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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926595/impact-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-index-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-content-and-visceral-to-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-area-ratio-on-early-mortality-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#1
Yuhei Hamaguchi, Toshimi Kaido, Shinya Okumura, Atsushi Kobayashi, Hisaya Shirai, Shintaro Yagi, Naoko Kamo, Hideaki Okajima, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle depletion has been shown to be an independent risk factor for poor survival in various diseases. However, in surgery, the significance of other body components including visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue remains unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study included 250 adult patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) between January 2008 and April 2015. Using preoperative plain CT imaging at the third lumbar vertebra level, skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality, and visceral adiposity were evaluated by the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR), respectively...
December 6, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925359/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-intervention-on-markers-of-insulin-resistance-in-breast-cancer-women
#2
E Bruno, E Roveda, J Vitale, A Montaruli, F Berrino, A Villarini, E Venturelli, G Gargano, L Galasso, A Caumo, F Carandente, P Pasanisi
Insulin may affect breast cancer (BC) risk and prognosis. Exercise reduces insulin in obese BC survivors. We designed a randomised controlled trial to test the effect of an aerobic exercise intervention (AEI) on insulin parameters and body composition in non-obese BC women without insulin resistance. Thirty-eight BC women were randomised into an intervention group (IG = 18) or control group (CG = 20). IG participated in a structured AEI for 3 months, while CG received only the Word Cancer Research Fund/American Institute Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendation to be physically active...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925341/skeletal-muscle-atrophy-is-induced-by-fbxw7%C3%AE-via-atrogene-upregulation
#3
Kyungshin Shin, Young-Gyu Ko, Jaemin Jeong, Heechung Kwon
Muscle atrophy decreases skeletal muscle mass and is induced by inherited cachectic symptoms, genetic disorders, and sarcopenia. However, the molecular pathways associated with the onset of muscle atrophy are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated Fbxw7β, a gene associated with the development of muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo. Among the three Fbxw7 isoforms, ectopically overexpressed Fbxw7β induced the expression of myogenin and major atrogene markers (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1) and reduced myoblast differentiation...
December 7, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925286/bone-resorption-is-regulated-by-circadian-clock-in-osteoblasts
#4
Takeshi Takarada, Cheng Xu, Hiroki Ochi, Ryota Nakazato, Daisuke Yamada, Saki Nakamura, Ayumi Kodama, Shigeki Shimba, Michihiro Mieda, Kazuya Fukasawa, Kakeru Ozaki, Takashi Iezaki, Koichi Fujikawa, Yukio Yoneda, Rika Numano, Akiko Hida, Hajime Tei, Shu Takeda, Eiichi Hinoi
We have previously shown that endochondral ossification is finely regulated by the Clock system expressed in chondrocytes during postnatal skeletogenesis. Here we show a sophisticated modulation of bone resorption and bone mass by the Clock system through its expression in bone-forming osteoblasts. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and Period1 (Per1) were expressed with oscillatory rhythmicity in the bone in vivo, and circadian rhythm was also observed in cultured osteoblasts of Per1::luciferase transgenic mice...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924806/abdominal-fat-distribution-differently-affects-muscle-strength-of-the-upper-and-lower-extremities-in-women
#5
L Otten, A Bosy-Westphal, J Ordemann, E Rothkegel, N Stobäus, U Elbelt, K Norman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In obese subjects, reduced muscle mass and strength are associated with impaired functional and metabolic capacity. We therefore investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution, fat mass index and maximum muscle strength of upper and lower extremities in obese patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and fifty five outpatients with a body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg/m(2) (105 women; 45.1±14.6 years; BMI 43.5±8.2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924614/gdf11-treatment-attenuates-the-recovery-of-skeletal-muscle-function-after-injury-in-older-rats
#6
Yu Zhou, Neel Sharma, David Dukes, Maria B Myzithras, Priyanka Gupta, Ashraf Khalil, Julius Kahn, Jennifer S Ahlberg, David B Hayes, Michael Franti, Tracy Criswell
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function results in loss of mobility for elderly patients. Novel therapies that can protect and/or restore muscle function during aging would have profound effects on the quality of life for this population. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been proposed as a "youthful" circulating factor that can restore cardiac, neural, and skeletal muscle functions in aging animals. However, conflicting data has been recently published that casts doubt on these assertions. We used a complex rat model of skeletal muscle injury that physiologically mimics injuries seen in patients; to investigate the ability of GDF11 and to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration after injury in older rats...
December 6, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924379/relationship-between-pelvic-floor-muscle-strength-and-sexual-dysfunction-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Maíra de Menezes Franco, Patricia Driusso, Kari Bø, Daniela Cristina Carvalho de Abreu, Lucia Alves da Silva Lara, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá Rosa E Silva, Cristine Homsi Jorge Ferreira
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women is high. Theoretically pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength could influence sexual function, but to date there is scant evidence on this topic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PFM strength and sexual function in postmenopausal women. The relationship between reported urinary incontinence (UI) and sexual dysfunction was also investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 113 postmenopausal women...
December 6, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924378/recurrence-risk-is-associated-with-preoperatively-advanced-prolapse-stage-is-there-a-difference-between-women-with-stage-2-and-those-with-stage-3-or-4-cystocele
#8
Tineke F M Vergeldt, Kim J B Notten, Kirsten B Kluivers, Mirjam Weemhoff
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) recurrence after surgery is a major problem. POP that is more advanced preoperatively is associated with a higher risk of recurrence postoperatively. We hypothesized that women with a stage 2 cystocele differ from those with a stage 3 or 4 cystocele. The aim of this study was to compare the baseline characteristics of women with mild and those with more advanced cystocele. METHODS: Patients had participated in one of two multicenter prospective cohort studies on women undergoing conventional anterior colporrhaphy without previous POP surgery...
December 6, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923981/sarcopenia-and-frailty-in-chronic-respiratory-disease-lessons-from-gerontology
#9
Anna E Bone, Nilay Hepgul, Samantha Kon, Matthew Maddocks
Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field...
December 6, 2016: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923789/influence-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-on-aortic-hemodynamics-and-pulse-wave-velocity-in-women
#10
Ronee E Harvey, Jill N Barnes, Emma C J Hart, Wayne T Nicholson, Michael J Joyner, Darren P Casey
Central (aortic) blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and sympathetic nerve activity increase with age in women. However, it is unknown if the age-related increase in sympathetic activity influences aortic hemodynamics and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), an index of central aortic stiffness. The goal of this study was to determine if aortic hemodynamics and cfPWV are directly influenced by sympathetic nerve activity by measuring aortic hemodynamics, cfPWV, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in women before and during autonomic ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan camsylate...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922938/skeletal-muscle-mass-is-associated-with-higher-dietary-protein-intake-and-lower-body-fat-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Thaís R Silva, Poli M Spritzer
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between skeletal muscle mass and dietary protein intake, habitual physical activity, body composition, and metabolic variables. METHODS: One hundred three healthy postmenopausal women from southern Brazil (age 55.2 ± 4.9 y, body mass index 27.2 ± 4.6 kg/m) were enrolled. Bone mineral density, %body fat, %trunk fat mass, and appendicular lean mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, and habitual physical activity by pedometer...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922919/association-between-sarcopenia-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-cancer-survivors
#12
Su Jung Lee, Nam Cho Kim
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer treatments have improved survival from cancer, but the incidence of cardiovascular disease in survivors has recently increased. Sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are related to cancer survival, and sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of a relationship between sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors and to investigate independent predictors of MetS in cancer survivors...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921375/visceral-adiposity-and-cancer-survival-a-review-of-imaging-studies
#13
REVIEW
J Xiao, V C Mazurak, T A Olobatuyi, B J Caan, C M Prado
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for cancer, the association between obesity and cancer survival remains controversial. This is partially due to the inability of conventional obesity measures to directly assess adiposity or adipose tissue distribution. As a metabolic organ, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) secrets a variety of cytokines and cytokine-like factors, potentially affecting cancer survival. The objective of this review was to investigate the influence of imaging-assessed VAT on cancer survival...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920855/aggressive-angiomyxoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
John C Benson, Scott Gilles, Tina Sanghvi, James Boyum, Eric Niendorf
A 47-year-old female presented to clinic with a 5-year history of a left buttock mass. The patient's hemoglobin was low (9.7 g/dL); laboratory analysis was otherwise unremarkable. Ultrasound of the left gluteal region demonstrated a heterogeneous vascular solid lesion. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging showed an enhancing mass extending from the left ischioanal fossa through the levator ani muscle into the pelvis. Biopsy revealed bland-appearing spindle-shaped cells positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, consistent with an aggressive angiomyxoma...
December 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920660/neurofibroma-of-the-colon-a-diagnostic-mimicker-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor
#15
Soomin Ahn, Choon Sik Chung, Kyoung-Mee Kim
Gastrointestinal neurofibroma usually develops as diffuse gastrointestinal involvement in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. Only 4 cases of sporadic colonic neurofibroma in a patient without neurofibromatosis type 1 have been reported in the English literature. A 26-year-old female patient underwent colonoscopy, and a 4-cm-sized polypoid mass was identified in the sigmoid colon. Wedge resection of the mass showed a yellowish, hard submucosal tumor. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of wavy spindle cells, fibroblasts, and strands of collagen; the stroma showed scattered myxoid areas...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920508/impact-of-whole-body-electromyostimulation-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-older-women-with-sarcopenic-obesity-the-randomized-controlled-formosa-sarcopenic-obesity-study
#16
Katharina Wittmann, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Franz Jakob, Michael Lell, Klaus Engelke, Wolfgang Kemmler
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is characterized by a combination of low muscle and high fat mass with an additive negative effect of both conditions on cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. METHODS: The study was conducted in an ambulatory university setting. Seventy-five community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were randomly allocated to either 6 months of WB-EMS application with (WB-EMS&P) or without (WB-EMS) dietary supplementation (150 kcal/day, 56% protein) or a non-training control group (CG)...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920252/group-i-paks-promote-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Giselle A Joseph, Min Lu, Maria Radu, Jennifer K Lee, Steven J Burden, Jonathan Chernoff, Robert S Krauss
Skeletal myogenesis is regulated by signal transduction, but the factors and mechanisms involved are not well understood. The group I Paks, Pak1 and Pak2, are related protein kinases and direct effectors of Cdc42 and Rac1. Group I Paks are ubiquitously expressed and specifically required for myoblast fusion in Drosophila We report that both Pak1 and Pak2 are activated during mammalian myoblast differentiation. One pathway of activation is initiated by N-cadherin ligation, and involves the cadherin co-receptor Cdo with its downstream effector, Cdc42...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920002/decreased-skeletal-muscle-mass-after-neoadjuvant-therapy-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#18
Jiajia Liu, Satoru Motoyama, Yusuke Sato, Akiyuki Wakita, Yuta Kawakita, Hajime Saito, Yoshihiro Minamiya
BACKGROUND: Loss of skeletal muscle is predictive of a poor prognosis in patients with various malignant lesions. Our aim was to determine whether changes in skeletal muscle after neo-adjuvant therapy (NAT) predict prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) undergoing esophagectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional areas of the psoas muscles were measured on computed tomographic images collected at the initial visit, preoperatively and postoperatively in 84 patients...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919609/randomised-controlled-trial-potential-benefit-of-a-footplate-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-device-in-patients-with-chronic-venous-disease
#19
R Ravikumar, K J Williams, A Babber, T R A Lane, H M Moore, A H Davies
OBJECTIVES: Chronic venous disease (CVD) is common, affecting a quarter of the population. Current conservative methods of treatment aim to prevent progression of disease by reducing ambulatory venous pressure. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) refers to the use of electrical impulses to elicit muscle contraction. This pilot randomised controlled trial investigates the effect of a footplate NMES device (REVITIVE) on venous flow parameters, limb oedema, and quality of life outcome measures in patients with CVD...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918964/sarcopenia-in-older-mice-is-characterized-by-a-decreased-anabolic-response-to-a-protein-meal
#20
Miriam van Dijk, Jolanda Nagel, Francina J Dijk, Jerôme Salles, Sjors Verlaan, Stephane Walrand, Klaske van Norren, Yvette Luiking
Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice...
November 27, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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