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cathepsin d

K Ferenc, P Pietrzak, M Wierzbicka, P Matyba, E Grzesiuk, Z Gajewski, R Zabielski
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) leads to increased predisposition to metabolic syndrome in adult life but the mechanisms remain obscure. Considering a significant number of functional similarities, IUGR piglets appear to be a good model to study the development of this syndrome in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure and proteomic profile of the liver in IUGR pig neonates to discover early markers of predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance. In our study intestine and liver tissue samples were investigated in 7 day old IUGR and normal body weight (NBW) littermate piglets using histometry, mass spectrometry, in-tissue cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Tetsuya Itabashi, Yasunobu Arima, Daisuke Kamimura, Kotaro Higuchi, Yoshio Bando, Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga, Masaaki Murakami, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Junko Nio-Kobayashi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which pathogenic T cells play an important role, and an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is used as an animal model of MS. Galectins are β-galactoside-binding lectins and involved in various physiological and pathological events. Among fifteen members of galectins, galectin-1, -8, and -9 play immunosuppressive roles in MS and EAE; however, the role of galectin-3 (gal-3) is complex and controversial. We examined expression of gal-3 in the spinal cord and nerve roots of EAE mice...
June 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
C Gebhard, F Maafi, B E Stähli, J Dang, W Nachar, A B de Oliveira Moraes, A E Kernaleguen, V Lavoie, M Mecteau, T Mihalache-Avram, Y Shi, M Chabot-Blanchet, D Busseuil, D Rhainds, E Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif
Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. Therapy based on apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins, results in AVS regression in experimental models. Nevertheless, apoA-I degradation by proteases might lead to suboptimal efficacy of such therapy. An activatable probe using a quenched fluorescently labeled full-length apoA-I protein was generated to assess apoA-I-degrading protease activity in plasma derived from 44 men and 20 women with severe AVS (age 65...
June 18, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Y Ge, Y-M Cai, L Bonneau, V Rotari, A Danon, E A McKenzie, H McLellan, L Mach, P Gallois
We thank D Nicholson for initial advice on caspase activity purification and B Turk for advice on recombinant cathepsin B. We thank N Atanasova for cell death assays. The Bioimaging Facility microscopes used in this study were purchased with grants from BBSRC, Wellcome Trust and the University of Manchester Strategic Fund. Special thanks go to D Knight in the Faculty Biomolecular Analysis facility. We thank P Birch and M Kim for improving the manuscript. The project was partially funded by BBSRC Grants 34/P14516, BB/K009478/1 and China National High-Tech Research and Development Programme(863 programme)NO...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Torsten Gordh, Anne-Li Lind, Constantin Bodolea, Ellen Hewitt, Anders Larsson
Aims Cathepsin S has been reported to be a biomarker of spinal microglial activation, a process suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of chronic neuropathic pain. So far this has been shown only in animal experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of cathepsin S in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a well-defined patient cohort suffering from neuropathic pain as compared to controls. Methods CSF samples from patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain (n = 14) were analyzed for cathepsin S levels using commercial sandwich ELISAs (DY1183, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Madhukar Mittal, Rajeev Verma, Arvind Mishra, Ajay Singh, Vivek Kumar, K K Sawlani, M Kaleem Ahmad, Pratishtha Mishra, Rishika Gaur
Background: Homocysteine (HCY) interferes with collagen cross-linking in bones and stimulates osteoclast activity. The activated osteoclasts secrete cathepsin K (CathK), a cysteine protease, in eminent quantity during bone resorption. Hyperhomocysteinemia may effect bone mineral density (BMD) through CathK. We, therefore, examined the relation between HCY and BMD along with CathK, 25-hydroxyvit-D (25[OH]D), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and Vitamin B12. Materials and Methods: We recruited a total of 93 postmenopausal women between the age group of 45-60 years, attending the Endocrinology outpatient department at King George's Medical University, Lucknow...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd P McMahon, A Denise R Garcia, Bettina Winckler
Neurons are large and long lived, creating high needs for regulating protein turnover. Disturbances in proteostasis lead to aggregates and cellular stress. We characterized the behavior of the short-lived dendritic membrane proteins Nsg1 and Nsg2 to determine whether these proteins are degraded locally in dendrites or centrally in the soma. We discovered a spatial heterogeneity of endolysosomal compartments in dendrites. Early EEA1-positive and late Rab7-positive endosomes are found throughout dendrites, whereas the density of degradative LAMP1- and cathepsin (Cat) B/D-positive lysosomes decreases steeply past the proximal segment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Takashi Hashimoto, Jordan D Rosen, Kristen M Sanders, Gil Yosipovitch
Basophils are blood granulocytes and normally constitute less than 1% of blood peripheral leukocytes. Basophils share some morphological and functional similarities with mast cells, and basophils were once regarded as redundant and negligible circulating mast cells. However, recent studies reveal the indispensable roles of basophils in various diseases, including allergic and pruritic diseases. Basophils may be involved in itch through the mediation of a Th2 immune response, interaction with other cells in the skin, and secretion of a wide variety of itch-related mediators, e...
June 12, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Inés Moreno-Jiménez, Stuart A Lanham, Janos M Kanczler, Gry Hulsart-Billstrom, Nicholas D Evans, Richard O C Oreffo
Traditionally used as an angiogenic assay, the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay of the chick embryo offers significant potential as an in vivo model for xenograft organ-culture. Viable human bone can be cultivated on the CAM and increases in bone volume are evident, however, it remains unclear by what mechanism this change occurs and whether this reflects the physiological process of bone remodelling. In this study we tested the hypothesis that CAM-induced bone remodelling is a consequence of host and graft mediated processes...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Ho Yeon Kim, Hye Sung Baek
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the changes in the circulating levels of cathepsin B and D in pregnancy. We obtained longitudinal cathepsin B and D levels in 76 healthy pregnant women in the first and third trimesters and compared these levels with 20 non-pregnant controls. The plasma levels of soluble cathepsin B and D were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The cathepsin D concentrations in the third trimester were significantly higher than that in the first trimester (p < ...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ehrhardt Proksch
The pH plays an important physiological role in nature and humans. pH varies from 1 to 8 in human organs with tight regulation in blood and epithelia of barrier organs. The physiological pH of the stratum corneum is 4.1-5.8 and several mechanisms contribute to its formation: filaggrin degradation, fatty acid content, sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE1) activation and melanosome release. First, the acidic pH of the stratum corneum was considered to present an antimicrobial barrier preventing colonization (e.g. by Staphylococcus aureus and Malassezia)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Ciara Whitty, R John Wardale, Frances M D Henson
Sclerostin is a clinically important protein with key functions in the musculoskeletal system playing a key role in bone formation and remodelling. Whilst a wide range of mechanisms have been identified which regulate sclerostin expression, little is known about the degradation of the protein. The aim of this study was to identify enzymes capable of degrading sclerostin in peridontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts cells in vitro and to investigate the functionality of these enzymes. We have demonstrated that cathepsin K cleaves sclerostin in vitro in PDL...
May 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Daniela Braconi, Daniela Giustarini, Barbara Marzocchi, Luana Peruzzi, Maria Margollicci, Ranieri Rossi, Giulia Bernardini, Lia Millucci, James A Gallagher, Kim-Hanh Le Quan Sang, Richard Imrich, Joseph Rovensky, Mohammed Al-Sbou, Lakshminarayan R Ranganath, Annalisa Santucci
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to assess baseline serum levels of established biomarkers related to inflammation and oxidative stress in samples from alkaptonuric subjects enrolled in SONIA1 (n=40) and SONIA2 (n=138) clinical trials (DevelopAKUre project). METHODS: Baseline serum levels of Serum Amyloid A (SAA), IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα, CRP, cathepsin D (CATD), IL-1ra, and MMP-3 were determined through commercial ELISA assays. Chitotriosidase activity was assessed through a fluorimetric method...
May 28, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Nathania J Leong, Dharmini Mehta, Victoria M McLeod, Brian D Kelly, Rashmi Pathak, David J Owen, Christopher Jh Porter, Lisa M Kaminskas
PEGylated polylysine dendrimers have demonstrated potential as inhalable drug delivery systems that can improve the treatment of lung cancers. Their treatment potential may be enhanced by developing constructs that display prolonged lung retention, together with good systemic absorption, the capacity to passively target lung tumours from the blood and highly selective, yet rapid liberation in the tumour microenvironment. This study sought to characterise how the nature of cathepsin B cleavable peptide linkers, used to conjugate doxorubicin to a PEGylated (PEG570) G4 polylysine dendrimer, affect drug liberation kinetics and intravenous and pulmonary pharmacokinetics in rats...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
André C Pimentel, Ignacio G Barroso, Jéssica M J Ferreira, Renata O Dias, Clélia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Until now there is no molecular model of starch digestion and absorption of the resulting glucose molecules along the larval midgut of Musca domestica. For addressing to this, we used RNA-seq analyses from seven sections of the midgut and carcass to evaluate the expression level of the genes coding for amylases, maltases and sugar transporters (SP). An amylase related protein (Amyrel) and two amylase sequences, one soluble and one with a predicted GPI-anchor, were identified. Three highly expressed maltase genes were correlated with biochemically characterized maltases: one soluble, other glycocalyx-associated, and another membrane-bound...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Lihong Ge, Yanshun Xu, Wenshui Xia, Qixing Jiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the differential role of cathepsin B, L, D and calpain in degradation and disassembly of myofilament. Myofibrillar protein of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was incubated with proteases monotonously, simultaneously or sequentially. Subsequently, protein degradation were detected using SDS-PAGE and myofilament disassembly induced by changes of non-covalent interactions were measured through SDS-PAGE using l-Ethyl-3-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl) Carbodiimide (EDC) as a zero length cross-linker...
July 2018: Food Research International
R V Ayana Gayathri, D A Evans
Exposure of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to hypothermia or hyperthermia in relation to ecological temperature has resulted in alteration of enzyme activities related to maintenance of free amino acid pool and protein degradation. Sudden changes in water temperature have led to elevation of protein content particularly in molecular weight between 66 and 97.4 kDa. MALDI TOF analysis revealed the presence of putative uncharacterized protein and Phospholipase A2 activating protein in larvae subjected to 40°C for 1 hour which was not found in control and other temperature treated larvae...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Nao Nishida, Yoshihiro Aiba, Yuki Hitomi, Minae Kawashima, Kaname Kojima, Yosuke Kawai, Kazuko Ueno, Hitomi Nakamura, Noriyo Yamashiki, Tomohiro Tanaka, Sumito Tamura, Akira Mori, Shintaro Yagi, Yuji Soejima, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Atsushi Tanaka, Kenichi Harada, Shinji Shimoda, Atsumasa Komori, Susumu Eguchi, Yoshihiko Maehara, Shinji Uemoto, Norihiro Kokudo, Masao Nagasaki, Katsushi Tokunaga, Minoru Nakamura
Approximately 10-20% of patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) progress to jaundice stage regardless of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid and bezafibrate. In this study, we performed a GWAS and a replication study to identify genetic variants associated with jaundice-stage progression in PBC using a total of 1,375 patients (1,202 early-stage and 173 jaundice-stage) in a Japanese population. SNP rs13720, which is located in the 3'UTR of cathepsin Z (CTSZ), showed the strongest association (odds ratio [OR] = 2...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hamish Dc Bain, Yvonne S Davidson, Andrew C Robinson, Sarah Ryan, Sara Rollinson, Anna Richardson, Matthew Jones, Julie S Snowden, Stuart Pickering-Brown, David M A Mann
INTRODUCTION: Cell biological and genetic evidence implicates failures in degrading aggregating proteins, such as tau and TDP-43, through autophagy or lysosomal pathways in the pathogenesis of Frontotemporal Lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: We investigated changes in degradative pathways in 60 patients with different pathological or genetic forms of FTLD employing immunohistochemistry for marker proteins such as Lysosomal Associated Membrane Proteins 1 (LAMP-1) and 2 (LAMP-2), Cathepsin D (CTSD) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3A)...
May 23, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Kerri J Grove, Nichole M Lareau, Paul A Voziyan, Fenghua Zeng, Raymond C Harris, Billy G Hudson, Richard M Caprioli
Albumin degradation in the renal tubules is impaired in diabetic nephropathy such that levels of the resulting albumin fragments increase with the degree of renal injury. However, the mechanism of albumin degradation is unknown. In particular, fragmentation of the endogenous native albumin has not been demonstrated in the kidney and the enzymes that may contribute to fragmentation have not been identified. To explore this we utilized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry for molecular profiling of specific renal regions without disturbing distinct tissue morphology...
May 17, 2018: Kidney International
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