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M Mosley, J Weathington, L R Cortes, E Bruggeman, A Castillo-Ruiz, B Xue, N G Forger
Many of the best-studied neural sex differences relate to differences in cell number and are due to the hormonal control of developmental cell death. However, several prominent neural sex differences persist even if cell death is eliminated. We hypothesized that these may reflect cell phenotype "decisions" that depend on epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. To test this, we treated newborn mice with the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine, or vehicle, and examined two sexually dimorphic markers at weaning...
April 7, 2017: Endocrinology
D D Tsao, S G Wang, B D Lynn, J I Nagy
Gap junctions between cells in the pineal gland have been described ultrastructurally, but their connexin constituents have not been fully characterized. We used immunofluorescence in combination with markers of pineal cells to document the cellular localization of connexin43 (Cx43). Immunofluorescence labelling of Cx43 with several different antibodies was widely distributed throughout the pineal, whereas another connexin examined, connexin26, was not found in pineal but only in surrounding leptomeninges. Labelling apparently associated with plasma membranes was visualized either as fine Cx43-puncta (1-2 μm) or as unusually large pools of Cx43 ranging up to 4-7 μm in diameter or length...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sarah Marking, Kurt Krosnowski, Tatsuya Ogura, Weihong Lin
Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
Many neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the formation of microscopically visible intracellular protein aggregates. α-Synuclein is the key aggregating protein in Parkinson's disease which is characterized by neuronal cytoplasmic Lewy body inclusions. Previous studies have shown relative sparing of neurons in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies that are positive for the vitamin D-dependent calcium buffering protein, calbindin-D28k and that α-synuclein aggregates are excluded from calbindin-D28k-positive neurons...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Tom W Ecay, James R Stewart, Greg Wiessner, Benoit Heulin
The chorioallantoic membrane resides adjacent to either the inner surface of the egg shell or uterine epithelium in oviparous and viviparous reptiles, respectively. Chorionic cells face the shell or uterine epithelium and transport calcium to underlying embryonic capillaries. Calcium transport activity of the chorioallantois increases in the final stages of development coincident with rapid embryonic growth and skeletal ossification. We excised embryos from viviparous Zootoca vivipara females at a stage prior to significant calcium accumulation and incubated them ex utero with and without calcium to test the hypothesis that chorioallantois calcium transport activity depends on developmental stage and not calcium availability...
April 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Fang Liu, Jing-Jing Ni, Feng-Yan Sun
Abnormal expression and dysfunction of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause Rett syndrome (RTT). The diverse phosphorylation modifications modulate MeCP2 function in neural cells. Using western blot and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression patterns of MeCP2 and three phospho-MeCP2s (pMeCP2s) in the developing rat brain. The expression of MeCP2 and phospho-S80 (pS80) MeCP2 increased while pS421 MeCP2 and pS292 MeCP2 decreased with brain maturation. In contrast to the nuclear localization of MeCP2 and pS80 MeCP2, pS421 MeCP2 and pS292 MeCP2 were mainly expressed in the cytoplasmic compartment...
February 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Anna Kozłowska, Anita Mikołajczyk, Zbigniew Adamiak, Mariusz Majewski
The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population...
February 2017: Neuropeptides
Yuru Zhou, Qingling He, Jihui Chen, Yunhong Liu, Zhaomin Mao, Zhongshi Lyu, Dongsheng Ni, Yaoshui Long, Pan Ju, Jianing Liu, Yuping Gu, Qin Zhou
Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 36 (Ttc36), whose coding protein belongs to tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif family, has not been studied extensively. We for the first time showed that Ttc36 is evolutionarily conserved across mammals by bioinformatics. Rabbit anti-mouse Ttc36 polyclonal antibody was generated by injecting synthetic full-length peptides through "antigen intersection" strategy. Subsequently, we characterized Ttc36 expression profile in mouse, showing its expression in liver and kidney both from embryonic day 15...
November 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Amelia Davis, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates (Lewy bodies) in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) may be associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. We investigated the interplay between α-syn aggregation, expression of the calbindin-D28k (CB) neuronal calcium-buffering protein and oxidative stress, combining immunofluorescence double labelling and Western analysis, and examining DLB and normal human cases and a unilateral oxidative stress lesion model of α-syn disease (rotenone mouse). DLB cases showed a greater proportion of CB+ cells in affected brain regions compared to normal cases with Lewy bodies largely present in CB- neurons and virtually undetected in CB+ neurons...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Michiru Ida-Eto, Nao Hara, Takeshi Ohkawara, Masaaki Narita
BACKGROUND: Auditory hypersensitivity is one of the major complications in autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the auditory brain center is affected in autism model rats. METHODS: Autism model rats were prepared by prenatal exposure to thalidomide on embryonic day 9 and 10 in pregnant rats. The superior olivary complex (SOC), a complex of auditory nuclei, was immunostained with anti-calbindin d28k antibody at postnatal day 50...
October 5, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Shanmukha Shruthi, R Sumitha, Anu Mary Varghese, S Ashok, B K Chandrasekhar Sagar, T N Sathyaprabha, A Nalini, Boris W Kramer, Trichur R Raju, K Vijayalakshmi, Phalguni Anand Alladi
BACKGROUND: The survival of motor neurons is dependent upon neurotrophic factors both during childhood and adolescence and during adult life. In disease conditions, such as in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the mRNA levels of trophic factors like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor are downregulated. This was replicated in our in vivo experimental system following the injection of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic ALS (ALS-CSF) patients...
September 13, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Jing Yang, Jing Chen, Guohong Cai, Rui Lu, Tingting Sun, Tingting Luo, Shengxi Wu, Shucai Ling
Sevoflurane is widely used in adult and pediatric patients during clinical surgeries. Although studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane impairs solfactory memory after an operation, the neuropathological changes underlying this effect are not clear. This study detected the effect of sevoflurane exposure on the development of calcium-binding proteins-expressing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We exposed neonatal mice to 2% sevoflurane at two different developmental time points and found that exposing mice to sevoflurane at postnatal day (PD) 7 significantly decreased the expression of GAD67 and parvalbumin (PV) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but did not alter the expression of calretinin (CR) or calbindin D28k (CB)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Kentaro Umeda, Shuji Iritani, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Youta Torii, Chikako Habuchi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Norio Ozaki
The etiology of schizophrenia remains unknown. However, using molecular biological techniques, some candidate genes have been identified that might be associated with the disease. One of these candidate genes, disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), was found in a large Scottish family with multiple mental illnesses. The function of DISC1 is considered to be associated with axon elongation and neuron migration in the central nervous system, but the functional consequences of defects in this gene have not been fully clarified in brain neuronal systems...
July 16, 2016: Synapse
Nan Zong, Fei Li, Yuanyuan Deng, Jingshan Shi, Feng Jin, Qihai Gong
Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Aurélie Ledreux, Xiuzhe Wang, Marianne Schultzberg, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Linnea R Freeman
High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Dean G Assimos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of Urology
José Manuel Verdes, Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant'Ana, María Jesús Sabalsagaray, Kosuke Okada, Aldo Calliari, José Antonio Moraña, Claudio Severo Lombardo de Barros
Rabies has been an enigmatic disease because microscopic findings in central nervous system tissues do not always correlate well with the severity of the clinical illness. Immunohistochemical staining of the calcium-binding protein calbindin (specifically CbD28k) seems to be the technique most used to identify Purkinje neurons under normal and pathological conditions. In the present work, we evaluated CbD28k immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex of normal and natural Rabies virus (RABV)-infected cattle...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ana J Moreno-Ortega, Lamiaa Mouhid Al-Achbili, Elba Alonso, Cristóbal de Los Ríos, Antonio G García, Ana Ruiz-Nuño, María F Cano-Abad
Alternatives for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are scarce and controversial. The etiology of neuronal vulnerability in ALS is being studied in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to selective loss of motor neurons. One such mechanism is associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress, Ca(2+) overload, and low expression of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins. Therefore, in order to elicit neuronal death in ALS, NSC-34 cells were exposed to the following cytotoxic agents: (1) a mixture of oligomycin 10 µM and rotenone 30 µM (O/R), or (2) phenylarsine oxide 1 µM (PAO) (to mimic excess free radical production during mitochondrial dysfunction), and (3) veratridine 100 µM (VTD) (to induce overload of Na(+) and Ca(2+) and to alter distribution of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins [parvalbumin and calbindin-D28k])...
October 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Ellen P M van Loon, Robert Little, Sukhpal Prehar, René J M Bindels, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Joost G J Hoenderop
Calcium (Ca2+) is vital for multiple processes in the body, and maintenance of the electrolyte concentration is required for everyday physiological function. In the kidney, and more specifically, in the late distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, the fine-tuning of Ca2+ reabsorption from the pro-urine takes place. Here, Ca2+ enters the epithelial cell via the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 5 (TRPV5) channel, diffuses to the basolateral side bound to calbindin-D28k and is extruded to the blood compartment via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) and the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA)...
2016: PloS One
Osamu Ichii, Teppei Nakamura, Takao Irie, Hirokazu Kouguchi, Daisuke Nakamura, Saori Nakamura, Shinobu Sato, Keisuke Yokoyama, Taro Horino, Yuji Sunden, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon
The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a laboratory rodent that has been used for studies on human infectious diseases. In the present study, we observed that female cotton rats, not the male cotton rats, developed chronic anemia characterized by reduced red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels from 5 to 9 months of age without any changes in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and volume levels. In peripheral blood, the reticulocyte count did not increase in response to anemia in female cotton rats, and no extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed in the liver or spleen...
September 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
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