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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336537/muscle-specific-and-age-related-changes-in-protein-synthesis-and-protein-degradation-in-response-to-hindlimb-unloading-in-rats
#1
Leslie M Baehr, Daniel W D West, Andrea G Marshall, George R Marcotte, Keith Baar, Sue C Bodine
Disuse is a potent inducer of muscle atrophy, but the molecular mechanisms driving this loss of muscle mass are highly debated. In particular, the extent to which disuse triggers decreases in protein synthesis or increases in protein degradation, and whether these changes are uniform across muscles or influenced by age is unclear. We aimed to determine the impact of disuse on protein synthesis and protein degradation in lower limb muscles of varied function and fiber type in adult and old rats. Alterations in protein synthesis and degradation were measured in the soleus, medial gastrocnemius (MG), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of adult and old rats subjected to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 3, 7 or 14 days...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336215/association-of-increased-levels-of-mcp-1-and-cathepsin-d-in-young-onset-type-2-diabetes-patients-t2dm-y-with-severity-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Sruthi Reddy, Anandakumar Amutha, Ramachandran Rajalakshmi, Regin Bhaskaran, Finny Monickaraj, Sampathkumar Rangasamy, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Shiny Abhijit, Kuppan Gokulakrishnan, Arup Das, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
AIM: Young onset type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM-Y) have been shown to possess an increased risk of developing microvascular complications particularly diabetic retinopathy. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the serum levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and cathepsin-D in patients with T2DM-Y without and with diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: In this case-control study, participants comprised individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT=40), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM=35), non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR=35) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR=35)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331761/association-of-icam-1-vcam-1-cyclin-d1-and-cathepsin-d-with-clinicopathological-parameters-in-breast-carcinoma-an-immunohistochemical-study
#3
Özgür Külahcı, H Hasan Esen, Elife Asut, Salim Güngör
OBJECTIVE: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor detected in women. The hypothesis that increased levels of adhesion molecules and Cathepsin D affect cancerous cells moving away the primary tumor and contributes to migration of the cancerous cell and may cause remote organ metastases is defended. The aim of the present study was to search the association of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), Cyclin D1, cathepsin D immunohistochemically with clinicopathological parameters in the patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast carcinoma...
January 2017: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327633/cardiac-drug-drug-interaction-between-hcv-ns5b-pronucleotide-inhibitors-and-amiodarone-is-determined-by-their-specific-diastereochemistry
#4
Armando Lagrutta, Christopher P Regan, Haoyu Zeng, John P Imredy, Kenneth Koeplinger, Pierre Morissette, Liping Liu, Gordon Wollenberg, Christopher Brynczka, José Lebrón, Joseph DeGeorge, Frederick Sannajust
Severe bradycardia/bradyarrhythmia following coadministration of the HCV-NS5B prodrug sofosbuvir with amiodarone was recently reported. Our previous preclinical in vivo experiments demonstrated that only certain HCV-NS5B prodrugs elicit bradycardia when combined with amiodarone. In this study, we evaluate the impact of HCV-NS5B prodrug phosphoramidate diastereochemistry (D-/L-alanine, R-/S-phosphoryl) in vitro and in vivo. Co-applied with amiodarone, L-ala,SP prodrugs increased beating rate and decreased beat amplitude in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), but D-ala,RP produgs, including MK-3682, did not...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319050/extracellular-matrix-proteomics-identifies-molecular-signature-of-symptomatic-carotid-plaques
#5
Sarah R Langley, Karin Willeit, Athanasios Didangelos, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Philipp Skroblin, Javier Barallobre-Barreiro, Mariette Lengquist, Gregor Rungger, Alexander Kapustin, Ludmilla Kedenko, Chris Molenaar, Ruifang Lu, Temo Barwari, Gonca Suna, Xiaoke Yin, Bernhard Iglseder, Bernhard Paulweber, Peter Willeit, Joseph Shalhoub, Gerard Pasterkamp, Alun H Davies, Claudia Monaco, Ulf Hedin, Catherine M Shanahan, Johann Willeit, Stefan Kiechl, Manuel Mayr
BACKGROUND: The identification of patients with high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to the manifestation of clinical events remains challenging. Recent findings question histology- and imaging-based definitions of the "vulnerable plaque," necessitating an improved approach for predicting onset of symptoms. METHODS: We performed a proteomics comparison of the vascular extracellular matrix and associated molecules in human carotid endarterectomy specimens from 6 symptomatic versus 6 asymptomatic patients to identify a protein signature for high-risk atherosclerotic plaques...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317806/mycobacterium-lepraemurium-uses-tlr-6-and-mr-but-not-lipid-rafts-or-dc-sign-to-gain-access-into-mouse-macrophages
#6
Mayra Silva-Miranda, Patricia Arce-Paredes, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), the etiologic agent of murine leprosy, is an intracellular parasite of macrophages; the mechanism used by this bacterium to enter macrophages is not known. The fate of the MLM phagosome inside macrophages is also unknown. This study was conducted to investigate how MLM enters macrophages and to define the maturation process of MLM phagosome inside macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were incubated in the presence of mannan-bovine serum albumin (BSA), and antibodies to known macrophage receptors, including, anti-FcγRIII/RII (anti-CD16/32), anti-CD35 (anti-CR1), anti-TLR2, anti-TLR4, anti-TLR6, anti-CD14, and anti-dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317223/cancer-with-low-cathepsin-d-levels-is-susceptible-to-v-atpase-inhibition
#7
Satoshi Kitazawa, Satoru Nishizawa, Hideyuki Nakagawa, Masaaki Funata, Kazuho Nishimura, Tomoyoshi Soga, Takahito Hara
Vacuolar (H(+) )-ATPases (V-ATPases) have important roles in the supply of nutrients to tumors by mediating autophagy and the endocytic uptake of extracellular fluids. Accordingly, V-ATPases are attractive therapeutic targets for cancer. However, the clinical use of V-ATPase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has not been realized, possibly owing to their high toxicity in humans. V-ATPase inhibition may be an appropriate strategy in highly susceptible cancers. In this study, we explored markers of V-ATPase inhibitor sensitivity...
March 19, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315458/cyperus-rotundus-l-extract-suppresses-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-through-nfatc1-c-fos-downregulation-and-prevent-bone-loss-in-ovx-induced-osteoporosis-rat
#8
Chang-Jun Kum, Eun-Young Kim, Jae-Hyun Kim, Bina Lee, Ju-Hee Min, Jun Heo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Mijung Yeom, Youngjoo Sohn, Hyuk-Sang Jung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cyperus Rotundus L. (CyR) has been widely used for the treatment of gynecologic disorder. Recent studies have reported that CyR can prevent the formation of cystic follicles and ovarian malfunction. However, the effects of CyR on osteoclastogenesis and postmenopausal osteoporosis remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to investigate the preventive effects of CyR on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306170/impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-on-platelet-gene-expression
#9
Waldemar E Wysokinski, Alfonso Tafur, Naser Ammash, Samuel J Asirvatham, Yanhong Wu, Izabella Gosk-Bierska, Diane E Grill, Joshua P Slusser, Jozef Mruk, Robert D McBane
AIMS: Platelets retain cytoplasmic messenger RNA and are capable of protein biosynthesis. Several diseases are known to impact the platelet transcriptome but the effect of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) on platelet RNA transcript is essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of NVAF on platelet RNA transcript by measuring platelet genes expression in consecutive NVAF patients before and 3-4 months after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and compared to normal sinus rhythm controls (NSR)...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302486/mitochondria-are-devoid-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-a%C3%AE-producing-secretases-evidence-for-unlikely-occurrence-within-mitochondria-of-a%C3%AE-generation-from-amyloid-precursor-protein
#10
Naomi Mamada, Daisuke Tanokashira, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka, Wataru Araki
Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which plays a central role in AD pathogenesis, is reported to accumulate within mitochondria. However, a question remains as to whether Aβ is generated locally from amyloid precursor protein (APP) within mitochondria. We investigated this issue by analyzing the expression patterns of APP, APP-processing secretases, and APP metabolites in mitochondria separated from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and those expressing Swedish mutant APP...
March 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282380/oral-delivery-of-double-stranded-rnas-induces-mortality-in-nymphs-and-adults-of-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri
#11
Diogo Manzano Galdeano, Michèle Claire Breton, João Roberto Spotti Lopes, Bryce W Falk, Marcos Antonio Machado
The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most important citrus pests. ACP is the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter americanus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agents of the devastating citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB). The management of HLB is based on the use of healthy young plants, eradication of infected plants and chemical control of the vector. RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a promising tool to control pests and explore gene functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274595/interdependence-of-thyroglobulin-processing-and-thyroid-hormone-export-in-the-mouse-thyroid-gland
#12
Jonas Weber, Joseph McInnes, Cise Kizilirmak, Maren Rehders, Maria Qatato, Eva K Wirth, Ulrich Schweizer, Francois Verrey, Heike Heuer, Klaudia Brix
Thyroid hormone (TH) target cells need to adopt mechanisms to maintain sufficient levels of TH to ensure regular functions. This includes thyroid epithelial cells, which generate TH in addition to being TH-responsive. However, the cellular and molecular pathways underlying thyroid auto-regulation are insufficiently understood. In order to investigate whether thyroglobulin processing and TH export are sensed by thyrocytes, we inactivated thyroglobulin-processing cathepsins and TH-exporting monocarboxylate transporters (Mct) in the mouse...
March 5, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267460/population-associated-heterogeneity-of-the-digestive-cys-protease-complement-in-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#13
Asieh Rasoolizadeh, Marie-Claire Goulet, Jean-Frédéric Guay, Conrad Cloutier, Dominique Michaud
Herbivorous insects use complex protease complements to process plant proteins, useful to adjust their digestive functions to the plant diet and to elude the antidigestive effects of dietary protease inhibitors. We here assessed whether basic profiles and diet-related adjustments of the midgut protease complement may vary among populations of the insect herbivore Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Two laboratory colonies of this insect were used as models, derived from insect samples collected in potato fields ∼1200km distant from each other in North America...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263538/progressive-increase-of-lysosomal-enzyme-activities-in-hippocampus-associated-with-reduction-of-population-spike-in-a-rat-model-of-neurodegeneration
#14
Veronika Stara, Jana Navarova, Eduard Ujhazy, Zdenka Gasparova
OBJECTIVES: Extensive effort has been made to identify early markers of neurodegeneration as late stages have no chance of treatment. Recently, many experimental models have been used to study hallmarks of neuronal injury. One of them is the model of trimethyltin (TMT)-induced damage associated with cognitive decline, thus called a model of Alzheimer-like disease. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Our aim was to study neuronal transmission in hippocampal slices of male Wistar rats affected with a single dose of TMT (7...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262464/assessment-of-cathepsin-mrna-expression-and-enzymatic-activity-during-early-embryonic-development-in-the-yellowtail-kingfish-seriola-lalandi
#15
Jaime Palomino, Giannina Herrera, Jorge Torres-Fuentes, Phillip Dettleff, Alok Patel, Víctor Martínez
In pelagic species such as Seriola lalandi, survival of both the eggs and embryos depends on yolk processing during oocyte maturation and embryo development. The main enzymes involved in these processes are the cathepsins, which are essential for the hydration process, acquiring buoyancy and nutrition of the embryo before hatching. This study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression profiles of cathepsins B, D and L (catb, catd and catl) and the activity of these enzymes during early development in S. lalandi...
February 21, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242757/acute-acinar-pancreatitis-blocks-vesicle-associated-membrane-protein-8-vamp8-dependent-secretion-resulting-in-intracellular-trypsin-accumulation
#16
Scott W Messenger, Elaina K Jones, Conner L Holthaus, Diana D H Thomas, Michelle M Cooley, Jennifer A Byrne, Olga A Mareninova, Anna S Gukovskaya, Guy E Groblewski
Zymogen secretory granules in pancreatic acinar cells express two vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMP), VAMP2 and 8, each controlling 50% of stimulated secretion. Analysis of secretion kinetics identified a first-phase (0 - 2 min) mediated by VAMP2, and second- (2 - 10 min) and third-phases (10- 30 min) mediated by VAMP8. Induction of acinar pancreatitis by supramaximal cholecystokinin (CCK-8) stimulation inhibits VAMP8-mediated second- and third-phase, but not VAMP2-mediated first-phase secretion. Elevation of cAMP during supramaximal CCK-8 mitigates third-phase secretory inhibition and acinar damage caused by the accumulation of prematurely activated trypsin...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223223/berberine-improves-cognitive-impairment-by-promoting-autophagic-clearance-and-inhibiting-production-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-app-tau-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Min Huang, Xin Jiang, Yubin Liang, Qiong Liu, Siyan Chen, Yi Guo
This study investigates the neuroprotective properties of berberine (a natural isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the Rhizoma coptidis) and finds that berberine could promote β-amyloid (Aβ) clearance and inhibit Aβ production in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3×Tg-AD). During the study, berberine was first administrated to treat 3×Tg-AD mice and primary neurons. Morris water maze assay, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence staining and histological analysis, transmission electron microscopic analysis were then used to evaluate the effects of the berberine administration...
February 20, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218663/advanced-glycation-end-products-inhibit-the-proliferation-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-by-inhibiting-cathepsin-d
#18
Yuan Li, Ye Chang, Ning Ye, Dongxue Dai, Yintao Chen, Naijin Zhang, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
We aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way. Western blotting revealed that AGEs dramatically increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I and p62...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215160/cathepsin-d-as-a-promising-target-for-the-discovery-of-novel-anticancer-agents
#19
Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin D (CATD), one of the aspartyl endoproteinase involved in different physiological processes and signaling pathways, is accountable for metabolic breakdown of intracellular proteins, activation of growth factors, hormones, and precursors of enzyme, processing of antigens, enzyme inhibitors and activators and regulation of apoptosis. Implication as a Target: Studies have confirmed the role and significance of CATD in an assortment of pathological conditions like Atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, Cancer, Cardiovascular, Huntington and Parkinson diseases...
December 29, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212734/role-of-granule-proteases-in-the-life-and-death-of-neutrophils
#20
REVIEW
Charaf Benarafa, Hans-Uwe Simon
Neutrophils constitute a crucial component of the innate immune defenses against microbes. Produced in the bone marrow and patrolling in blood vessels, neutrophils are recruited to injured tissues and are immediately active to contain pathogen invasion. Neutrophils undergo programmed cell death by multiple, context-specific pathways, which have consequences on immunopathology and disease outcome. Studies in the last decade indicate additional functions for neutrophils - or a subset of neutrophils - in modulating adaptive responses and tumor progression...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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