota-of-the-reproductive-tract-in-women-undergoing-a-total-hysterectomy-and-bilateral-salpingo-oopherectomy
#19
Shana M Miles, Britney L Hardy, D Scott Merrell
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot study to investigate the possible presence of bacteria throughout the female reproductive tract and to make a preliminary assessment of whether there are differences in the composition of the microbial communities between these body sites and/or between patients. DESIGN: Prospective pilot study followed by 16S amplification and high-throughput sequencing. SETTING: Tertiary care military hospital. PATIENT(S): A total of 10 women underwent a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy; tissue samples were collected from the vagina, resected cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries...
January 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062699/cathelicidin-wa-improves-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-and-enhances-host-defense-against-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-infection
#20
Hongbo Yi, Wangyang Hu, Shan Chen, Zeqing Lu, Yizhen Wang
Impaired epithelial barrier function disrupts immune homeostasis and increases inflammation in intestines, leading to many intestinal diseases. Cathelicidin peptides suppress intestinal inflammation and improve intestinal epithelial barrier function independently of their antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cathelicidin-WA (CWA) on intestinal epithelial barrier function, as well as the underlying mechanism, by using enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-infected mice and intestinal epithelial cells...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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