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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921366/masked-trichothecene-and-zearalenone-mycotoxins-withstand-digestion-and-absorption-in-the-upper-gi-tract-but-are-efficiently-hydrolyzed-by-human-gut-microbiota-in-vitro
#1
Silvia W Gratz, Reshma Dinesh, Tomoya Yoshinari, Grietje Holtrop, Anthony J Richardson, Gary Duncan, Susan MacDonald, Antony Lloyd, Jonathan Tarbin
SCOPE: Cereal grains are commonly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and their plant-derived masked metabolites. The fate of masked mycotoxins in the human gut is poorly understood. Here we assess the metabolism and transport of glucoside metabolites of common trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin) and zearalenone compounds (zearalenone, α- and β-zearalenol) in the human gut in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Masked mycotoxins were incubated with artificial digestive juices and absorption was assessed in differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921083/integrated-role-of-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-supplementation-in-gut-microbiota-immunity-and-metabolism-of-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#2
Xuan He, Carolyn M Slupsky, James W Dekker, Neill W Haggarty, Bo Lönnerdal
To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921008/age-related-differences-in-the-luminal-and-mucosa-associated-gut-microbiome-of-broiler-chickens-and-shifts-associated-with-campylobacter-jejuni-infection
#3
Wageha A Awad, Evelyne Mann, Monika Dzieciol, Claudia Hess, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Martin Wagner, Michael Hess
Despite the importance of gut microbiota for broiler performance and health little is known about the composition of this ecosystem, its development and response towards bacterial infections. Therefore, the current study was conducted to address the composition and structure of the microbial community in broiler chickens in a longitudinal study from day 1 to day 28 of age in the gut content and on the mucosa. Additionally, the consequences of a Campylobacter (C.) jejuni infection on the microbial community were assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#4
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918452/light-dark-shifting-promotes-alcohol-induced-colon-carcinogenesis-possible-role-of-intestinal-inflammatory-milieu-and-microbiota
#5
Faraz Bishehsari, Abdulrahman Saadalla, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Phillip A Engen, Robin M Voigt, Brandon B Shetuni, Christopher Forsyth, Maliha Shaikh, Martha Hotz Vitaterna, Fred Turek, Ali Keshavarzian
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with the modern lifestyle. Chronic alcohol consumption-a frequent habit of majority of modern societies-increases the risk of CRC. Our group showed that chronic alcohol consumption increases polyposis in a mouse mode of CRC. Here we assess the effect of circadian disruption-another modern life style habit-in promoting alcohol-associated CRC. METHOD: TS4Cre × adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)(lox468) mice underwent (a) an alcohol-containing diet while maintained on a normal 12 h light:12 h dark cycle; or (b) an alcohol-containing diet in conjunction with circadian disruption by once-weekly 12 h phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917879/colonic-luminal-microbiota-and-bacterial-metabolite-composition-in-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs-effects-of-food-composition-at-different-times-of-pregnancy
#6
Xiang-Feng Kong, Yu-Jiao Ji, Hua-Wei Li, Qian Zhu, F Blachier, Mei-Mei Geng, Wen Chen, Yu-Long Yin
The gut harbours diverse and complex microbiota, which influence body health including nutrient metabolism, immune development, and protection from pathogens. Pregnancy is associated with immune and metabolic changes that might be related to microbiota compositional dynamics. We therefore investigated the colonic luminal bacteria community in Huanjiang mini-pigs fed diets with different nutrient levels from the first to third trimester of pregnancy. The concentrations of intestinal metabolites including short-chain fat acids, NH3-N, indole, skatole, and bioamines were also determined...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917166/temporal-metagenomic-and-metabolomic-characterization-of-fresh-perennial-ryegrass-degradation-by-rumen-bacteria
#7
Olga L Mayorga, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Eun J Kim, Gordon G Allison, Toby J Wilkinson, Matthew J Hegarty, Michael K Theodorou, Charles J Newbold, Sharon A Huws
Understanding the relationship between ingested plant material and the attached microbiome is essential for developing methodologies to improve ruminant nutrient use efficiency. We have previously shown that perennial ryegrass (PRG) rumen bacterial colonization events follow a primary (up to 4 h) and secondary (after 4 h) pattern based on the differences in diversity of the attached bacteria. In this study, we investigated temporal niche specialization of primary and secondary populations of attached rumen microbiota using metagenomic shotgun sequencing as well as monitoring changes in the plant chemistry using mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915988/vitamin-d-vdr-probiotics-and-gastrointestinal-diseases
#8
Mei Shang, Jun Sun
Vitamin D is an important factor in regulating inflammation, immune responses, and carcinoma inhibition via action of its receptor, vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D/VDR in regulating host-bacterial interactions. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria with the power of supporting or favoring life on the host. In the current review, we will discuss the recent progress on the roles of vitamin D/VDR in gut microbiome and inflammation. We will summarize evidence of probiotics in modulating vitamin D/VDR and balancing gut microbiota in health and gastrointestinal diseases...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915388/microbial-diversity-in-degraded-and-non-degraded-petroleum-samples-and-comparison-across-oil-reservoirs-at-local-and-global-scales
#9
Isabel Natalia Sierra-Garcia, Bruna M Dellagnezze, Viviane P Santos, Michel R Chaves B, Ramsés Capilla, Eugenio V Santos Neto, Neil Gray, Valeria M Oliveira
Microorganisms have shown their ability to colonize extreme environments including deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs. Physicochemical parameters may vary greatly among petroleum reservoirs worldwide and so do the microbial communities inhabiting these different environments. The present work aimed at the characterization of the microbiota in biodegraded and non-degraded petroleum samples from three Brazilian reservoirs and the comparison of microbial community diversity across oil reservoirs at local and global scales using 16S rRNA clone libraries...
December 3, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#10
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912750/fermented-barley-and-soybean-bs-mixture-enhances-intestinal-barrier-function-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mouse-model
#11
Jong Kyu Woo, Seungho Choi, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Eung Kim, Byung-Serk Hurh, Jong-Eun Jeon, Sun Yeou Kim, Seung Hyun Oh
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic or relapsing immune system activation and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. The lack of safety and efficacy of standard therapies, the use of food supplements for managing IBD is increasing, and many studies have reported that various food supplements provide many beneficial effects for the IBD. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-colitis effects of dietary supplementation with a fermented barley and soybean mixture (BS) on intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911843/impact-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-enhancer-accessibility-in-gut-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#13
Nicholas P Semenkovich, Joseph D Planer, Philip P Ahern, Nicholas W Griffin, Charles Y Lin, Jeffrey I Gordon
The gut microbiota impacts many aspects of host biology including immune function. One hypothesis is that microbial communities induce epigenetic changes with accompanying alterations in chromatin accessibility, providing a mechanism that allows a community to have sustained host effects even in the face of its structural or functional variation. We used Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) to define chromatin accessibility in predicted enhancer regions of intestinal αβ(+) and γδ(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes purified from germ-free mice, their conventionally raised (CONV-R) counterparts, and mice reared germ free and then colonized with CONV-R gut microbiota at the end of the suckling-weaning transition...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910234/luminal-contents-from-the-gut-of-colicky-infants-induce-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-mice
#14
H Eutamène, C L Garcia-Rodenas, S Yvon, E d'Aldebert, F Foata, B Berger, J Sauser, V Theodorou, G Bergonzelli, E Mas
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of infantile colic is poorly understood, though various studies report gut microbiota dysbiosis in colicky infants. We aimed to test the hypothesis that colic-related dysbiosis is associated with visceral hypersensitivity triggered by an altered luminal milieu. METHODS: Fecal samples from seven colicky and seven non-colicky infants were studied. Fecal supernatants (FS) were infused into the colons of C57/Bl6 mice (n=10/specimen). Visceral sensitivity was subsequently assessed in the animals by recording their abdominal muscle response to colorectal distension (CRD) by electromyography (EMG)...
December 1, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909744/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-probiotic-attributes-of-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-xl10-isolated-from-tibetan-kefir-grain
#15
Zhuqing Xing, Wei Tang, Weitao Geng, Yongna Zheng, Yanping Wang
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens XL10, with a high yield of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), is isolated from Tibetan kefir grain and benefits the health of human beings and has been considered to exhibit probiotic potential in vitro and in vivo. The probiotic function of the strain was studied extensively, viz., acid and bile salt tolerances, cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation, the modulation of gut microbiota, and the distribution and colonization of XL10 in the mouse intestinal tract after oral administration...
December 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#16
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904883/interactions-of-respiratory-viruses-and-the-nasal-microbiota-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-healthy-infants
#17
Insa Korten, Moana Mika, Shkipe Klenja, Elisabeth Kieninger, Ines Mack, Maria Teresa Barbani, Meri Gorgievski, Urs Frey, Markus Hilty, Philipp Latzin
Traditional culture techniques have shown that increased bacterial colonization is associated with viral colonization; however, the influence of viral colonization on the whole microbiota composition is less clear. We thus aimed to understand the interaction of viral infections and the nasal microbiota in early life to appraise their roles in disease development. Thirty-two healthy, unselected infants were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study within the first year of life. Biweekly nasal swabs (n = 559) were taken, and the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, and 10 different viruses and 2 atypical bacteria were characterized by real-time PCR (combination of seven duplex samples)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903093/challenges-in-simulating-the-human-gut-for-understanding-the-role-of-the-microbiota-in-obesity
#18
M Aguirre, K Venema
There is an elevated incidence of cases of obesity worldwide. Therefore, the development of strategies to tackle this condition is of vital importance. This review focuses on the necessity of optimising in vitro systems to model human colonic fermentation in obese subjects. This may allow to increase the resolution and the physiological relevance of the information obtained from this type of studies when evaluating the potential role that the human gut microbiota plays in obesity. In light of the parameters that are currently used for the in vitro simulation of the human gut (which are mostly based on information derived from healthy subjects) and the possible difference with an obese condition, we propose to revise and improve specific standard operating procedures...
December 1, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902422/microbiota-dysbiosis-a-new-piece-in-the-understanding-of-carcinogenesis-puzzle
#19
Valeria García-Castillo, Enrique Sanhueza, Eileen McNerney, Sergio A Onate, Apolinaria García
Cancer is defined as an uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cells in a host and it is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in its development and the involvement of microbial communities has also recently been recognized. The close relationship that characterizes the colonization of human commensal communities involves health risks particularly when the homeostasis is disturbed. It has been hypothesized that this process may lead to cancer by modulating the inflammatory response of the host, by the production of carcinogenic metabolic products or by the production of toxins which disrupt the cell cycle...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898903/intestinal-lactose-and-mineral-concentration-affect-the-microbial-ecophysiology-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-formula-fed-neonatal-piglets
#20
R Pieper, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Hyperprolificacy in modern pig breeds has led to increased use of artificial rearing and formula feeding of neonatal piglets, which may change their intestinal bacterial ecophysiology. Here, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO) or allowed to suckle their mothers (sow milk [SM]) for 2 wk, and digesta samples from the stomach, jejunum, and colon were subsequently analyzed for enzyme activities, bacterial metabolites, and 16S rRNA transcripts of bacterial groups by quantitative real-time PCR...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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