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Alexandre N Rcom-H'cheo-Gauthier, Amelia Davis, Adrian C B Meedeniya, Dean L Pountney
α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates (Lewy bodies) in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) may be associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. We investigated the interplay between α-syn aggregation, expression of the calbindin-D28k (CB) neuronal calcium-buffering protein and oxidative stress, combining immunofluorescence double labelling and Western analysis, and examining DLB and normal human cases and a unilateral oxidative stress lesion model of α-syn disease (rotenone mouse). DLB cases showed a greater proportion of CB+ cells in affected brain regions compared to normal cases with Lewy bodies largely present in CB- neurons and virtually undetected in CB+ neurons...
October 13, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Michiru Ida-Eto, Nao Hara, Takeshi Ohkawara, Masaaki Narita
BACKGROUND: Auditory hypersensitivity is one of the major complications accompanied by autism spectrum disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate whether auditory brain center is affected in autism model rats. METHODS: Autism model rats were prepared by prenatal exposure to thalidomide, which is administered to embryonic day 9 and 10 of pregnant rats. Superior olivary complex (SOC), a complex of auditory nuclei, was immunostained with anti-calbindin d28k antibody at postnatal day 50...
October 5, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Shanmukha Shruthi, R Sumitha, Anu Mary Varghese, S Ashok, B K Chandrasekhar Sagar, T N Sathyaprabha, A Nalini, Boris W Kramer, Trichur R Raju, K Vijayalakshmi, Phalguni Anand Alladi
BACKGROUND: The survival of motor neurons is dependent upon neurotrophic factors both during childhood and adolescence and during adult life. In disease conditions, such as in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the mRNA levels of trophic factors like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and vascular endothelial growth factor are downregulated. This was replicated in our in vivo experimental system following the injection of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic ALS (ALS-CSF) patients...
September 13, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Jing Yang, Jing Chen, Guohong Cai, Rui Lu, Tingting Sun, Tingting Luo, Shengxi Wu, Shucai Ling
Sevoflurane is widely used in adult and pediatric patients during clinical surgeries. Although studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane impairs solfactory memory after an operation, the neuropathological changes underlying this effect are not clear. This study detected the effect of sevoflurane exposure on the development of calcium-binding proteins-expressing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We exposed neonatal mice to 2% sevoflurane at two different developmental time points and found that exposing mice to sevoflurane at postnatal day (PD) 7 significantly decreased the expression of GAD67 and parvalbumin (PV) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but did not alter the expression of calretinin (CR) or calbindin D28k (CB)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Kentaro Umeda, Shuji Iritani, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Youta Torii, Chikako Habuchi, Keisuke Kuroda, Kozo Kaibuchi, Norio Ozaki
The etiology of schizophrenia remains unknown. However, using molecular biological techniques, some candidate genes have been identified that might be associated with the disease. One of these candidate genes, disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), was found in a large Scottish family with multiple mental illnesses. The function of DISC1 is considered to be associated with axon elongation and neuron migration in the central nervous system, but the functional consequences of defects in this gene have not been fully clarified in brain neuronal systems...
July 16, 2016: Synapse
Nan Zong, Fei Li, Yuanyuan Deng, Jingshan Shi, Feng Jin, Qihai Gong
Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Aurélie Ledreux, Xiuzhe Wang, Marianne Schultzberg, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Linnea R Freeman
High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Dean G Assimos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of Urology
José Manuel Verdes, Fabiano José Ferreira de Sant'Ana, María Jesús Sabalsagaray, Kosuke Okada, Aldo Calliari, José Antonio Moraña, Claudio Severo Lombardo de Barros
Rabies has been an enigmatic disease because microscopic findings in central nervous system tissues do not always correlate well with the severity of the clinical illness. Immunohistochemical staining of the calcium-binding protein calbindin (specifically CbD28k) seems to be the technique most used to identify Purkinje neurons under normal and pathological conditions. In the present work, we evaluated CbD28k immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex of normal and natural Rabies virus (RABV)-infected cattle...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ana J Moreno-Ortega, Lamiaa Mouhid Al-Achbili, Elba Alonso, Cristóbal de Los Ríos, Antonio G García, Ana Ruiz-Nuño, María F Cano-Abad
Alternatives for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are scarce and controversial. The etiology of neuronal vulnerability in ALS is being studied in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to selective loss of motor neurons. One such mechanism is associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress, Ca(2+) overload, and low expression of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins. Therefore, in order to elicit neuronal death in ALS, NSC-34 cells were exposed to the following cytotoxic agents: (1) a mixture of oligomycin 10 µM and rotenone 30 µM (O/R), or (2) phenylarsine oxide 1 µM (PAO) (to mimic excess free radical production during mitochondrial dysfunction), and (3) veratridine 100 µM (VTD) (to induce overload of Na(+) and Ca(2+) and to alter distribution of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins [parvalbumin and calbindin-D28k])...
October 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Ellen P M van Loon, Robert Little, Sukhpal Prehar, René J M Bindels, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Joost G J Hoenderop
Calcium (Ca2+) is vital for multiple processes in the body, and maintenance of the electrolyte concentration is required for everyday physiological function. In the kidney, and more specifically, in the late distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, the fine-tuning of Ca2+ reabsorption from the pro-urine takes place. Here, Ca2+ enters the epithelial cell via the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 5 (TRPV5) channel, diffuses to the basolateral side bound to calbindin-D28k and is extruded to the blood compartment via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) and the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA)...
2016: PloS One
Osamu Ichii, Teppei Nakamura, Takao Irie, Hirokazu Kouguchi, Daisuke Nakamura, Saori Nakamura, Shinobu Sato, Keisuke Yokoyama, Taro Horino, Yuji Sunden, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon
The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a laboratory rodent that has been used for studies on human infectious diseases. In the present study, we observed that female cotton rats, not the male cotton rats, developed chronic anemia characterized by reduced red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels from 5 to 9 months of age without any changes in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and volume levels. In peripheral blood, the reticulocyte count did not increase in response to anemia in female cotton rats, and no extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed in the liver or spleen...
September 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Sara Ibrahim Omar, Benedict C Albensi, Kathleen M Gough
Calcium homeostasis is an essential physiological process requiring tight control in the normal cell. The dysregulation of calcium homeostasis may play a key role in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other disorders, whether through the loss of calcium binding or calcium sensing capacity. Calbindin D28k (CB-D28k), a calcium binding protein composed of six EF-hands, four of which can bind Ca(2+), has been implicated in AD-related calcium dysregulation. In this study, docking and molecular dynamics calculations were employed to refine the protein data base model in order to understand the underlying structural variations between functional and non-functional EF-hands...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Shane M McMahon, Che-Wei Chang, Meyer B Jackson
Cytosolic Ca(2+) buffers bind to a large fraction of Ca(2+) as it enters a cell, shaping Ca(2+) signals both spatially and temporally. In this way, cytosolic Ca(2+) buffers regulate excitation-secretion coupling and short-term plasticity of release. The posterior pituitary is composed of peptidergic nerve terminals, which release oxytocin and vasopressin in response to Ca(2+) entry. Secretion of these hormones exhibits a complex dependence on the frequency and pattern of electrical activity, and the role of cytosolic Ca(2+) buffers in controlling pituitary Ca(2+) signaling is poorly understood...
March 2016: Journal of General Physiology
Ya-Nan Gu, Eun-Shil Lee, Chang-Jin Jeon
Single-cell injection after immunocytochemistry is a reliable technique for classifying neurons by their morphological structure and their expression of a particular protein. The aim of the present study was to classify the morphological types of calbindin D28k-immunoreactive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse using single-cell injection after immunocytochemistry, to estimate the density of calbindin D28k-immunoreactive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse retina. Calbindin D28k is an important calcium-binding protein that is widely expressed in the central nervous system...
April 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Ming-Dong Zhang, Swapnali Barde, Edit Szodorai, Anna Josephson, Nicholas Mitsios, Masahiko Watanabe, Johannes Attems, Gert Lubec, Gábor G Kovács, Mathias Uhlén, Jan Mulder, Tibor Harkany, Tomas Hökfelt
Neuronal calcium-binding protein 1 and -2 (NECAB1/2) localize to multiple excitatory neuron populations in the mouse spinal cord. Here, we analyzed rat and human spinal cord, combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, complementing newly collated data on mouse spinal cord for direct comparisons. Necab1/2 mRNA transcripts showed complementary distribution in rodent's spinal cord. Multiple-labeling fluorescence histochemistry with neuronal phenotypic markers localized NECAB1 to a dense fiber plexus in the dorsal horn, to neurons mainly in superficial layers and to commissural interneurons in both rodent species...
September 2016: Brain Structure & Function
I Bazwinsky-Wutschke, W Härtig, R Kretzschmar, R Rübsamen
In mammals, the superior olivary complex (SOC) of the brainstem is composed of nuclei that integrate afferent auditory originating from both ears. Here, the expression of different calcium-binding proteins in subnuclei of the SOC was studied in distantly related mammals, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) and the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) to get a better understanding of the basal nuclear organization of the SOC. Combined immunofluorescence labeling of the calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k, and calretinin as well as pan-neuronal markers displayed characteristic distribution patterns highlighting details of neuronal architecture of SOC nuclei...
January 20, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
D J Vidyadhara, H Yarreiphang, P L Abhilash, T R Raju, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Parkinson's disease (PD) affects the A9 dopaminergic (DA) neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) whereas other DA neuronal subtypes are spared. The role of calbindin in this differential vulnerability has been long elicited, and is seen in the MPTP induced mice models of PD. A peculiar feature of mice models is the strain specific differences in the susceptibility to MPTP. Here, calbindin-D28K expression in DA neurons of SNpc of MPTP susceptible C57BL/6 mice and MPTP resistant CD-1 mice was studied as a susceptibility marker of degeneration...
January 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Chien-Te Lee, Hwee-Yeong Ng, Yueh-Ting Lee, Li-Wen Lai, Yeong-Hau H Lien
Calbindin-D28k (CBD-28k) is a calcium binding protein located in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and plays an important role in active calcium transport in the kidney. Loop and thiazide diuretics affect renal Ca and Mg handling: both cause Mg wasting, but have opposite effects on Ca excretion as loop diuretics increase, but thiazides decrease, Ca excretion. To understand the role of CBD-28k in renal Ca and Mg handling in response to diuretics treatment, we investigated renal Ca and Mg excretion and gene expression of DCT Ca and Mg transport molecules in wild-type (WT) and CBD-28k knockout (KO) mice...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
M J Jiang, J P Zhao, H C Jiao, X J Wang, Q Zhang, H Lin
The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively...
2015: British Poultry Science
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