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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230795/toxin-release-of-cyanobacterium-microcystis-aeruginosa-after-exposure-to-typical-tetracycline-antibiotic-contaminants
#1
Jing Ye, Yuping Du, Lumei Wang, Jingru Qian, Jiejing Chen, Qingwen Wu, Xiaojun Hu
The global usage of veterinary antibiotics is significant. Antibiotics can be released into aquatic environments and elicit toxic effects on non-target organisms. In this study, the growth characteristics and toxin release of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) were examined to investigate the physiological effects of tetracycline antibiotics on aquatic life. Results showed that the degree of toxicities of the following target antibiotics was TC (tetracycline hydrochloride) > CTC (chlortetracycline hydrochloride) > OTC (oxytetracycline hydrochloride) in terms of growth parameters, EC10 (0...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230789/fungal-ribotoxins-a-review-of-potential-biotechnological-applications
#2
REVIEW
Miriam Olombrada, Rodrigo Lázaro-Gorines, Juan C López-Rodríguez, Álvaro Martínez-Del-Pozo, Mercedes Oñaderra, Moisés Maestro-López, Javier Lacadena, José G Gavilanes, Lucía García-Ortega
Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230783/acute-toxicities-of-the-saxitoxin-congeners-gonyautoxin-5-gonyautoxin-6-decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2-3-decarbamoyl-neosaxitoxin-c-1-2-and-c-3-4-to-mice-by-various-routes-of-administration
#3
Andrew I Selwood, Craig Waugh, David T Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, John Reeve, Jim Sim, Rex Munday
Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230569/procedure-oriented-torsional-anatomy-of-the-hand-for-spasticity-injection
#4
Joslyn John, John Cianca, Faye Chiou-Tan, Sindhu Pandit, Erin Furr-Stimming, Katherine H Taber
OBJECTIVES: To provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) images of hand anatomy in the position of hemiparetic flexion as a reference for spasticity injections. After a stroke, spasticity can result in anatomic distortion of the hand. Spasticity may require treatment with botulinum toxin or phenol injections. Anatomic distortion may decrease the accuracy of injections. Standard anatomic references are of limited utility because they are not in this spastic hemiparetic position. There presently is no anatomic reference in the literature for these spastic postures...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230102/identification-of-a-new-virulent-clade-in-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o26-h11-h-sequence-type-29
#5
Nozomi Ishijima, Ken-Ichi Lee, Tomomi Kuwahara, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Saori Yoneda, Atsushi Iguchi, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Tetsuya Hayashi, Makoto Ohnishi, Sunao Iyoda
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O26 infections cause severe human diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy, and is the predominant serogroup among non-O157 EHEC in many countries. Shiga toxin (Stx), which consists of two distinct types (Stx1 and Stx2), plays a central role in EHEC pathogenesis. The major stx gene type in EHEC O26 strains is stx1, although isolates with only stx2 have emerged in Japan since 2012 and have been reported in Europe. In this study, we selected 27 EHEC O26 strains isolated in Japan and identified a distinct genetic clade within sequence type (ST) 29, designated ST29C1, that carried only stx2 and had the plasmid gene profile ehxA+/katP-/espP+/etpD-...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230067/life-strategy-and-grazing-intensity-responses-of-brachionus-calyciflorus-fed-on-different-concentrations-of-microcystin-producing-and-microcystin-free-microcystis-aeruginosa
#6
Ye Liang, Kai Ouyang, Xinglan Chen, Yuqi Su, Jiaxin Yang
The occurrence of Microcystis blooms is a worldwide concern due to the numerous adverse effects on zooplankton. We therefore hypothesized that the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is harmful to rotifer growth. Population and individual experiments were conducted with the same proportional volumes of Chlorella and Microcystis for given food densities. Life-table parameters, life-history traits, and the grazing intensity of Brachionus calyciflorus were evaluated after they had fed on microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis, both alone and combined with an edible alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), at concentrations of 1 × 10(5), 1 × 10(6), and 1 × 10(7) cells mL(-1)...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230053/ricin-uses-arginine-235-as-an-anchor-residue-to-bind-to-p-proteins-of-the-ribosomal-stalk
#7
Yijun Zhou, Xiao-Ping Li, Brian Y Chen, Nilgun E Tumer
Ricin toxin A chain (RTA) binds to stalk P-proteins to reach the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) where it cleaves a conserved adenine. Arginine residues at the RTA/RTB interface are involved in this interaction. To investigate the individual contribution of each arginine, we generated single, double and triple arginine mutations in RTA. The R235A mutation reduced toxicity and depurination activity more than any other single arginine mutation in yeast. Further reduction in toxicity, depurination activity and ribosome binding was observed when R235A was combined with a mutation in a nearby arginine...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229635/oral-administration-of-fumonisin-b1-and-t-2-individually-and-in-combination-affects-hepatic-total-and-mitochondrial-membrane-lipid-profile-of-rabbits
#8
A Szabó, J Szabó-Fodor, H Fébel, M Mézes, G Bajzik, M Kovács
Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) compared to a toxin-free control diet. Samplings were performed after 4 weeks (blood and liver). Bodyweight of T-2-fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight was increased dramatically (threefold of control). Liver total phospholipids (PLs) provided slight alterations in the fatty acid (FA) composition; all three toxin-treated groups showed a decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) proportion...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229230/mycobacterium-ulcerans-mycolactone-interferes-with-adhesion-migration-and-proliferation-of-primary-human-keratinocytes-and-hacat-cell-line
#9
Francesca Graziola, Elena Colombo, Rossana Tiberio, Giorgio Leigheb, Chiarella Bozzo
The pathogenicity of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli ulcer) is closely associated with the secretion of exotoxin mycolactone. The cytotoxicity of mycolactone has been linked to its apoptogenic activity. We explored if low mycolactone concentrations, which are not able to induce apoptosis, can influence other essential activities on two primary human keratinocyte populations, keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) and transit amplifying cells (TAC), and on a human keratinocyte line, HaCaT. We demonstrated that 0.01 and 0...
February 22, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229023/toxgen-an-improved-reference-database-for-the-identification-of-type-b-trichothecene-genotypes-in-fusarium
#10
Tomasz Kulik, Kessy Abarenkov, Maciej Buśko, Katarzyna Bilska, Anne D van Diepeningen, Anna Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Katarzyna Krawczyk, Balázs Brankovics, Sebastian Stenglein, Jakub Sawicki, Juliusz Perkowski
Type B trichothecenes, which pose a serious hazard to consumer health, occur worldwide in grains. These mycotoxins are produced mainly by three different trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes: 3ADON (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), 15ADON (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) and NIV (nivalenol), named after these three major mycotoxin compounds. Correct identification of these genotypes is elementary for all studies relating to population surveys, fungal ecology and mycotoxicology. Trichothecene producers exhibit enormous strain-dependent chemical diversity, which may result in variation in levels of the genotype's determining toxin and in the production of low to high amounts of atypical compounds...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228551/cysteine-residues-in-a-yeast-viral-a-b-toxin-crucially-control-host-cell-killing-via-ph-triggered-disulfide-rearrangements
#11
Yutaka Suzuki, Sara L Schwartz, Nina C Mueller, Manfred J Schmitt
K28 is a viral A/B protein toxin that intoxicates yeast and fungal cells by endocytosis and retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While toxin translocation into the cytosol occurs on the oxidized α/β heterodimer, the precise mechanism of how the toxin crosses the ER membrane is unknown. Here we identified pH-triggered toxin-intrinsic thiol rearrangements that crucially control toxin conformation and host cell killing. In the natural habitat and low pH environment of toxin-secreting killer yeasts, K28 is structurally stable and biologically active as disulfide-bonded heterodimer while it forms inactive disulfide-bonded oligomers at neutral pH that are caused by activation and thiol deprotonation of β-subunit cysteines...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228331/-efficacy-and-safety-of-available-therapies-in-the-management-of-idiopathic-overactive-bladder-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
J Moyson, F Legrand, M Vanden Bossche, T Quackels, T Roumeguère
OBJECTIVE: Study the efficacy and adverse events of different pharmacological lines in the treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder (iOAB). METHODS: PubMed research on meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCT) focused on the efficacy and adverse effects of anticholinergics, botulinum toxin and mirabegron since 2005. RESULTS: Ten meta-analyses of anticholinergics were selected; 16 randomized controlled trials (ERC) comparing botulinum toxin A to either anticholinergic or placebo and 10 ERC studying mirabegron...
February 19, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226899/nanoporous-membrane-robustness-stability-in-small-form-factor-microfluidic-filtration-system
#13
Dean G Johnson, Sabrina Pan, Andrew Hayden, James L McGrath, Dean G Johnson, Sabrina Pan, Andrew Hayden, James L McGrath, Andrew Hayden, Sabrina Pan, Dean G Johnson, James L McGrath
The development of wearable hemodialysis (HD) devices that replace center-based HD holds the promise to improve both outcomes and quality-of-life for patients with end-stage-renal disease (ERD). A prerequisite for these devices is the development of highly efficient membranes that can achieve high toxin clearance in small footprints. The ultrathin nanoporous membrane material developed by our group is orders of magnitude more permeable than conventional HD membranes. We report on our progress making a prototype wearable dialysis unit...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226453/spatial-characterization-of-innervation-zones-under-electrically-elicited-m-wave
#14
C Zhang, Y Peng, S Li, P Zhou, A Munoz, D Tang, Y Zhang, C Zhang, Y Peng, S Li, P Zhou, A Munoz, D Tang, Y Zhang, C Zhang, P Zhou, D Tang, Y Zhang, S Li, A Munoz, Y Peng
The three dimensional (3D) innervation zone (IZ) imaging approach (3DIZI) has been developed in our group to localize the IZ of a particular motor unit (MU) from its motor unit action potentials decomposed from high-density surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. In this study, the developed 3DIZI approach was combined with electrical stimulation to investigate global distributions of IZs in muscles from electrically elicited M-wave recordings. Electrical stimulations were applied to the musculocutaneous nerve to activate supramaximal muscle response of the biceps brachii in one healthy subject, and high-density (128 channels) surface EMG signals of the biceps brachii muscles were recorded...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226378/mandibular-rim-trilogy-with-botulinum-toxin-injection-reduction-projection-and-lift
#15
Renpeng Zhou, Benyun Pan, Chen Wang, Danru Wang
"Onabotulinum toxin A (Botox) revolution" has brought the fundamental change in the facial rejuvenation as well as the concept of microinjection. The aesthetic standard tends to be the "globalization"; however, Asians have different aesthetic cultures and unique facial features compared with Caucasians. A new rejuvenation concept is proposed during our practice; the Asian face should preserve the original facial identity during Botox treatments. The lower face is treated with botulinum toxin to achieve a harmonious facial profile...
February 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery: FPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226198/olanzapine-induced-early-cardiovascular-effects-are-mediated-by-the-biological-clock-and-prevented-by-melatonin
#16
Francisco Romo-Nava, Frederik N Buijs, Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Gloria Benítez-King, MariCarmen Basualdo, Mercedes Perusquía, Gerhard Heinze, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic side-effects contributing to premature mortality in patients. While mechanisms mediating these cardiometabolic side-effects remain poorly understood, three independent studies recently demonstrated that melatonin was protective against cardiometabolic risk in SGA-treated patients. Since one of the main target areas of circulating melatonin in the brain is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), we hypothesized that the SCN is involved in SGA-induced early cardiovascular effects in Wistar rats...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226076/treatment-of-hemifacial-spasm-with-botulinum-toxin-type-a-effective-long-lasting-and-well-tolerated
#17
Jean Pierre Mette Batisti, Alais Daiane Fadini Kleinfelder, Natália Bassalobre Galli, Adriana Moro, Renato Puppi Munhoz, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Objective: To evaluate the long-term effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the treatment of HFS. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Movement Disorders Outpatient Clinic in the Neurology Service, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, from 2009 to 2013 was carried out. A total of 550 BTX-A injections were administered to 100 HFS patients. Results: Mean duration of improvement following each injection session was 3...
February 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#18
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225802/effect-of-various-nitrogen-conditions-on-population-growth-temporary-cysts-and-cellular-biochemical-compositions-of-karenia-mikimotoi
#19
Yan Zhao, Xuexi Tang, Xiaowei Zhao, You Wang
The harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi was exposed to different nitrogen (N) conditions, in order to study the population growth, temporary cyst production and cellular biochemical compositions in laboratory. The results indicated the population growth of K. mikimotoi was inhibited by different levels of N starvation but showed similar fast recovery after the resupplement of N, and temporary cysts were induced in the period of N starvation. K. mikimotoi grew well in inorganic (NO3-, NO2- and NH4+) and organic (urea) nitrogen sources, but the growth parameters (K, Tp, r) showed differences when simulated by Logistic model regressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225535/treatment-diary-for-botulinum-toxin-spasticity-treatment-a-pilot-study
#20
Bo Biering-Sørensen, Helle K Iversen, Inge M S Frederiksen, Jeanet R Vilhelmsen, Fin Biering-Sørensen
The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient's self-evaluation of achievement on the Goal Attainment Scale; which skeletal muscles were injected; physiotherapists' and occupational therapists' evaluation of the patients' achievement of objectives on the Goal Attainment Scale; and proposals for optimization of treatment and changing goals...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
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