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heparin transition to rivaroxaban

Jamshed J Dalal, Anil Dhall, Abhay Bhave
Oral vitamin K antagonists (VKA) such as warfarin have been the mainstay of therapy for stroke prevention in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) while low-molecular-weight heparin, fondaparinux and adjusted-dose warfarin or aspirin have been routinely used for thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement. However, VKAs are associated with considerable limitations, including increased risk of bleeding and narrow therapeutic window. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs, now referred as Non Vit K dependent oral anticoagulants), including the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and direct Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and apixaban are now approved alternatives to warfarin for prophylaxis of stroke and systemic embolic events (SEE) in patients with NVAF and treatment and prophylaxis of VTE...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Joshua D Lenchus, Michelle Biehl, Jorge Cabrera, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Cameron Dezfulian
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of particular relevance for intensivists and hospitalists. Acute VTE is usually managed with parenteral unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin, followed by an oral vitamin K antagonist. Data are lacking for optimal treatment of less common occurrences, such as upper extremity DVT, and for approaches such as thrombolysis for PE associated with early signs of hemodynamic compromise or inferior vena cava filters when anticoagulation is contraindicated...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Kelly M Rudd, Amanda R McFee Winans, Narmadha Panneerselvam
Rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, is a direct-acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC) indicated for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and for reducing the risk of DVT and PE recurrence. To our knowledge, no data are presently available to guide DOAC dosing in the postpartum period when pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes induced by pregnancy have an impact on drug clearance and increase hypercoagulability for a period of 6-8 weeks after delivery. We describe the case of a 35-year-old postpartum woman who presented to the emergency department with a diagnosis of a new multiple segmental PE 5 days after starting rivaroxaban therapy for a diagnosis of DVT...
November 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Hannah Choe, Mohamed Elfil, Maria T DeSancho
A 20-year-old male with asymptomatic inherited type 1 antithrombin deficiency and a family history of thrombosis started injecting himself with testosterone 250 mg intramuscularly twice weekly for 5 weeks. He presented to the hospital with progressive dyspnea on exertion, chest pain and hemoptysis. Workup revealed bilateral submassive pulmonary embolism and proximal right lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. He was treated with intravenous (IV) unfractionated heparin and underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis with alteplase to the main pulmonary arteries...
September 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Christopher M Hillis, Mark A Crowther
The acute phase of venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment focuses on the prompt and safe initiation of full-dose anticoagulation to decrease morbidity and mortality. Immediate management consists of resuscitation, supportive care, and thrombolysis for patients with haemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism (PE) or limb-threatening deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients with contraindications to anticoagulants are considered for vena cava filters. Disposition for the acute treatment of VTE is then considered based on published risk scores and the patient's social status, as the first seven days carries the highest risk for VTE recurrence, extension and bleeding due to anticoagulation...
June 2015: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
J W Cheng, G Barillari
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Anticoagulation is important in the management of cardiovascular disorders; however, traditional anticoagulants such as heparins and vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have limitations, including parenteral administration with the former and the need for coagulation monitoring and dose adjustments with the latter. Three non-VKA oral anticoagulants (OACs), dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, are available for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and may change clinical practice...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Alexander T Cohen, Mark Dobromirski, Meredith M P Gurwith
Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains a major healthcare problem. PE presents with a variety of non-specific symptoms, and confirmation of diagnosis involves the use of clinical risk scores, scanning techniques and laboratory tests. Treatment choice is informed by the risk of sudden death, with high-risk patients recommended to receive thrombolytic therapy or thrombectomy. Patients with less severe presentations are given anticoagulant therapy, traditionally with parenteral heparins in the acute phase of treatment, transitioning to oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs)...
February 2014: Thrombosis Research
Patrick Lefebvre, Craig I Coleman, Brahim K Bookhart, Si-Tien Wang, Samir H Mody, Kevin N Tran, Daisy Y Zhuo, Lynn Huynh, Edith A Nutescu
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), comprised of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is commonly treated with a low-molecular-weight heparin such as enoxaparin plus a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) to prevent recurrence. Administration of enoxaparin + VKA is hampered by complexities of laboratory monitoring and frequent dose adjustments. Rivaroxaban, an orally administered anticoagulant, has been compared with enoxaparin + VKA in the EINSTEIN trials. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban compared with enoxaparin + VKA as anticoagulation treatment for acute, symptomatic, objectively-confirmed DVT or PE...
January 2014: Journal of Medical Economics
Roger M Mills, Richard D Berkowitz, C V Damaraju, Lisa K Jennings, Peter Wildgoose
INTRODUCTION: No data are available regarding appropriate strategies for the transition of patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement (THR/TKR) surgery from subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to rivaroxaban. This study determined the pharmacodynamic effects of rivaroxaban on the first day of administration compared with serial administration in patients who had transitioned to rivaroxaban 22-28 hours after the last once-daily LMWH dose (or 12-18 hours after the last twice-daily LMWH dose)...
November 2012: Thrombosis Research
Lars Ryttberg, Alex Diamantopoulos, Fiona Forster, Michael Lees, Anina Fraschke, Ingela Björholt
AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban versus the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) enoxaparin and dalteparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total hip replacement and total knee replacement in Sweden. METHODS: The model included acute venous thromboembolic events and long-term complications over a 5-year time horizon represented by an acute and a chronic phase with 1-year cycles. Transition probabilities were derived from the Regulation of Coagulation in Orthopaedic Surgery to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (RECORD) clinical trials...
October 2011: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
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