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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941386/trp64arg-polymorphism-of-the-adrb3-gene-associated-with-maximal-fat-oxidation-and-ldl-c-levels-in-non-obese-adolescents
#2
Íncare Correa de Jesus, Lupe Furtado Alle, Eva Cantalejo Munhoz, Larissa Rosa da Silva, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Luciane Viater Tureck, Katia Sheylla Malta Purim, Ana Claudia Kapp Titski, Neiva Leite
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates (FATMAX) and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. METHODS: 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG), insulin (INS), and basal glycemia (GLIC), were evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#3
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#4
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938473/the-role-of-episodic-postprandial-peptides-in-exercise-induced-compensatory-eating
#5
Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell, Phillipa Caudwell, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Erik Näslund, Graham Finlayson
Purpose: Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control (hunger and energy intake). Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial 'episodic' peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12-weeks aerobic exercise and in response to high (HFLC) and low fat (LFHC) meals. Methods: 32 overweight/obese individuals - 16 completed 12-weeks aerobic exercise and 16 were age- and BMI-matched non-exercising controls...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938459/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-cort125281-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-and-alters-lipid-distribution-in-male-mice
#6
Jan Kroon, Lisa L Koorneef, Jose K van den Heuvel, Cristy R C Verzijl, Nienke M van de Velde, Isabel M Mol, Hetty C M Sips, Hazel Hunt, Patrick C N Rensen, Onno C Meijer
Glucocorticoids influence a wide range of metabolic processes in the human body and excessive glucocorticoid exposure is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disease. We evaluated the utility of the novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist CORT125281 for its potential to overcome adiposity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidaemia, and compared this head-to-head with classic GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone). We show that, while RU486 displays cross-reactivity to the progesterone and androgen receptor, CORT125281 selectively inhibits GR transcriptional activity...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938456/growth-hormone-improves-cardiopulmonary-capacity-and-body-composition-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency
#7
Donatella Capalbo, Flavia Barbieri, Nicola Improda, Francesco Giallauria, Elisa Di Pietro, Antonio Rapacciuolo, Raffaella Di Mase, Carlo Vigorito, Mariacarolina Salerno
Context: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children may be associated with early cardiovascular risk factors and alterations in left ventricular (LV) structure and function; however, data on cardiopulmonary functional capacity are lacking. Objectives: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of GHD and GH therapy on cardiopulmonary functional capacity, left and right cardiac structure and function, and body composition in children and adolescents. Design: Prospective, case-control study...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#8
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938424/adiponectin-predicts-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-adults-irrespective-of-body-mass-index-and-fat-distribution
#9
Gunther Marsche, Sieglinde Zelzer, Andreas Meinitzer, Sabine Kern, Sabine Meissl, Gudrun Pregartner, Daniel Weghuber, Gunter Almer, Harald Mangge
Context: Obesity is associated with hypoadiponectemia, dyslipidemia and increased risk of coronary vascular disease (CVD). Mechanisms linking these conditions remain to be fully understood. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is a crucial functional property of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that strongly predicts CVD incidence. Objective: To investigate whether age, fat distribution, and other obesity related factors affect CEC in juvenile and adult overweight/obese participants of the STYJOBS/EDECTA cohort (NCT00482924)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938406/ct-derived-body-fat-distribution-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Morgana L Mongraw-Chaffin, Matthew A Allison, Gregory L Burke, Michael H Criqui, Kunihiro Matsushita, Pamela Ouyang, Ravi V Shah, Christina M Shay, Cheryl A M Anderson
Background: Visceral fat has been shown to be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk, but the role of subcutaneous fat remains unclear, and evidence from diverse populations is lacking. We hypothesized that visceral, but not subcutaneous fat, would be independently associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: Among 1,910 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with abdominal fat measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans and followed for an average of 9...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938405/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-leptin-activation-of-cart-neurons-and-advances-puberty-in-female-mice
#11
Jade Cabestre Venancio, Lisandra Oliveira Margatho, Rodrigo C Rorato, Roberta Ribeiro Costa Rosales, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Ricardo Coletti, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Carol F Elias, Lucila Leico K Elias
Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic CART neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day 21 (PN21) and were studied at PN28 and PN32...
September 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938290/body-composition-changes-in-severely-burned-children-during-icu-hospitalization
#12
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Ioannis Malagaris, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Elizabeth Blears, Ron P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Children's burn hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937782/cold-water-immersion-cooling-rates-in-football-linemen-and-cross-country-runners-with-exercise-induced-hyperthermia
#13
Sandra Fowkes Godek, Katherine E Morrison, Gregory Scullin
CONTEXT:   Ideal and acceptable cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes have been established in average-sized participants. Football linemen (FBs) have a small body surface area (BSA) to mass ratio compared with smaller athletes, which hinders heat dissipation. OBJECTIVE:   To determine cooling rates using cold-water immersion in hyperthermic FBs and cross-country runners (CCs). DESIGN:   Cohort study. SETTING:   Controlled university laboratory...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937541/body-composition-predicts-growth-in-infants-and-toddlers-with-chronic-liver-disease
#14
Erika F Hurtado-López, Edgar M Vásquez-Garibay, Xóchitl Trujillo, Alfredo Larrosa-Haro
This cross-sectional study was conducted on 15 infants and toddlers with chronic liver disease (CLD) to validate arm anthropometry as an accurate measure of body composition (BC) compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to predict growth from BC.The z-score means of the anthropometric indicators were < -2SD, except for body fat index and subscapular skinfold which were between -2 and +2 SD. Fat mass was predicted by arm adiposity indicators and fat-free mass by arm muscle area. Bone mineral content explained 87% of variation in length...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936414/the-health-benefits-and-constraints-of-exercise-therapy-for-wheelchair-users-a-clinical-commentary
#15
Terry J Ellapen, Henriëtte V Hammill, Mariette Swanepoel, Gert L Strydom
BACKGROUND: There are approximately 1 billion people living with chronic lower limb disability, many of whom are wheelchair users. OBJECTIVES: Review cardiometabolic and neuromuscular risk profiles of wheelchair users, benefits of regular exercise and the causes of neuromuscular upper limb and hip injuries that hinder regular adherence. METHOD: Literature published between 2013 and 2017 was adopted according to the standard practices for systematic reviews (PRISMA) through Crossref Metadata and Google Scholar searches...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935829/contribution-of-structural-brain-phenotypes-to-the-variance-in-resting-energy-expenditure-in-healthy-caucasian-subjects
#16
Corinna Geisler, Mark Hübers, Oliver Granert, Manfred James Muller
BACKGROUND: Brain gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes are related to weight changes. The impact of structural variations in GM and WM on the variance in resting energy expenditure (REE) and the REE on fat free mass (FFM) association is unknown. The aim of this study was to address this in healthy Caucasian subjects. METHODS: Cross-sectional data analysis of 493 healthy Caucasian subjects (age range 6 to 80 years; three age groups) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses and detailed brain composition as assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and REE (assessed by indirect calorimetry)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935615/early-life-phthalate-exposure-and-adiposity-at-8-years-of-age
#17
Jessica Shoaff, George D Papandonatos, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Aimin Chen, Bruce P Lanphear, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Early-life phthalate exposure may influence child adiposity, but prior studies have not determined if there are periods of enhanced vulnerability to phthalates. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between child adiposity at 8 y of age and repeated urinary biomarkers of phthalate exposure from gestation through childhood to determine if there are distinct periods of vulnerability. METHODS: In 219 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio, we quantified nine urinary phthalate metabolites up to two times prenatally and six times from 1-8 y of age...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935140/d-allulose-enhances-postprandial-fat-oxidation-in-healthy-humans
#18
Tomonori Kimura, Akane Kanasaki, Noriko Hayashi, Takako Yamada, Tetsuo Iida, Yasuo Nagata, Kazuhiro Okuma
OBJECTIVE: d-Allulose, a C-3 epimer of d-fructose, has been reported to decrease body weight and adipose tissue weight in animal studies and is expected to be a potent antiobese sweetener. Our animal study suggested that one of the mechanisms of d-allulose's antiobesity function is an increase in energy expenditure. However, a few studies have thus far explored the underlying mechanism in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a single ingestion of d-allulose on postprandial energy metabolism in healthy participants...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934818/effects-of-zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-on-lipid-metabolism-of-liver-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#19
Guoqiang Fan, Yu Qiao, Shixing Gao, Jun Guo, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new type of adipokine involved in adipose tissue mobilization, however, little is known about its lipid metabolism effect in liver. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ZAG in the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice were randomly divided into two groups; one was fed a normal diet and another was fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks to establish obesity model. After that, the normal diet group was divided into ND (injection of pcDNA3.1) and NDZ (injection of ZAG recombinant plasmid) and the high-fat diet group was divided into HF (injection of pcDNA3...
September 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934745/association-between-body-composition-and-motor-performance-in-preschool-children
#20
Tanja H Kakebeeke, Stefano Lanzi, Annina E Zysset, Amar Arhab, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stuelb, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Andrea H Meyer, Susi Kriemler, Simone Munsch, Oskar G Jenni, Jardena J Puder
OBJECTIVE: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. METHODS: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2) participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC), and BMI...
September 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
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