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Major Depressive Disorder SLC6A4

Marta Ramos, Cecilia Berrogain, Julia Concha, Laura Lomba, Cristina Belén García, Mª Pilar Ribate
The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that major depressive disorder (MDD) will be the second leading cause of death and disability by 2020. Nowadays, approximately 60-70% of patients with this disorder have shown the lack of effectiveness and tolerability of the therapy with antidepressants. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMA) are including pharmacogenetic information in the labeling of several antidepressants. The presence of this information represents the relevance of genetic polymorphisms in drug response...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Laura R Stroud, George D Papandonatos, Stephanie H Parade, Amy L Salisbury, Maureen G Phipps, Barry M Lester, James F Padbury, Carmen J Marsit
OBJECTIVES: Extending prior studies of prenatal adversity and depressive symptoms, we tested associations between maternal prenatal major depressive disorder (MDD) and infant cortisol regulation. Based on prior findings by our group, we also tested placenta glucocorticoid (HSD11B2 methylation) and serotonin (SLC6A4 gene expression) signaling as moderators of links between prenatal MDD and infant cortisol. METHODS: Participants were 153 mother-infant pairs from a low-income, diverse sample (M [SD] age = 26[6] years)...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Chiara Fabbri, Ladislav Hosak, Rainald Mössner, Ina Giegling, Laura Mandelli, Frank Bellivier, Stephan Claes, David A Collier, Alejo Corrales, Lynn E Delisi, Carla Gallo, Michael Gill, James L Kennedy, Marion Leboyer, Amanda Lisoway, Wolfgang Maier, Miguel Marquez, Isabelle Massat, Ole Mors, Pierandrea Muglia, Markus M Nöthen, Michael C O'Donovan, Jorge Ospina-Duque, Peter Propping, Yongyong Shi, David St Clair, Florence Thibaut, Sven Cichon, Julien Mendlewicz, Dan Rujescu, Alessandro Serretti
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heritable disease with a heavy personal and socio-economic burden. Antidepressants of different classes are prescribed to treat MDD, but reliable and reproducible markers of efficacy are not available for clinical use. Further complicating treatment, the diagnosis of MDD is not guided by objective criteria, resulting in the risk of under- or overtreatment. A number of markers of MDD and antidepressant response have been investigated at the genetic, epigenetic, gene expression and protein levels...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
E Won, S Choi, J Kang, A Kim, K-M Han, H S Chang, W S Tae, K R Son, S-H Joe, M-S Lee, B-J Ham
Previous evidence suggests that the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is associated with the structure of brain regions that are critically involved in dysfunctional limbic-cortical network activity associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics were used to investigate changes in white matter integrity in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls. A possible association between structural alterations in white matter tracts and DNA methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter region was also assessed...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Aarthi Manoharan, Deepak Gopal Shewade, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Surendiran Adithan
PURPOSE: Up to 30-40 % of the major depressive disorder patients do not respond sufficiently to antidepressant treatment. Genetic variations in the serotonin transporter gene have been implicated in modulating treatment response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and this association is influenced by ethnicity. We investigated the influence of serotonin transporter gene variants 5-HTTLPR and rs25531 in Indian population on fluoxetine response. METHODS: One hundred and two major depressive disorder patients were started on fluoxetine treatment and after 6 weeks, classified as responders (n = 56) and non-responders (n = 46) using Hamilton depression rating scale and genotyped...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
C H Ng, C Bousman, D J Smith, N Dowling, K Byron, J King, J Sarris
No studies to date have evaluated SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 genetic polymorphisms influencing antidepressant response to desvenlafaxine. We conducted an 8-week, open-label, prospective pilot study in 35 patients with major depressive disorder to assess the effects of genetic variations in SLC6A2 and SLC6A4 on both efficacy and side effect profile of desvenlafaxine. Results revealed that homozygotes for the SLC6A4 HTTLPR S allele showed a 33% HDRS reduction compared to a 58% reduction for L allele carriers (p=0.037)...
September 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Arielle Y Zahavi, Mark A Sabbagh, Dustin Washburn, Raegan Mazurka, R Michael Bagby, John Strauss, James L Kennedy, Arun Ravindran, Kate L Harkness
Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression...
2016: PloS One
Joe Herbert, Paul J Lucassen
Depression (MDD) is prodromal to, and a component of, Alzheimer's disease (AD): it may also be a trigger for incipient AD. MDD is not a unitary disorder, so there may be particular subtypes of early life MDD that pose independent high risks for later AD, though the identification of these subtypes is problematical. There may either be a common pathological event underlying both MDD and AD, or MDD may sensitize the brain to a second event ('hit') that precipitates AD. MDD may also accelerate brain ageing, including altered DNA methylation, increased cortisol but decreasing DHEA and thus the risk for AD...
April 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Yeimy González-Giraldo, Andrés Camargo, Sandra López-León, Diego A Forero
Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects...
2015: Depression Research and Treatment
Aniruddha Basu, R K Chadda, Mamta Sood, Harpreet Kaur, Ritushree Kukreti
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have potential of predicting response to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, an attempt was made to find an association between response to escitalopram in patients with MDD, and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and receptor (5HTR1A, 5HTR2A) polymorphisms. METHODS: Fifty five patients diagnosed as suffering from MDD, were selected for the study. The patients were treated with escitalopram over a period of 6-8 wk...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Yvon C Chagnon, Olivier Potvin, Carol Hudon, Michel Préville
BACKGROUND: Environmental effects and personal experiences could be expressed in individuals through epigenetic non-structural changes such as DNA methylation. This methylation could up- regulate or down-regulate corresponding gene expressions and modify related phenotypes. DNA methylation increases with aging and could be related to the late expression of some forms of mental disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety disorders and/or depression in older women and DNA methylation for four genes related to anxiety or depression...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
Veronica de Medeiros Alves, Daniele Goncalves Bezerra, Tiago Gomes de Andrade, Valfrido Leao de Melo Neto, Antonio E Nardi
The aim of the present study was to analyze if the genetic polymorphisms might predict suicide attempts in mental disorder patients. The literature review and meta-analysis were conducted using the PubMed/Medline, Web of science and Scopus database using the terms: "5-HTT or SLC6A4 or 5-SERT and suicide, suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior or suicidal attempt". Thirty articles were analyzed. We found 17 articles that showed association and 13 articles that showed no association between LPR serotonin transporter polymorphism and suicide...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jennifer Lynne Phillips, Lisa Ann Batten, Philippe Tremblay, Fahad Aldosary, Lisheng Du, Pierre Blier
OBJECTIVE: In major depressive disorder (MDD), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in monoaminergic genes may impact disease susceptibility, treatment response, and brain volume. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of such polymorphisms on hippocampal volume in patients with treatment-resistant MDD and healthy controls. Candidate gene risk alleles were hypothesised to be associated with reductions in hippocampal volume. METHODS: A total of 26 outpatients with treatment-resistant MDD and 27 matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping for six SNPs in monoaminergic genes [serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2), serotonin 1A and 2A receptors (HTR1A and HTR2A), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)]...
December 2015: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Chiara Fabbri, Alessandro Serretti
The pharmacogenetics of antidepressants has been not only a challenging but also frustrating research field since its birth in the 1990s. Indeed, great expectations followed the first evidence of familiar aggregation of antidepressant response. Despite the progress from candidate gene studies to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), results fell out the expectations and they were often inconsistent. Anyway, the cumulative evidence supports the involvement of some genes and molecular pathways in antidepressant efficacy...
July 2015: Current Psychiatry Reports
Shin-Ya Watanabe, Jun-Ichi Iga, Kazuo Ishii, Shusuke Numata, Shinji Shimodera, Hirokazu Fujita, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Development of easy-to-use biological diagnostic tests for major depressive disorder (MDD) may facilitate MDD diagnosis and delivery of optimal treatment. Here, we examined leukocyte gene expression to develop a biological diagnostic test for MDD. METHODS: 25 drug-naive MDD patients (MDDs) and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (Controls) participated in a pilot study. A subsequent replication study involved 20 MDDs and 18 Controls. We used custom-made PCR array plates to examine mRNA levels of 40 candidate genes in leukocyte samples to assess whether any combination of these genes could be used to differentiate MDDs from Controls based on expression profiles...
July 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Davide Seripa, Andrea Pilotto, Giulia Paroni, Andrea Fontana, Grazia D'Onofrio, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Francesco Panza, Alessandro Padovani, Alberto Pilotto
It has been suggested that the serotonin or 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) and its gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) response modulators in late-life depression (LLD), and particularly in late-life major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies differed in design and results. Our study aimed to investigate the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter and serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) gene locus, encoding 5-HTT and SSRI treatment response in late-life MDD...
May 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Thomas Frodl, Moshe Szyf, Angela Carballedo, Victoria Ly, Sergiy Dymov, Farida Vaisheva, Derek Morris, Ciara Fahey, James Meaney, Michael Gill, Linda Booij
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of fMRI blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) reactivity with the level of epigenetic methylation of SLC6A4 in blood DNA from a sample of healthy participants and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We investigated patients with MDD and healthy controls using fMRI and an emotional attention-shifting task. We assessed site-specific DNA methylation of a previously characterized SLC6A4 region in peripheral blood DNA using pyrosequencing...
September 2015: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Vania Januar, Richard Saffery, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: Several broad lines of evidence support the involvement of epigenetic processes in neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders. Epigenetic disruption also provides a potential mechanism to account for the numerous gene-environment interactions that have been reported in association with neuropsychiatric phenotypes. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed with keywords 'depression', 'depressive disorder' or 'antidepressants' and 'DNA methylation', or 'epigenetics' in humans...
August 2015: International Journal of Epidemiology
J M Hettema, X Chen, C Sun, T A Brown
BACKGROUND: Twin studies of internalizing disorders suggest that their high co-morbidity is partially explained by shared genetic risk. Few studies have investigated pleiotropic effects of well-validated candidate genes across phenotypes. METHOD: Subjects were 928 Caucasian patients who presented to an out-patient clinic specializing in the assessment and treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. We constructed latent dimensional phenotypes across the internalizing spectrum (neuroticism, extraversion, depression, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress, and obsessions-compulsions) by combining diagnostic criteria with other clinical indicators...
July 2015: Psychological Medicine
C A Altar, J M Carhart, J D Allen, D K Hall-Flavin, B M Dechairo, J G Winner
In four previous studies, a combinatorial multigene pharmacogenomic test (GeneSight) predicted those patients whose antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder resulted in poorer efficacy and increased health-care resource utilizations. Here, we extended the analysis of clinical validity to the combined data from these studies. We also compared the outcome predictions of the combinatorial use of allelic variations in genes for four cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2), the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) with the outcome predictions for the very same subjects using traditional, single-gene analysis...
October 2015: Pharmacogenomics Journal
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