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Salival gland

J Papinska, H Bagavant, G B Gmyrek, M Sroka, S Tummala, K A Fitzgerald, U S Deshmukh
Sjögren syndrome (SS), a chronic autoimmune disorder causing dry mouth, adversely affects the overall oral health in patients. Activation of innate immune responses and excessive production of type I interferons (IFNs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Recognition of nucleic acids by cytosolic nucleic acid sensors is a major trigger for the induction of type I IFNs. Upon activation, cytosolic DNA sensors can interact with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein, and activation of STING causes increased expression of type I IFNs...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
I M Bykov, E V Izhnina, E V Kochurova, N V Lapina
The radiation has an antitumor effect and causes radiation reactions and damage to surrounding tissues within the framework of combined antitumor treatment of patients with cancer of maxillofacial region. It also has an irreversible effect on the production of saliva by large and small salivary glands, and this must be taken into account when planning radiation therapy for this group of patients.
2018: Stomatologii︠a︡
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Raghupatil Junjappa, Mallikarjun Handigund, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
Xerostomia is a state of oral dryness associated with salivary gland dysfunction and is induced by stress, radiation and chemical therapy, various systemic and autoimmune diseases, and specific medications. Fluid secretion is interrupted by the stimulation of neurotransmitter-induced increase in cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in salivary gland acinar cells, prompting the mobilization of ion channels and their transporters. Salivary fluid and protein secretion are principally dependent on parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves...
February 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Elías Vera-Sigüenza, Marcelo A Catalán, Gaspar Peña-Münzenmayer, James E Melvin, James Sneyd
We develop a mathematical model of a salivary gland acinar cell with the objective of investigating the role of two [Formula: see text] exchangers from the solute carrier family 4 (Slc4), Ae2 (Slc4a2) and Ae4 (Slc4a9), in fluid secretion. Water transport in this type of cell is predominantly driven by [Formula: see text] movement. Here, a basolateral [Formula: see text] adenosine triphosphatase pump (NaK-ATPase) and a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] cotransporter (Nkcc1) are primarily responsible for concentrating the intracellular space with [Formula: see text] well above its equilibrium potential...
February 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Sandra Derouiche, Yasunori Takayama, Masataka Murakami, Makoto Tominaga
Several ion channels and transporters regulate fluid secretion in salivary and lacrimal glands. In salivary glands, the major anion channel involved in fluid secretion is the calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1). Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily regulate ANO1 activity. Here, we report a functional interaction between thermosensitive TRP vanilloid (TRPV)4 and ANO1 in acinar cells isolated from mouse salivary and lacrimal glands. TRPV4 activation induced chloride currents and shrinkage of acinar cells by increasing intracellular calcium concentrations...
January 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Abeer Shaalan, Guy Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland (SG) injurious agents are all translated into loss of salivation (xerostomia). An association has been established between activation of innate immunity and salivary gland injury and dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how the secretory epithelia respond by halting saliva production. METHODS: C57BL/6 submandibular glands (SMGs) were acutely challenged using a single dose of the innate immune stimulant: polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C))...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Božana Lončar Brzak, Livia Cigić, Marinka Baričević, Ivan Sabol, Marinka Mravak-Stipetić, Dubravko Risović
AIM: Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy has proved to be effective for a wide range of oral pathologies including oral dryness, but the literature still lacks reports of clinical trials and protocols. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of different wavelengths of PBM on salivation in patients suffering from hyposalivation aiming at determination of optimal treatment protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 30 patients whose major salivary glands were treated with low-intensity diode laser BTL2000 (Medical Technologies, s...
October 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Nirav R Shah, Braxton D Noll, Craig B Stevens, Michael T Brennan, Farah B Mougeot, Jean-Luc C Mougeot
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) shares many clinical and pathological similarities with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These autoimmune diseases mostly affect women. In this study, concept profile analysis (CPA) and gene expression meta-analysis were used to identify genes potentially involved in SS pathogenesis. METHODS: Human genes associated with SS, SLE, and RA were identified using the CPA tool, Anni 2.1. The differential mRNA expression of genes common to SS and SLE (SS-SLE) was determined in female peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using NCBI-GEO2R...
August 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Kashi Raj Bhattarai, Sang-Won Lee, Seung Hyun Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Han-Jung Chae
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract to improve the salivation rate in dry mouth induced by diabetes. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD extract to determine the effects of IXD on salivation. During the study, we observed that IXD extract treatment increased the salivary flow rate in diabetic rats. The expression of α-amylase was increased significantly in both saliva and glandular tissue lysates of IXD-treated diabetic rats...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
Jan A Veenstra
The salivary gland salivation stimulating peptide was identified from the salivary glands of the migratory locust by its ability to stimulate cAMP production in the same tissue. The gene coding for this peptide has recently been identified and been shown to code for a precursor consisting of a signal peptide, several copies of the peptide separated by Lys-Arg doublets and a few other peptides. These data are consistent with it being a neuropeptide. However, antiserum raised to this peptide labels the acini of the salivary glands while RT-PCR only gives positive results in the salivary gland, but not in any ganglion of the central nervous system...
2017: PeerJ
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Marcelo Febo, Bruce Steinberg, Thomas McLaughlin, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The principal vector of Lyme disease in the United States is Ixodes scapularis: black legged or deer ticks. There is increased evidence that those infected may be plagued by anxiety or depression as well. Researchers have identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks, which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. It is hypothesized that protracted Lyme disease sequelae may be due to impairment of dopaminergic function of the brain reward circuitry. The subsequent recombinant proteins exhibited sulfotransferase function against two neurotransmitters: dopamine and octopamine...
May 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
Z A Zalyalova
Salivation after stroke (sialorrhea, hypersalivation, ptyalism) can be caused by the overproduction or a lack of utilization of saliva. Patients after stroke often have sialorrhea as a result of dysphagia. Neurogenic dysphagia in acute period after stroke occurs in 25-65% of patients. The mortality rate among people with post-stroke dysphagia and tube feeding ranges from 20 to 24%. Patients who suffering from profuse salivation have difficulties with articulation and swallowing, bad breath, irritation and maceration of perioral area, contamination of clothing and bed linen...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Mei Zeng, Mitchell Szymczak, Malini Ahuja, Changyu Zheng, Hongen Yin, William Swaim, John A Chiorini, Robert J Bridges, Shmuel Muallem
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune pancreatitis are disorders with decreased function of salivary, lacrimal glands, and the exocrine pancreas. Nonobese diabetic/ShiLTJ mice and mice transduced with the cytokine BMP6 develop Sjögren's syndrome and chronic pancreatitis and MRL/Mp mice are models of autoimmune pancreatitis. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a ductal Cl(-) channel essential for ductal fluid and HCO3(-) secretion. We used these models to ask the following questions: is CFTR expression altered in these diseases, does correction of CFTR correct gland function, and most notably, does correcting ductal function correct acinar function? METHODS: We treated the mice models with the CFTR corrector C18 and the potentiator VX770...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
Jitjiroj Ittichaicharoen, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Pongpan Tanajak, Piangkwan Sa-Nguanmoo, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks...
April 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
María Costales-Marcos, Fernando López Álvarez, Laura Fernández-Vañes, Justo Gómez, José Luis Llorente
First bite syndrome is a potential complication of surgery involving the infratemporal fossa, deep lobe of the parotid gland and parapharyngeal space. It is described as an acute and intense pain in the parotid region caused with the first bite of each meal. It is related to damage to sympathetic innervation of the parotid gland. Parasympathetic hyperactivation is believed to stimulate an exaggerated myoepithelial cell contraction causing pain. Usual analgesic treatments have poor results. Botulinum toxin type A causes parasympathetic nerve paralysis of the parotid gland and this fact would minimize salivation and decrease first bite syndrome...
September 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
X Cong, Y Zhang, Q H He, T Wei, X M Zhang, J Z Zhang, R L Xiang, G Y Yu, L L Wu
Blood vessels provide the original supplies for the formation of primary saliva, which is regulated by the tight junctions (TJs) between endothelial cells. Previous studies have shown that blood flow increases with vasodilatation during cholinergic-evoked salivation. However, changes in vascular paracellular permeability and the role of endothelial TJs in salivation are unknown. Here, we established an in vivo paracellular permeability detection system and observed that the endothelial TJs were permeable to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran while impermeable to 40- and 70-kDa FITC-dextran under an unstimulated condition in mouse submandibular glands (SMGs)...
May 2017: Journal of Dental Research
Fernando N Nogueira, Rui A Carvalho
The metabolic profile of major salivary glands was evaluated by (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance isotopomer analysis ((13) C NMR-IA) following the infusion of [U-(13) C]glucose in order to define the true metabolic character of submandibular (SM) and parotid (PA) glands at rest and during salivary stimulation, and to determine the metabolic remodeling driven by diabetes. In healthy conditions, the SM gland is characterized at rest by a glycolytic metabolic profile and extensive pyruvate cycling. On the contrary, the PA gland, although also dominated by glycolysis, also possesses significant Krebs' cycle activity and does not sustain extensive pyruvate cycling...
December 26, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Jeong-Seok Choi, Hye-Young An, Hyun-Soo Shin, Young-Mo Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
The present study was conducted to introduce the use of a delivery carrier for local transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) into the salivary gland (SG) and analyze its ability to enhance radioprotection of AdMSCs against irradiation (IR)-induced damage. An injectable porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) matrix was used as a cell delivery carrier and human AdMSCs were contained within SIS hydrogel (AdMSC/SIS). After local injection into SGs of mice following local IR, morphological and functional changes were evaluated in the sham, vehicle (PBS), SIS, AdMSC, and AdMSC/SIS groups...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
X M Zhang, L L Wu, G Y Yu, Y Zhang
Submandibular gland is innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, both of which work synergistically to promote the salivation of the glands. However, denervation does not always produce an inhibitive effect. Regeneration secretion was put forward to describe the situation in which the glands after denervation were found to be supersensitive to the stimulation of several agonists of saliva secretion-related receptors. It is of clinical significance to get a good understanding of the secretory mechanism changes in the autonomically denervated submandibular gland...
November 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Ademar Francisco de Oliveira, Gêssyca Adryene de Menezes Silva, Débora Milenna Xavier Almeida
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the central nervous system cells that control voluntary muscle movements. The excessive salivation (sialorrhea) is present in approximately 50% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases. Thus, some alternative therapeutic methods are sought, such as anticholinergic drugs and surgery. Recently the use of botulinum toxin applied at a midpoint of the salivary glands, often guided by ultrasound, have demonstrated positive results...
July 2016: Einstein
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