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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346585/maternal-vaccination-with-a-mono-component-pertussis-toxoid-vaccine-is-sufficient-to-protect-infants-in-a-baboon-model-of-whooping-cough
#1
Parul Kapil, James F Papin, Roman F Wolf, Lindsey I Zimmerman, Leslie D Wagner, Tod J Merkel
Background: Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen responsible for serious respiratory illness. The disease is most severe in infants too young to be vaccinated with most hospitalizations and deaths occurring within this age group. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization of pregnant women to protect infants from birth until their first vaccination at six to eight weeks of age. We previously demonstrated that maternal vaccination with licensed acellular pertussis vaccines protected newborn baboons from disease...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346271/-bacterial-toxins-section-in-the-journal-toxins-a-fantastic-multidisciplinary-interplay-between-bacterial-pathogenicity-mechanisms-physiological-processes-genomic-evolution-and-subsequent-development-of-identification-methods-efficient-treatment-and-prevention
#2
EDITORIAL
Michel R Popoff
Toxins are powerful pathogenicity factors produced by certain bacteria, fungi, animals, and plants which mediate drastic interactions of these pathogens on the organism host[...].
January 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345422/cantharidic-acid-induces-apoptosis-of-human-leukemic-hl-60-cells-via-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-regulated-caspase-8-9-3-activation-pathway
#3
Shih-Chung Wang, Jyh-Ming Chow, Ming-Hsien Chien, Chiao-Wen Lin, Hui-Yu Chen, Pei-Ching Hsiao, Shun-Fa Yang
Cantharidin, a natural toxin from blister beetles, has shown potent anticancer activities on many solid tumor cells. Recently, cantharidin and its analogue, norcantharidin, were also shown to suppress nonsolid tumors such as chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and leukemic stem cells. However, there is no available information to address the effects of cantharidic acid (CAC), a hydrolysis product of cantharidin, on human AML cells. The present study showed that CAC, at a range of concentrations (0-20 μM), concentration-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in the HL-60 AML cell line...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344685/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-botulinum-toxin-a-treatment-in-adolescent-patients-with-axillary-bromhidrosis
#4
Tao Wang, Jiasheng Dong, Jinguang He
BACKGROUND: For adolescent bromhidrosis, the long-term safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) treatment are not clear to date. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From June 2011 to July 2016, 62 adolescent patients with primary axillary bromhidrosis were recruited and 50 U of BTX-A was administered in each axilla. Repetitive injections were performed when the malodor returned. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 2.64 years. There were no reported local or systemic adverse effects...
January 17, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343718/the-bacterial-type-iii-toxin-antitoxin-system-toxin-is-a-dynamic-protein-rna-complex-with-stability-dependent-antiviral-abortive-infection-activity
#5
Francesca L Short, Chidiebere Akusobi, William R Broadhurst, George P C Salmond
Bacteria have evolved numerous defense systems to protect themselves from viral (bacteriophage) infection. The ToxIN system of Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a Type III toxin-antitoxin complex and "altruistic suicide" anti-phage system, which kills phage-infected cells through the release of a ribonuclease toxin, ToxN. ToxN is counteracted by a co-transcribed antitoxic RNA pseudoknot, ToxI, which self-assembles with ToxN into an inactive 3 ToxI:3 ToxN complex in vitro. However it is not known whether this complex is predominant in vivo, or how the complex is disassembled following infection to trigger a lethal, "altruistic" response...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343468/onabotulinum-toxin-a-injections-for-sleep-bruxism-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#6
William G Ondo, Jerald H Simmons, Muhammad H Shahid, Vera Hashem, Christine Hunter, Joseph Jankovic
OBJECTIVES: To test the safety and efficacy of onabotulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) injections into the masseter and temporalis muscles in patients with symptomatic sleep bruxism. METHODS: Participants 18 to 85 years old with clinically diagnosed sleep bruxism confirmed by polysomnography were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled, 1:1, parallel-design trial with open-label extension. Participants were injected with BoNT-A 200 units (60 into each masseter and 40 into each temporalis) or placebo and were evaluated at 4 to 8 weeks after the initial treatment visit...
January 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342984/amaranthus-caudatus-stimulates-insulin-secretion-in-goto-kakizaki-rats-a-model-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-2
#7
Silvia Zambrana, Lena C E Lundqvist, Virginia Veliz, Sergiu-Bogdan Catrina, Eduardo Gonzales, Claes-Göran Östenson
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342943/the-peptide-pnpp-19-a-spider-toxin-derivative-activates-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-and-modulates-calcium-channels
#8
Ana C N Freitas, Steve Peigneur, Flávio H P Macedo, José E Menezes-Filho, Paul Millns, Liciane F Medeiros, Maria A Arruda, Jader Cruz, Nicholas D Holliday, Jan Tytgat, Gareth Hathway, Maria E de Lima
The synthetic peptide PnPP-19 comprehends 19 amino acid residues and it represents part of the primary structure of the toxin δ-CNTX-Pn1c (PnTx2-6), isolated from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Behavioural tests suggest that PnPP-19 induces antinociception by activation of CB1, μ and δ opioid receptors. Since the peripheral and central antinociception induced by PnPP-19 involves opioid activation, the aim of this work was to identify whether this synthetic peptide could directly activate opioid receptors and investigate the subtype selectivity for μ-, δ- and/or κ-opioid receptors...
January 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342845/anesthetic-preconditioning-as-endogenous-neuroprotection-in-glaucoma
#9
Tsung-Han Chou, Ganeswara Rao Musada, Giovanni Luca Romano, Elizabeth Bolton, Vittorio Porciatti
Blindness in glaucoma is the result of death of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) and their axons. RGC death is generally preceded by a stage of reversible dysfunction and structural remodeling. Current treatments aimed at reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) are ineffective or incompletely effective in management of the disease. IOP-independent neuroprotection or neuroprotection as adjuvant to IOP lowering in glaucoma remains a challenge as effective agents without side effects have not been identified yet. We show in DBA/2J mice with spontaneous IOP elevation and glaucoma that the lifespan of functional RGCs can be extended by preconditioning RGCs with retrobulbar lidocaine in one eye at four months of age that temporary blocks RGC axonal transport...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342840/evaluation-of-rapid-early-warning-approaches-to-track-shellfish-toxins-associated-with-dinophysis-and-alexandrium-blooms
#10
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Mark W Lusty, Ryan B Wallace, Bennie Haynes, Zhihong Wang, Maggie Broadwater, Jonathan R Deeds, Steve L Morton, William Hastback, Leonora Porter, Karen Chytalo, Christopher J Gobler
Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP), respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2...
January 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342463/sensation-of-cold-during-the-ice-water-test-corresponds-to-the-perception-of-pain-during-botulinum-toxin-bladder-wall-injections
#11
André Reitz, Tanja Hüsch, Regula Doggweiler, Stephan Buse, Axel Haferkamp
AIMS: To investigate the association of bladder cold sensation (BCS) during the ice water test (IWT) and pain perception when botulinum toxin injections (BTI) are administered into the bladder wall. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 86 patients with idiopathic overactive bladder, the BCS during the IWT was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without BCS. During subsequent administration of BTI, the number of perceived and painful injections as well as the pain levels on a 0-100 pain scale were compared in both groups using Student t test...
January 18, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#12
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341983/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-in-davidson-county-tennessee-united-states-a-case-control-study
#13
Aamer Imdad, Monique A Foster, Junaid Iqbal, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Daniel C Payne, Chengxian Zhang, James D Chappell, Natasha Halasa, Oscar G Gómez-Duarte
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children; however, there is limited information available on the epidemiology, phylogenetics, serotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility of DEC in children in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology of DEC among children with and without acute gastroenteritis in Davidson County, Tennessee. METHODS: This prospective, frequency matched, case-control study recruited subjects 15 days to 17 years of age and detected DEC with polymerase chain reaction from stool samples...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341897/toxicity-and-toxicokinetics-of-amanita-exitialis-in-beagle-dogs
#14
Jian Sun, Yu-Min Niu, Yu-Tao Zhang, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Lie Huang, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun
In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological changes. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay the peptide toxins. The total peptide toxins in A. exitialis was 3482.6 ± 124...
January 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341609/probing-and-quantifying-the-food-borne-pathogens-and-toxins-from-in-vitro-to-in-vivo
#15
Jing-Min Liu, Zhi-Hao Wang, Hui Ma, Shuo Wang
Development of real-time and in situ analytical methods for determination of food-borne pathogens and toxins ingested into human body would be a promising research direction in the food safety area. The present review starts with summarization of the up-to-date progress of the nanomaterial-assisted in vitro detection methods for pathogens and toxins, and finally focused on application of animal bioimaging to in vivo study, including prospective strategies for in vivo quantification of target pathogens or toxins and in vivo investigation of their behaviors inside the living body, with the assistance of real-time and non-invasive optical bioimaging...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341371/electrochemical-monitoring-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-milk-samples-using-silver-nanoparticles-dispersed-on-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-gqds-nanocomposite
#16
Rana Shadjou, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Mohammad Heidar-Poor, Nasrin Shadjou
Aflatoxins are potential food pollutants produced by fungi. One of important toxins is aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). A great deal of concern is associated with AFM1 toxicity. In the present study, an innovative electrochemical interface for quantitation of AFM1 based on ternary signal amplification strategy was fabricated. In this work, silver nanoparticles was electrodeposited onto green and biocompatible nanocomposite containing α-cyclodextrin as conductive matrix and graphene quantum dots as amplification element...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340842/application-of-automated-peritoneal-dialysis-in-urgent-start-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-during-the-break-in-period
#17
Shengmao Liu, Xiaohua Zhuang, Min Zhang, Yanfeng Wu, Min Liu, Sibo Guan, Shujun Liu, Lining Miao, Wenpeng Cui
OBJECTIVE: Whether automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is a feasible strategy for urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy during the break-in period remains unclear. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy as well as complications among three PD modes during the break-in period. METHODS: Ninety-six patients treated with urgent-start PD after catheterization were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups, incremental continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) group (n = 26); APD group (n = 42); and APD-CAPD group (n = 28)...
January 16, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340715/postural-control-and-the-relation-with-cervical-sensorimotor-control-in-patients-with-idiopathic-adult-onset-cervical-dystonia
#18
J De Pauw, R Mercelis, A Hallemans, G Van Gils, S Truijen, P Cras, W De Hertogh
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions leading to an abnormal head posture or movements of the neck. Dysfunctions in somatosensory integration are present and previous data showed enlarged postural sway in stance. Postural control during quiet sitting and the correlation with cervical sensorimotor control were investigated. Postural control during quiet sitting was measured via body sway parameters in 23 patients with CD, regularly receiving botulinum toxin treatment and compared with 36 healthy controls...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340596/commentary-on-effect-of-botulinum-toxin-a-on-muscle-healing-and-its-implications-in-aesthetic-and-reconstructive-surgery
#19
Allen Gabriel, G Patrick Maxwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339959/medical-cannabis-a-beneficial-high-in-treatment-of-blepharospasm-an-early-observation
#20
Phillip M Radke, Ali Mokhtarzadeh, Michael S Lee, Andrew R Harrison
The objective of this study was to observe the effect of medical cannabis in benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) as an adjunct to botulinum toxin. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients certified for medical cannabis use for BEB from September 2015 to May 2016. Patient demographics and responses, cannabis history, and severity indices were collected. Ten patients were certified for medical cannabis use. Five met the inclusion criteria, which was any patient with a diagnosis of BEB receiving standard botulinum toxin treatment who had started medical cannabis treatment by a registered distributor within the state, and was contactable by phone...
October 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
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