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Alexia J Murphy-Alford, Melinda White, Liane Lockwood, Andrew Hallahan, Peter S W Davies
AIM: To describe the body composition, dietary intake and physical activity and of paediatric, adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and examine the factors that impact body composition after treatment. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study involved 74 subjects who were at least three years post treatment. Measurements included anthropometry, whole body potassium counting, air displacement plethysmography, and three day physical activity and diet diaries...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
A Gupta, M Aslam, S Rathi, B K Mishra, S Bhardwaj, R Jhamb, S V Madhu
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India are non-obese. Asian-Indian subjects with diabetes have been shown to have low vitamin D levels. Whether low vitamin D levels and T2DM in Asian-Indians is attributable to the associated obesity as in caucasians is unclear. Hence we studied the association of vitamin D levels and T2DM in Asian-Indians with or without obesity. METHODS: Total of 213 subjects were recruited in four groups, group 1-Non-obese diabetic, group 2-Non-obese non-diabetic, group 3-Obese diabetic and group 4-Obese non-diabetic...
March 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
S Songül Yalçin, Suzan Yalçin
This study was conducted to assess the blood boron levels (BBL) in prepubertal children in the West and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey and its relationship with chosen anthropometric measurements. A multistage sampling design that combined multicluster (West Anatolia vs. Central Anatolia regions and rural vs. urban residents) and simple random sampling methods were used for the sample selection. BBL was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
L Vincze, M E Rollo, M J Hutchesson, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: A tailored approach to nutrition and physical activity advice can support women following childbirth in managing barriers (i.e. time and childcare) to making healthy lifestyle changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a personally tailored nutrition and exercise programme for postpartum women delivered via video-consultations by an accredited practising dietitian (APD) and accredited exercise physiologist (AEP)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Hong Wang, Xiao-Bin Ji, Bei Mao, Cheng-Wei Li, Hai-Wen Lu, Jin-Fu Xu
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) occupies an important niche in the pathogenic microbiome of bronchiectasis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of P. aeruginosa in Chinese adult patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: This retrospective and follow-up study enrolled 1188 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2011 and December 2012. The patients' clinical data including anthropometry, clinical symptoms, serum biomarkers, radiographic manifestations and lung function indices were reviewed...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Márcia Aparecida Gonçalves, Bruna Estima Leal, Liseane Gonçalves Lisboa, Michelle Gonçalves de Souza Tavares, Wellington Pereira Yamaguti, Elaine Paulin
OBJECTIVE: To compare diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength between COPD patients with and without thoracic hyperkyphosis; to determine the relationship of thoracic kyphosis angle with diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength in COPD patients; and to compare diaphragmatic mobility and thoracic kyphosis between male and female patients with COPD. METHODS: Participants underwent anthropometry, spirometry, thoracic kyphosis measurement, and evaluation of diaphragmatic mobility...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Jéssica Cumpian-Silva, Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Camila Medeiros da Silva Mazzeti, Wolney Lisboa Conde
The study aims to describe body phenotypes estimated by multivariate technique for the assessment of nutritional status in adolescence during the process of sexual maturation. The sample consisted of 833 schoolchildren 10 to 15 years of age, selected by complex sampling in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Body phenotypes were defined by principal components analysis (PCA) based on anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds, and waist circumference), body composition (phase angle measurement by bioelectric impedance), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total/LDL cholesterol ratio, hemoglobin), and sexual maturation (self-classification of stages of pubic hair and breasts or genitals)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Simona Bertoli, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandra Petruzzi, Alessandro Leone, Ramona De Amicis, Elena Tramacere, Maddalena Meda, Andrea Foppiani, Antonio Silvani, Elena Lamperti
Nutritional status in adults with high-grade gliomas (HGGs) has been poorly investigated. We studied anthropometrics and fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and body water in HGGs patients also in relation to disease-related variables. Fifty-one patients (17 III and 34 IV-grade) and fifty-one control group (CG) matched for sex, age, and BMI were enrolled. Neurological scales, anthropometry, bioimpedance, and blood sampling were performed and analyzed according to grade, lesion location, extent of resection, phase of treatment, current steroids and antiepileptic therapy, and age of patient...
March 14, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Huipeng Chen, David Poulard, Jason Forman, Jeff Crandall, Matthew B Panzer
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluating the biofidelity of pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) using post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) is a challenge as differences in anthropometry between PMHS and PFEM could limit a model's capability to accurately capture cadaveric responses. Geometrical personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match the specific PMHS anthropometry which could alleviate this issue. In this study, the THUMS PFEM (v4.01) was compared to the cadaveric response in vehicle-pedestrian impacts using geometrically personalized models...
March 14, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Adekunle M Adetayo, Olutayo James, Wasiu L Adeyemo, Mobolanle O Ogunlewe, Azeez Butali
Objectives: The unilateral cleft lip (UCL) repair technique has evolved extensively over the past century into its modern form and has been identified as an important determinant of treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare treatment outcomes following repair of UCL using either the Tennison-Randall (triangular) technique or the Millard rotation-advancement technique. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital between January 2013 and July 2014...
February 2018: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Benjamin M Althouse, Mathilde Guerbois, Derek A T Cummings, Ousmane M Diop, Ousmane Faye, Abdourahmane Faye, Diawo Diallo, Bakary Djilocalisse Sadio, Abdourahmane Sow, Oumar Faye, Amadou A Sall, Mawlouth Diallo, Brenda Benefit, Evan Simons, Douglas M Watts, Scott C Weaver, Kathryn A Hanley
Arboviruses spillover into humans either as a one-step jump from a reservoir host species into humans or as a two-step jump from the reservoir to an amplification host species and thence to humans. Little is known about arbovirus transmission dynamics in reservoir and amplification hosts. Here we elucidate the role of monkeys in the sylvatic, enzootic cycle of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the region around Kédougou, Senegal. Over 3 years, 737 monkeys were captured, aged using anthropometry and dentition, and tested for exposure to CHIKV by detection of neutralizing antibodies...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Melissa Ventura Marra, Sowmyanarayanan V Thuppal, Elizabeth J Johnson, Regan L Bailey
Proactive nutrition screening is an effective public health strategy for identifying and targeting individuals who could benefit from making dietary improvements for primary and secondary prevention of disease. The Dietary Screening Tool (DST) was developed and validated to assess nutritional risk among rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and validity of the DST to identify nutritional risk in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study in middle-aged adults (45-64 year olds, n = 87) who reside in Appalachia, examined nutritional status using an online health survey, biochemical measures, anthropometry, and three representative 24-h dietary recalls...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Laura Morlacchi, Paola Roggero, Maria Lorella Giannì, Beatrice Bracco, Debora Porri, Enrico Battiato, Camilla Menis, Nadia Liotto, Domenica Mallardi, Fabio Mosca
Background: Nutritional management of preterm infants aims to approximate the tissue growth and body composition of a fetus of the same postmenstrual age. The adequacy of the quality of protein supply can influence the rate and the relative quality of weight gain. Objective: We investigated the protein balance according to feeding regimen and the association between human milk feeding and fat-free mass content at the term-corrected age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jessica G Woo, Heidi Sucharew, Weiji Su, Philip R Khoury, Stephen R Daniels, Heidi J Kalkwarf
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how infant weigh and length growth trajectories associate with body composition at 3 and 7 years because previous studies have noted that rapid infant weight gain increases risk for high body mass index (BMI) in children. STUDY DESIGN: There were 322 children enrolled at 3 years of age with dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition data and pediatrician growth data for 0-2 years of age who were included in analysis. Superimposition by translation and rotation modeling was used to characterize infant weight and length trajectories in terms of size, tempo and velocity measures...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Shaji C Menon, Ragheed Al-Dulaimi, Brian W McCrindle, David J Goldberg, Ritu Sachdeva, Bryan H Goldstein, Thomas Seery, Karen C Uzark, Anjali Chelliah, Ryan Butts, Heather Henderson, Tiffanie Johnson, Richard V Williams
INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate the prevalence of delayed puberty and abnormal anthropometry and its association with quality of life (QoL) in young Fontan survivors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study at 11 Pediatric Heart Network centers. Demographic and clinical data, anthropomety, and Tanner stage were collected. Anthropometric measurements and pubertal stage were compared to US norms. QoL was assessed using Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (PedsQL)...
March 9, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Shu Hwa Ong, Winnie Siew Swee Chee, L Mageswary Lapchmanan, Shan Ni Ong, Zhi Chin Lua, Jowynna Xia-Ni Yeo
Background: Early detection of malnutrition in hospitalized children helps reduce length of hospital stay and morbidity. A validated nutrition tool is essential to correctly identify children at risk of malnutrition or who are already malnourished. This study compared the use of the Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA, nutrition assessment tool) and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP, nutrition screening tool) with objective nutritional parameters to identify malnutrition in hospitalized children...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Aline Kirjner Poziomyck, Oly Campos Corleta, Leandro Totti Cavazzola, Antonio Carlos Weston, Edson Braga Lameu, Luisa Jussara Coelho, Luis Fernando Moreira
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is very prevalent in patients with gastric cancer and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT) appears as an important objective, quick, inexpensive and noninvasive measure to assess the muscle compartment. AIM: To compare APMT and other nutritional assessment methods and to correlate these methods with postoperative mortality. METHODS: Forty-four patients, 29 men and 15 women, mean age of 63±10...
March 1, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Rona Antoni, Kelly L Johnston, Adam L Collins, M Denise Robertson
The intermittent energy restriction (IER) approach to weight loss involves short periods of substantial (>70 %) energy restriction (ER) interspersed with normal eating. Studies to date comparing IER to continuous energy restriction (CER) have predominantly measured fasting indices of cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to compare the effects of IER and CER on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism following matched weight loss. In all, twenty-seven (thirteen male) overweight/obese participants (46 (sem 3) years, 30·1 (sem 1·0) kg/m2) who were randomised to either an IER intervention (2638 kJ for 2 d/week with an overall ER of 22 (sem 0·3) %, n 15) or a CER intervention (2510 kJ below requirements with overall ER of 23 (sem 0·8) %) completed the study...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Abraham S Meijnikman, Christophe E M De Block, An Verrijken, Ilse Mertens, Luc F Van Gaal
Background: The aim of this study to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) with the FINDRISC score to screen for type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM in an overweight/obese population. Methods: Subjects 18 years or older visiting the obesity clinic of the Antwerp University Hospital were consecutively recruited between 2012 and 2014. Every patient underwent a standard metabolic work-up including a clinical examination with anthropometry. Glucose status was tested using OGTT and Hba1c...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
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