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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934690/butyl-benzyl-phthalate-bbp-induces-caudal-defects-during-embryonic-development
#1
Nicole M Roy, Ewelina Zambrzycka, Jenna Santangelo
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is commonly added during the manufacturing of plastics to increase flexibility and elasticity. However, BBP leaches off of plastic and environment presence has been detected in soil, groundwater and sediment potentially effecting organisms in the environment. Given the widespread uses of BBP in household, consumer goods and the presence of BBP in the environment, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here, we use a zebrafish model to investigate the early developmental toxicity of BBP...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934596/features-and-outcomes-of-methamphetamine-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Roham T Zamanian, Haley Hedlin, Paul Greuenwald, David M Wilson, Joshua I Segal, Michelle Jorden, Kristina Kudelko, Juliana Liu, Andrew Hsi, Allyson Rupp, Andrew J Sweatt, Rubin Tuder, Gerald J Berry, Marlene Rabinovitch, Ramona L Doyle, Vinicio De Jesus Perez, Steven M Kawut
RATIONALE: While amphetamines are recognized as "likely" agents to cause drugs and toxins associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), (meth)amphetamine associated PAH (Meth-APAH) has not been well described. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively characterize the clinical presentation, histopathology, and outcomes of Meth-APAH compared to those of idiopathic PAH (iPAH). METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study of Meth-APAH and iPAH patients presenting to the Stanford University Pulmonary Hypertension Program between 2003-2015...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934377/the-environmental-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolate-dsm30011-reveals-clues-into-the-preantibiotic-era-genome-diversity-virulence-potential-and-niche-range-of-a-predominant-nosocomial-pathogen
#3
Guillermo D Repizo, Alejandro M Viale, Vítor Borges, María M Cameranesi, Najwa Taib, Martín Espariz, Céline Brochier-Armanet, João Paulo Gomes, Suzana P Salcedo
Acinetobacter baumannii represents nowadays an important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen whose reservoirs outside the clinical setting are obscure. Here, we traced the origins of the collection strain A. baumannii DSM30011 to an isolate first reported in 1944, obtained from the enriched microbiota responsible of the aerobic decomposition of the resinous desert shrub guayule. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on core genes confirmed DSM30011 affiliation to A. baumannii. Comparative studies with 32 complete A...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934339/bacterial-toxins-offensive-defensive-or-something-else-altogether
#4
REVIEW
Justine K Rudkin, Rachel M McLoughlin, Andrew Preston, Ruth C Massey
The secretion of proteins that damage host tissue is well established as integral to the infectious processes of many bacterial pathogens. However, recent advances in our understanding of the activity of toxins suggest that the attributes we have assigned to them from early in vitro experimentation have misled us into thinking of them as merely destructive tools. Here, we will discuss the multifarious ways in which toxins contribute to the lifestyle of bacteria and, by considering their activity from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrate how this extends far beyond their ability to destroy host tissue...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934133/understanding-the-mechanism-of-translocation-of-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-across-biological-membranes
#5
REVIEW
Helena Ostolaza, César Martín, David González-Bullón, Kepa B Uribe, Asier Etxaniz
Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is one of the principal virulence factors secreted by the whooping cough causative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, and it has a critical role in colonization of the respiratory tract and establishment of the disease. ACT targets phagocytes via binding to the CD11b/CD18 integrin and delivers its N-terminal adenylate cyclase (AC) domain directly to the cell cytosol, where it catalyzes unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP into cAMP upon activation by binding to cellular calmodulin...
September 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934122/invasion-of-dendritic-cells-macrophages-and-neutrophils-by-the-bordetella-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-a-subversive-move-to-fool-host-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Giorgio Fedele, Ilaria Schiavoni, Irena Adkins, Nela Klimova, Peter Sebo
Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is released in the course of B. pertussis infection in the host's respiratory tract in order to suppress its early innate and subsequent adaptive immune defense. CD11b-expressing dendritic cells (DC), macrophages and neutrophils are professional phagocytes and key players of the innate immune system that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recent findings revealed the capacity of B. pertussis CyaA to intoxicate DC with high concentrations of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which ultimately skews the host immune response towards the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells...
September 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933861/differential-effect-of-bilayer-thickness-on-sticholysin-activity
#7
Juan Palacios Ortega, Sara Garcia-Linares, Esperanza Rivera-de-Torre, Jose G Gavilanes, Alvaro Martinez-Del-Pozo, J Peter Slotte
In this study, we examined the influence of bilayer thickness on the activity of the actinoporin toxins sticholysin I and II (StnI and StnII) at 25 °C. Bilayer thickness was varied using di-monounsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) analogs (with 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, 20:1, and 22:1 acyl chains). In addition, N-14:0-sphingomyelin (SM) was always included because StnI and StnII are SM specific. Cholesterol was also incorporated as indicated. In cholesterol-free large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) the PC:SM molar ratio was 4:1, and when cholesterol was included, the complete molar ratio was 4:1:0...
September 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933665/characterization-of-serum-anti-diphtheria-antibody-activity-following-administration-of-equine-anti-toxin-for-suspected-diphtheria
#8
Heidi L Smith, Greg Saia, Maria Lobikin, Tejpratap Tiwari, Su-Chun Cheng, Deborah C Molrine
There is a global shortage of equine-derived diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT) for diphtheria treatment. There are few existing data on serum antibody concentrations and neutralizing activity post-treatment to support development of new therapeutics. Antibody concentrations were quantified by ELISA and anti-toxin neutralizing activity by cytotoxicity assay in serum from four patients receiving DAT for suspected diphtheria. Using linear mixed effects modeling, estimated mean (SE) half-life was 78.2 (20.0) hours. Maximum serum neutralizing activity ranged from 28...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933172/-development-of-views-on-pathophysiology-of-sepsis
#9
Jiří Beneš
Sepsis was understood as a disease caused by an invasive bacterial infection associated with deluging of organism with bacterial toxins (blood poisoning). Schottmüllers definition emphasized the existence of a focus as the source of invading bacteria. Further research led to the discovery of the cytokine cascade and to the recognition that sepsis is induced by our own endogenous mediators. The dysfunction or failure of various organs in sepsis can be explained both by hemodynamic disorders which originate in the altered microcapillars but also by a complex transformation of metabolism...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933114/-simultaneous-determination-of-12-mycotoxins-in-polygoni-multiflori-radix-by-uplc-esi-ms-ms-combined-with-modified-quechers
#10
Chun Li, Xiao Su, Wei-Hong Feng, Rao-Rao Li, Xiao-Qian Liu, Peng-Yue Li, Zhi-Min Wang
To investigate the cause of liver toxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix through determining various mycotoxins in it. An UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and established to simultaneously determine 12 mycotoxins, Aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂, Ochratoxins A and B, Fumonisins B₁ and B₂,T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, in rawand processed Polygon iMultiflori Radix. The sample was extracted with modified QuEChERS method, and then was separatedon a WelchUltimate XBC₁₈ column by gradient elution using methanol and 2 mmol•L⁻¹ ammonium acetate aqueous solution containing 0...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932372/acupuncture-and-botulinum-toxin-a-injection-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-migraine-a-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Bahram Naderinabi, Alia Saberi, Masood Hashemi, Mohammad Haghighi, Gelareh Biazar, Farid Abolhasan Gharehdaghi, Abbas Sedighinejad, Tahereh Chavoshi
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common type of headache. Sometimes adequate pain relief is not achieved by conventional treatments. Acupuncture and botulinum toxin-A injection are known as non-pharmacological interventions for this purpose. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of acupuncture with botulinum toxin-A injection and pharmacological treatment in controlling chronic migraine. METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted on patients with chronic migraine in the North of Iran during 2014-2015...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932209/the-mobilome-a-major-contributor-to-escherichia-coli-stx2-positive-o26-h11-strains-intra-serotype-diversity
#12
Sabine Delannoy, Patricia Mariani-Kurkdjian, Hattie E Webb, Stephane Bonacorsi, Patrick Fach
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2-positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2-positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2-positive and stx-negative E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931737/changes-in-predator-exposure-but-not-in-diet-induce-phenotypic-plasticity-in-scorpion-venom
#13
Alex N Gangur, Michael Smout, Michael J Liddell, Jamie E Seymour, David Wilson, Tobin D Northfield
Animals embedded between trophic levels must simultaneously balance pressures to deter predators and acquire resources. Venomous animals may use venom toxins to mediate both pressures, and thus changes in this balance may alter the composition of venoms. Basic theory suggests that greater exposure to a predator should induce a larger proportion of defensive venom components relative to offensive venom components, while increases in arms races with prey will elicit the reverse. Alternatively, reducing the need for venom expenditure for food acquisition, for example because of an increase in scavenging, may reduce the production of offensive venom components...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931467/clinical-features-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-identified-by-fecal-gastrointestinal-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-in-patients-with-cancer-and-diarrhea
#14
Andrew W Chao, Micah Bhatti, Herbert L DuPont, James P Nataro, Lily G Carlin, Pablo C Okhuysen
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes with differing epidemiology and clinical features, are known causes of disease with worldwide occurrence. At a major cancer center in the U.S., we studied patients with cancer and diarrhea for whom a GI Biofire FilmArray multiplex GI panel (BFM) was performed. An enteropathogen was identified in 382 of 2017 (19%) samples distributed across 311 patients. Of these, 60/311(19%) were positive for DEC. Patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) 29/60 (48%) or with a hematologic malignancy 17/60 (28%) accounted for the majority of DEC cases...
August 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931342/correction-to-micha%C3%A5-et-al-overactive-bladder-treatment-the-application-of-methylene-blue-as-an-improvement-of-the-injection-technique-of-onabotuinum-toxin-a
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931012/cbta-toxin-of-escherichia-coli-inhibits-cell-division-and-cell-elongation-via-direct-and-independent-interactions-with-ftsz-and-mreb
#16
Danielle M Heller, Mrinalini Tavag, Ann Hochschild
The toxin components of toxin-antitoxin modules, found in bacterial plasmids, phages, and chromosomes, typically target a single macromolecule to interfere with an essential cellular process. An apparent exception is the chromosomally encoded toxin component of the E. coli CbtA/CbeA toxin-antitoxin module, which can inhibit both cell division and cell elongation. A small protein of only 124 amino acids, CbtA, was previously proposed to interact with both FtsZ, a tubulin homolog that is essential for cell division, and MreB, an actin homolog that is essential for cell elongation...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930913/the-effect-of-lactoferrin-and-pepsin-treated-lactoferrin-on-iec-6-cell-damage-induced-by-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#17
Kosuke Otake, Norio Sato, Ayako Kitaguchi, Takayuki Irahara, Satoru Murata, Keiichiro Shiraga, Yuichi Ogawa, Takahiro K Fujiwara, Kaoru Koike, Hiroyuki Yokota
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have recently increased worldwide. Some CDI progress to fulminant and recurrent CDI and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. CD produces toxins A and B, which cause intestinal mucosal damage, although toxin B exhibits greater cytotoxicity. Pepsin-treated lactoferrin (PLF) is the decomposed product of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigate the effects of LF and PLF in toxin B-stimulated rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930630/assessing-the-structure-and-stability-of-transmembrane-oligomeric-intermediates-of-an-%C3%AE-helical-toxin
#18
Rajat Desikan, Prabal K K Maiti, K Ganapathy Ayappa
Protein membrane interactions play an important role in our understanding of diverse phenomena ranging from membrane assisted protein aggregation to oligomerization and folding. Pore forming toxins (PFTs) form the primary vehicle for infection by several strains of bacteria. These proteins expressed in a water soluble form (monomers) bind to the target membrane (protomer) to form a transmembrane pore complex through a process of oligomerization. Based on the structure of the transmembrane domains, PFTs are broadly classified into β or α toxins...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930551/uremic-toxins-are-conditional-danger-or-homeostasis-associated-molecular-patterns
#19
Yu Sun, Candice Johnson, Jun Zhou, Luqiao Wang, Ya-Feng Li, Yifan Lu, Gayani Nanayakkara, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, Claudette Sanchez, William Y Yang, Xin Wang, Eric T Choi, Rongshan Li, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
We mined novel uremic toxin (UT) metabolomics/gene databases, and analyzed the expression changes of UT receptors and UT synthases in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We made the following observations: 1) UTs represent only 1/80(th) of human serum small-molecule metabolome; 2) Some UTs are increased in CKD and CVD; 3) UTs either induce or suppress the expression of inflammatory molecules; 4) The expression of UT genes is significantly modulated in CKD patients, and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients; 5) The expression of UT genes is upregulated by caspase-1 and TNF-alpha pathways but is inhibited in regulatory T cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930358/fabrication-and-characterization-of-a-3d-bioprinted-nanoparticle-hydrogel-hybrid-device-for-biomimetic-detoxification
#20
Maggie S Chen, Yue Zhang, Liangfang Zhang
A biomimetic micro/nanodevice is 3D bioprinted using polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel as the supporting platform, along with the red blood cell (RBC) membrane-coated nanoparticles (RBC-NPs) encapsulated in the hydrogel as the detoxification mechanism. RBC-NPs are prepared through a nanoprecipitation and coating method and then mixed into the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) monomer solution for 3D bioprinting through photopolymerization. This resulting detoxification device is engineered with multiple inner channels for the RBC-NPs to nonspecifically soak up the various toxins flowing through the channels...
September 20, 2017: Nanoscale
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