keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Toxins

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453386/collateral-damage-during-antibiotic-treatment-of-c-difficile-infection-in-the-aged-host-insights-into-why-recurrent-disease-happens
#1
Jae Hyun Shin, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections but an even bigger problem for the aging population. Advanced age leads to higher incidence, higher mortality, and higher recurrences. In our study, recently published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, we investigated the effect of aging on CDI using a mouse model. We were able to demonstrate that aging leads to worse clinical outcomes, as well as lead to changes in microbiota composition and lower antibody production against C...
April 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449366/moving-forward-with-the-neuromuscular-junction
#2
REVIEW
Claire Legay, Lin Mei
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is indispensable for survival. This synapse between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers allows posture, movement and respiration. Therefore, its dysfunction creates pathologies than can be lethal. The molecular mechanisms of NMJ development and maintenance are the subject of intensive studies. This mini-review focuses on some of the most recent discoveries. An unexpected role for a protein, rapsyn, which has been known for 40 years to aggregate acetylcholine receptors has emerged...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449040/toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-their-role-in-disseminating-and-maintaining-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
Qiu E Yang, Timothy R Walsh
Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are ubiquitous among bacteria and play a crucial role in the dissemination and evolution of antibiotic resistance, such as maintaining multi-resistant plasmids and inducing persistence formation. Generally, activities of the toxins are neutralised by their conjugate antitoxins. In contrast, antitoxins are more liable to degrade under specific conditions such as stress, and free active toxins interfere with essential cellular processes including replication, translation and cell-wall synthesis...
March 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448854/the-combined-use-of-analytical-tools-for-exploring-tetanus-toxin-and-tetanus-toxoid-structures
#4
Caroline Bayart, Sébastien Peronin, Elisa Jean, Joseph Paladino, Philippe Talaga, Marc Le Borgne
Aldehyde detoxification is a process used to convert toxin into toxoid for vaccine applications. In the case of tetanus toxin (TT), formaldehyde is used to obtain the tetanus toxoid (TTd), which is used either for the tetanus vaccine or as carrier protein in conjugate vaccines. Several studies have already been conducted to better understand the exact mechanism of this detoxification. Those studies led to the identification of a number of formaldehyde-induced modifications on lab scale TTd samples. To obtain greater insights of the changes induced by formaldehyde, we used three industrial TTd batches to identify repeatable modifications in the detoxification process...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447863/lysophosphatidic-acid-and-amitriptyline-signal-through-lpa1r-to-reduce-p-glycoprotein-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#5
David B Banks, Gary Ny Chan, Rebecca A Evans, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
The blood-brain barrier is a microvascular network that (1) provides neuroprotection from metabolic and environmental toxins and (2) limits the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS). The ATP-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein contributes to the latter by actively pumping clinical substrates back into circulation before they can reach the brain parenchyma. Targeting P-glycoprotein has proven effective in increasing the delivery of therapeutics to their cerebral targets. We provide a novel mechanism to achieve this end in functioning, intact rat brain capillaries, whereby the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) amitriptyline reduce basal P-glycoprotein transport activity through a distinct lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor-mediated signaling cascade that requires G-protein coupling, Src kinase, and ERK 1/2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447805/do-tiger-keelback-snakes-rhabdophis-tigrinus-recognize-how-toxic-they-are
#6
Akira Mori, Gordon M Burghardt
Animals that depend on defensive chemicals acquired from food may face a decision when attempting to deter predatory attacks: Should they exhibit antipredator behavior that relies on the toxicity of the sequestered chemicals or should they adopt other behaviors that can avoid predation without using the chemical defense, such as flight? Thus, it is reasonable to assume that animals that sequester prey toxins have evolved the ability to flexibly change their antipredator responses according to the amount of toxin-resource they have consumed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447417/diagnostic-approach-to-microangiopathic-hemolytic-disorders
#7
REVIEW
K Kottke-Marchant
Thrombotic micro-angiopathies (TMA) are a group of related disorders that are characterized by thrombosis of the microvasculature and associated organ dysfunction, and encompass congenital, acquired, and infectious etiologies. A hall mark of TMAs is the fragmentation of erythrocytes by the microvascular thrombi, resulting in a hemolytic anemia. There are several distinct pathophysiologies leading to microangiopathic hemolysis, ranging from decreased degradation of von Willebrand factor as seen in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) to endothelial damage facilitated by Escherichia coli shiga toxin or complement dysregulation, seen in shiga toxin-related hemolytic-uremic syndrome (Stx-HUS) and complement-mediated TMA (also called atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome), respectively...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446903/simulating-intestinal-growth-conditions-enhances-toxin-production-of-enteropathogenic-bacillus-cereus
#8
Nadja Jeßberger, Corinna Rademacher, Viktoria M Krey, Richard Dietrich, Ann-Katrin Mohr, Maria-Elisabeth Böhm, Siegfried Scherer, Monika Ehling-Schulz, Erwin Märtlbauer
Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous bacterial pathogen increasingly reported to be the causative agent of foodborne infections and intoxications. Since the enterotoxins linked to the diarrheal form of food poising are foremost produced in the human intestine, the toxic potential of enteropathogenic B. cereus strains is difficult to predict from studies carried out under routine cultivation procedures. In this study, toxigenic properties of a panel of strains (n = 19) of diverse origin were compared using cell culture medium pre-incubated with CaCo-2 cells to mimic intestinal growth conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446585/activation-mechanism-of-a-neuromodulator-gated-pacemaker-ionic-current
#9
Michael Gray, Daniel Hector Daudelin, Jorge Golowasch
The neuromodulator-gated current (IMI) found in the crab stomatogastric ganglion is activated by neuromodulators that are essential to induce the rhythmic activity of the pyloric network in this system. One of these neuromodulators is also known to control the correlated expression of voltage-gated ionic currents in pyloric neurons as well as synaptic plasticity and strength. Thus, understanding the mechanism by which neuromodulator receptors activate IMI should provide insights not only into how oscillations are initiated, but also into how other processes, and currents not directly activated by them, are regulated...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445785/staphylococcus-aureus-pore-forming-toxins-the-interface-of-pathogen-and-host-complexity
#10
REVIEW
E Sachiko Seilie, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent human pathogen capable of infecting a variety of host species and tissue sites. This versatility stems from the pathogen's ability to secrete diverse host-damaging virulence factors. Among these factors, the S. aureus pore-forming toxins (PFTs), α-toxin and the bicomponent leukocidins, have garnered much attention for their ability to lyse cells at low concentrations and modulate disease severity. Although many of these toxins were discovered nearly a century ago, their host cell specificity has only been elucidated over the past five to six years, starting with the discovery of the eukaryotic receptor for α-toxin and rapidly followed by identification of the leukocidin receptors...
April 23, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445543/comparative-genomic-analysis-between-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-buffalo
#11
Marcus Vinicius Canário Viana, Henrique Figueiredo, Rommel Ramos, Luis Carlos Guimarães, Felipe Luiz Pereira, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Salah Abdel Karim Selim, Mohammad Salaheldean, Artur Silva, Alice R Wattam, Vasco Azevedo
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive, pleomorphic, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes Oedematous Skin Disease (OSD) in buffalo. To better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of OSD, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 11 strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from different buffalo found to be infected in Egypt during an outbreak that occurred in 2008. Sixteen previously described pathogenicity islands (PiCp) were present in all of the new buffalo strains, but one of them, PiCp12, had an insertion that contained both a corynephage and a diphtheria toxin gene, both of which may play a role in the adaptation of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445195/protective-effect-of-botulinum-toxin-type-a-against-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions-in-nc-nga-mice
#12
Sang Bum Han, Hyeree Kim, Sang Hyun Cho, Jin Ho Chung, Hei Sung Kim
BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) A possesses various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antipruritic actions. Human and animal studies have shown that BTX is effective in treating histamine-induced itch, lichen simplex chronicus, psoriasis, rosacea, allergic rhinitis, and scar prevention. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been studied yet. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of BTX on AD using a mouse model. The primary outcome was skin thickness and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the secondary outcome was the alteration in skin severity scores, histological, and laboratory test results...
April 24, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445136/selective-eradication-of-cancer-cells-by-delivery-of-adenovirus-based-toxins
#13
Shiran Shapira, Assaf Shapira, Diana Kazanov, Gil Hevroni, Sarah Kraus, Nadir Arber
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: KRAS mutation is an early event in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. We previously reported that a recombinant adenovirus, carrying a pro-apoptotic gene (PUMA) under the regulation of Ets/AP1 (RAS-responsive elements) suppressed the growth of cancer cells harboring hyperactive KRAS. We propose to exploit the hyperactive RAS pathway, rather than to inhibit it as was previously tried and failed repeatedly. We aim to improve efficacy by substituting PUMA with a more potent toxin, the bacterial MazF-MazE toxin-antitoxin system, under a very tight regulation...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444737/digest-know-your-poison-predictable-molecular-changes-confer-toxin-resistance-in-snakes
#14
Kalina T J Davies
The repeated independent evolution of similar features in divergent lineages, a process known as convergent evolution, has long been a source of fascination for both naturalists and evolutionary biologists. Until recently, this active area of research had been focused principally on the evolution of physical characteristics associated with novel traits (e.g. the independent evolution of wings in birds, bats and pterosaurs). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444195/dna-methylome-analysis-reveals-distinct-epigenetic-patterns-of-ascending-aortic-dissection-and-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#15
Sun Pan, Hao Lai, Yiru Shen, Charles Breeze, Stephan Beck, Tao Hong, Chunsheng Wang, Andrew E Teschendorff
Epigenetics may mediate the effects of environmental risk factors on disease, including heart disease. Thus, measuring the DNA methylome offers the opportunity to identify novel disease biomarkers and novel insights into disease mechanisms. The DNA methylation landscape of ascending aortic dissection (AD) and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with aortic aneurysmal dilatation remain uncharacterized. The present study aimed to explore the genome-wide DNA methylation landscape underpinning these two diseases. Methods and results: We used Illumina 450k DNA methylation beadarrays to analyze 21 ascending aorta samples, including 10 cases with AD, 5 with BAV and 6 healthy controls...
April 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443656/acyl-fluorides-fast-efficient-and-versatile-lysine-based-protein-conjugation-via-plug-and-play-strategy
#16
Igor Dovgan, Sylvain Ursuegui, Stéphane Erb, Chloé Michel, Sergii Kolodych, Sarah Cianférani, Alain Wagner
We report a plug-and-play strategy for the preparation of functionally enhanced antibodies with a defined average degree of conjugation (DoC). The first stage (plug) allows the controllable and efficient installation of azide groups on lysine residues of a native antibody using 4-azidobenzoyl fluoride. The second step (play) allows for versatile antibody functionalization with a single payload or combination of payloads, such as a toxin, a fluorophore, or an oligonucleotide, via copper-free strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC)...
April 26, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443386/association-of-renal-function-and-symptoms-with-mortality-in-star-fruit-averrhoa-carambola-intoxication
#17
Choon-Bing Chua, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Huan-Wen Tsui, Po-Jen Yang, Kuo-Hsin Lee, Chih-Wei Hsu, I-Ting Tsai
BACKGROUND: Star fruit (SF) is a commonly available fruit produced and eaten in tropical and subtropical countries. Since 1993, various reports have described neurotoxicity after eating SF, but this clinical condition remains unfamiliar. We aimed to describe this clinical entity, the role of renal dysfunction in this disorder, treatment strategies, and prognosis of patients with SF intoxication. METHODS: We conducted a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases from 1993 to 2016...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443248/shiga-toxin-subtypes-of-non-o157-escherichia-coli-serogroups-isolated-from-cattle-feces
#18
Pragathi B Shridhar, Chris Siepker, Lance W Noll, Xiaorong Shi, T G Nagaraja, Jianfa Bai
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important foodborne pathogens responsible for human illnesses. Cattle are a major reservoir that harbor the organism in the hindgut and shed in the feces. Shiga toxins (Stx) are the primary virulence factors associated with STEC illnesses. The two antigenically distinct Stx types, Stx1 and Stx2, encoded by stx1 and stx2 genes, share approximately 56% amino acid sequence identity. Genetic variants exist within Stx1 and Stx2 based on differences in amino acid composition and in cytotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443227/surveillance-of-bacillus-cereus-isolates-in-korea-from-2012-to-2014
#19
Su-Mi Jung, Nan-Ok Kim, Injun Cha, Hae-Young Na, Gyung Tae Chung, Hyo Sun Kawk, Sahyun Hong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and toxin production characteristics of non-emetic and emetic Bacillus cereus strains isolated via the laboratory surveillance system in Korea. METHODS: A total of 667 B. cereus strains were collected by the Korea National Research Institute of Health laboratory surveillance system from 2012 to 2014. The collected strains were analyzed by geographical region, season, patient age, and patient sex. Additionally, the prevalence rates of enterotoxin and emetic toxin genes were evaluated...
February 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443076/rstb-regulates-expression-of-the-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-damselae-major-virulence-factors-damselysin-phobalysin-p-and-phobalysin-c
#20
Mateus S Terceti, Amable J Rivas, Laura Alvarez, Manuel Noia, Felipe Cava, Carlos R Osorio
The marine pathogenic bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae causes septicemia in marine animals and in humans. The pPHDD1 plasmid-encoded hemolysins damselysin (Dly) and phobalysin P (PhlyP), and the chromosome-encoded hemolysin phobalysin C (PhlyC) constitute its main virulence factors. However, the mechanisms by which expression of these three hemolysins is regulated remain unknown. Here we report the isolation of a mini-Tn10 transposon mutant which showed a strong impairment in its hemolytic activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
keyword
keyword
69549
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"